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Alzheimer spinal

Xiao Luo, Tiantian Qiu, Yunlu Jia, Peiyu Huang, Xiaojun Xu, Xinfeng Yu, Zhujing Shen, Yerfan Jiaerken, Xiaojun Guan, Jiong Zhou, Minming Zhang
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the best established genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is a need to understand the effects of this genotype on the brain by simultaneously assessing intrinsic brain network and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers changes in healthy older ε4 carriers. Thirteen cognitively intact, elderly APOE ε4 carriers and 22 ε3 homozygotes were included in the present study. Eigenvector centrality mapping (ECM) was used to identify brain network hub organization based on resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI)...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Débora Lanznaster, Tharine Dal-Cim, Tetsadê C B Piermartiri, Carla I Tasca
Guanosine is a purine nucleoside with important functions in cell metabolism and a protective role in response to degenerative diseases or injury. The past decade has seen major advances in identifying the modulatory role of extracellular action of guanosine in the central nervous system (CNS). Evidence from rodent and cell models show a number of neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of guanosine preventing deleterious consequences of seizures, spinal cord injury, pain, mood disorders and aging-related diseases, such as ischemia, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
Hisaka Kurita, Rika Okuda, Kazuki Yokoo, Masatoshi Inden, Isao Hozumi
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been thought to be involved to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The previous studies have shown that SLC30A3 level is decreased in prefrontal cortex of AD patients. In addition, we have shown that level of zinc (Zn) is increased in cerebrospinal fluid and SLC30A3 level is decreased in spinal cord of ALS patients. It was thought that both SLC30A3 and ER stress could be related to the cause of AD and ALS, however the relationship between ER stress and SLC30A3 has not been elucidated...
October 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ane-Victoria Idland, Torgeir Bruun Wyller, Randi Støen, Lars Magne Eri, Frede Frihagen, Johan Ræder, Farrukh Abbas Chaudhry, Oskar Hansson, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Nenad Bogdanovic, Anne Brækhus, Leiv Otto Watne
BACKGROUND: The clinical relevance of brain β-amyloidosis in older adults without dementia is not established. As delirium and dementia are strongly related, studies on patients with delirium may give pathophysiological clues. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the Alzheimer's disease (AD) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ42), total tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated tau (P-tau) are associated with delirium in hip fracture patients with and without dementia...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Sara D Reis, Brígida R Pinho, Jorge M A Oliveira
Polyglutamine expansion mutations in specific proteins underlie the pathogenesis of a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease, spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, and several spinocerebellar ataxias. The different mutant proteins share ubiquitous expression and abnormal proteostasis, with misfolding and aggregation, but nevertheless evoke distinct patterns of neurodegeneration. This highlights the relevance of the