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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782028/computational-integration-of-nanoscale-physical-biomarkers-and-cognitive-assessments-for-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-and-prognosis
#1
Tao Yue, Xinghua Jia, Jennifer Petrosino, Leming Sun, Zhen Fan, Jesse Fine, Rebecca Davis, Scott Galster, Jeff Kuret, Douglas W Scharre, Mingjun Zhang
With the increasing prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), significant efforts have been directed toward developing novel diagnostics and biomarkers that can enhance AD detection and management. AD affects the cognition, behavior, function, and physiology of patients through mechanisms that are still being elucidated. Current AD diagnosis is contingent on evaluating which symptoms and signs a patient does or does not display. Concerns have been raised that AD diagnosis may be affected by how those measurements are analyzed...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769864/study-on-analysis-of-peripheral-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis
#2
Palaniswamy Rani, Sreeram Krishnan, Chellappa Rani Cathrine
Many factors are involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology including tau phosphorylation, amyloid β protein (Aβ) accumulation, lipid dysregulation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The markers of these pathological processes in cerebral spinal fluid are used currently for AD diagnosis. However, peripheral biomarkers are the need of the hour for large population screening for AD. The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the peripheral levels of redox markers, lipid peroxidation (LPO) indicators, and pathological markers in AD patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761431/synaptosomal-associated-protein-25-may-be-an-intervention-target-for-improving-sensory-and-locomotor-functions-after-spinal-cord-contusion
#3
Zhan-Qiong Zhong, Yang Xiang, Xi Hu, You-Cui Wang, Xi Zeng, Xiao-Meng Wang, Qing-Jie Xia, Ting-Hua Wang, Xiao Zhang
Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is localized on the synapse and participates in exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. Decreased expression of SNAP-25 is associated with Alzheimer's disease and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. However, the expression of SNAP-25 in spinal cord contusion injury is still unclear. We hypothesized that SNAP-25 is associated with sensory and locomotor functions after spinal cord injury. We established rat models of spinal cord contusion injury to detect gene changes with a gene array...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754163/choroid-plexus-cerebrospinal-fluid-route-for-monocyte-derived-macrophages-after-stroke
#4
Ruimin Ge, Daniel Tornero, Masao Hirota, Emanuela Monni, Cecilia Laterza, Olle Lindvall, Zaal Kokaia
BACKGROUND: Choroid plexus (CP) supports the entry of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) to the central nervous system in animal models of traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, and Alzheimer's disease. Whether the CP is involved in the recruitment of MDMs to the injured brain after ischemic stroke is unknown. METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to focal cortical ischemia by permanent occlusion of the distal branch of the right middle cerebral artery...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737113/micrornas-roles-in-regulating-neuroinflammation
#5
Andrew D Gaudet, Laura K Fonken, Linda R Watkins, Randy J Nelson, Phillip G Popovich
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that broadly affect cellular and physiological function in all multicellular organisms. Here, the role of miRNAs in neuroinflammation is considered. miRNAs are 21- to 23-oligonucleotide RNAs that regulate translation of specific RNAs by binding to complementary regulatory RNA sequences, thereby causing mRNA degradation or sequestration. More than 5000 miRNAs likely exist in humans, and each miRNA binds an average of 200 RNAs. Specific immunomodulatory miRNAs can regulate a set of RNAs in a coordinated manner, suggesting that effective miRNA-based therapeutic manipulations for neuroinflammatory conditions may be revealed...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726050/a-single-center-study-a%C3%AE-42-p-tau181-csf-ratio-to-discriminate-ad-from-ftd-in-clinical-setting
#6
Andrea Vergallo, Cecilia Carlesi, Cristina Pagni, Filippo Sean Giorgi, Filippo Baldacci, Lucia Petrozzi, Roberto Ceravolo, Gloria Tognoni, Gabriele Siciliano, Ubaldo Bonuccelli
Abnormal levels of beta amyloid (Aβ42) and tau protein concentrations in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) have been largely described in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, CSF analysis of these biomarkers has been incorporated in recent AD diagnostic criteria, and it is increasingly performed for neurodegenerative dementia diagnostic workout in clinical setting. Nevertheless, the precise biomarkers CSF features in neurodegenerative dementia, either AD or Frontotemporal dementia (FTD), are still not fully clear today...
July 19, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685694/multi-targeting-strategies-for-alzheimer-s-disease-therapeutics-pros-and-cons
#7
Sucharita Das, Soumalee Basu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a single major cause of dementia in middle to old age individuals involving several different etiopathological mechanisms that are yet to be properly characterized. Major invariant and characteristic features consist of the progressive cerebral deposition of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) and the neurofibrillary degeneration through neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) formed by hyperphosphorylation of the tau proteins in the regions of the brain that deal with memory and cognition. There are at least five subgroups of AD that can be identified by determining cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) levels of Aβ1-42, tau and ubiquitin...
July 7, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679106/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-a-multifaceted-cytokine-implicated-in-multiple-neurological-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Marcel F Leyton-Jaimes, Joy Kahn, Adrian Israelson
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a conserved cytokine found as a homotrimer protein. It is found in a wide spectrum of cell types in the body including neuronal and non-neuronal cells. MIF is implicated in several biological processes; chemo-attraction, cytokine activity, and receptor binding, among other functions. More recently, a chaperone-like activity has been added to its repertoire. In this review, we focus on the implication of MIF in the central nervous system and peripheries, its role in neurological disorders, and the mechanisms by which MIF is regulated...
July 2, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666746/micrornas-as-important-regulators-of-exercise-adaptation
#9
REVIEW
Gustavo J J Silva, Anja Bye, Hamid El Azzouzi, Ulrik Wisløff
A significant body of evidence supports the protective role of exercise training (ET) in cardiovascular diseases, skeletal muscle dystrophies, several types of cancer, Alzheimer disease or even in the recovery of spinal cord injury. In spite of this, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise training are not well understood and remain elusive. Several mechanisms have been proposed in the past, but more recently microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNA molecules involved in a variety of basic biological processes that negatively modulate gene expression, recognized as important regulatory molecules...
June 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639617/gene-therapy-for-spinomuscular-atrophy-a-biomedical-advance-a-missed-opportunity-for-more-equitable-drug-pricing
#10
T Friedmann
An experimental approach for gene therapy of spinomuscular atrophy has been reported to prevent development of the neuromuscular features of this lethal and previously untreatable disorder. The approach involves treatment of patients suffering from SMN1-associated infantile form of the disease with a splice-switching antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) that corrects aberrant splicing of the nearly identical SMN2 gene to allow the generation of functional SMN protein, thereby mitigating the development of the disease...
June 22, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636676/mitochondrion-to-endoplasmic-reticulum-apposition-length-in-zebrafish-embryo-spinal-progenitors-is-unchanged-in-response-to-perturbations-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Morgan Newman, Lena Halter, Anne Lim, Michael Lardelli
Mutations in the human genes PRESENILIN1 (PSEN1), PRESENILIN2 (PSEN2) and AMYLOID BETA A4 PRECURSOR PROTEIN (APP) have been identified in familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). The length of mitochondrion-endoplasmic reticulum (M-ER) appositions is increased in Psen1-/-/Psen2-/- double knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts and in fibroblasts from AD-affected individuals. Development of an easily accessible, genetically manipulable, in vivo system for studying M-ER appositions would be valuable so we attempted to manipulate M-ER apposition length in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630007/rna-localization-making-its-way-to-the-center-stage
#12
REVIEW
Ashley Chin, Eric Lécuyer
Cells are highly organized entities that rely on intricate addressing mechanisms to sort their constituent molecules to precise subcellular locations. These processes are crucial for cells to maintain their proper organization and carry out specialized functions in the body, consequently genetic perturbations that clog up these addressing systems can contribute to disease aetiology. The trafficking of RNA molecules represents an important layer in the control of cellular organization, a process that is both highly prevalent and for which features of the regulatory machineries have been deeply conserved evolutionarily...
June 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622692/motor-deficits-are-independent-of-axonopathy-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model-of-tgcrnd8-mice
#13
Qiuju Yuan, Jian Yang, Wutian Wu, Zhi-Xiu Lin
There have been an increasing number of reports of non-cognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some symptoms are associated with the loss of motor functions, e.g. gait disturbances, disturbed activity level and balance. Consistent with clinical findings, several AD mouse models harboring amyloid pathology develop motor impairment. Although the factors that contribute to the motor deficits have not yet been determined, it has been suggested that axonopathy is one of the key factors that may contribute to this particular feature of the disease...
June 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615436/hospital-safety-among-neurologic-patients-a-population-based-cohort-study-of-adverse-events
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
Khara M Sauro, Hude Quan, Khokan C Sikdar, Peter Faris, Nathalie Jette
OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency and type of adverse events (AEs) experienced by neurologic patients in hospital. METHODS: This population-based, retrospective cohort study used hospital discharge abstract data for children and adults admitted to hospital from 2009 to 2015 with 1 of 9 neurologic conditions (Alzheimer disease and related dementia, brain tumor, epilepsy, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, parkinsonism/Parkinson disease, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and stroke)...
July 18, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611571/exosomes-and-homeostatic-synaptic-plasticity-are-linked-to-each-other-and-to-huntington-s-parkinson-s-and-other-neurodegenerative-diseases-by-database-enabled-analyses-of-comprehensively-curated-datasets
#15
James K T Wang, Peter Langfelder, Steve Horvath, Michael J Palazzolo
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive and autosomal dominant neurodegeneration caused by CAG expansion in the huntingtin gene (HTT), but the pathophysiological mechanism of mutant HTT (mHTT) remains unclear. To study HD using systems biological methodologies on all published data, we undertook the first comprehensive curation of two key PubMed HD datasets: perturbation genes that impact mHTT-driven endpoints and therefore are putatively linked causally to pathogenic mechanisms, and the protein interactome of HTT that reflects its biology...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603767/lumbar-puncture-in-patients-with-neurologic-conditions
#16
Rosha Babapour Mofrad, Femke H Bouwman, Rosalinde E R Slot, Tessa Timmers, Wiesje M van der Flier, Philip Scheltens, Charlotte E Teunissen
A lumbar puncture is performed to obtain cerebral spinal fluid. It is implemented in the clinic on a routine basis to aid the diagnosis of neurologic diseases, such as dementia. This video will show the lumbar puncture procedure as routinely performed in the VUmc Alzheimer Center.
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588547/improving-dual-task-walking-paradigms-to-detect-prodromal-parkinson-s-and-alzheimer-s-diseases
#17
Maroua Belghali, Nathalie Chastan, Damien Davenne, Leslie M Decker
Gait control is a complex movement, relying on spinal, subcortical, and cortical structures. The presence of deficits in one or more of these structures will result in changes in gait automaticity and control, as is the case in several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). By reviewing recent findings in this field of research, current studies have shown that gait performance assessment under dual-task conditions could contribute to predict both of these diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582450/spontaneous-low-frequency-bold-signal-variations-from-resting-state-fmri-are-decreased-in-alzheimer-disease
#18
Samaneh Kazemifar, Kathryn Y Manning, Nagalingam Rajakumar, Francisco A Gómez, Andrea Soddu, Michael J Borrie, Ravi S Menon, Robert Bartha
Previous studies have demonstrated altered brain activity in Alzheimer's disease using task based functional MRI (fMRI), network based resting-state fMRI, and glucose metabolism from 18F fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (FDG-PET). Our goal was to define a novel indicator of neuronal activity based on a first-order textural feature of the resting state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) signal. Furthermore, we examined the association between this neuronal activity metric and glucose metabolism from 18F FDG-PET. We studied 15 normal elderly controls (NEC) and 15 probable Alzheimer disease (AD) subjects from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577973/membrane-lipid-therapy-a-historical-perspective-of-membrane-targeted-therapies-from-lipid-bilayer-structure-to-the-pathophysiological-regulation-of-cells
#19
EDITORIAL
Pablo V Escribá
Our current understanding of membrane lipid composition, structure and functions has led to the investigation of their role in cell signaling, both in healthy and pathological cells. As a consequence, therapies based on the regulation of membrane lipid composition and structure have been recently developed. This novel field, known as Membrane Lipid Therapy, is growing and evolving rapidly, providing treatments that are now in use or that are being studied for their application to oncological disorders, Alzheimer's disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, diabetes, obesity, and neuropathic pain...
June 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539884/the-analysis-of-two-bdnf-polymorphisms-g196a-c270t-in-chinese-sporadic-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#20
Lianping Xu, Danyang Tian, Jiao Li, Lu Chen, Lu Tang, Dongsheng Fan
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an ethnically heterogeneous motor neuron disease that results from the selective death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is widely distributed across the central and peripheral nervous systems and plays neurotrophic and other physiological roles in various brain regions. Alterations of neurotrophin availability have been proposed as a pathogenic mechanism underlying ALS neurodegeneration. Several genetic studies have shown a significant association between schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease and certain BDNF polymorphisms, specifically G196A (rs6265) and C270T (rs56164415)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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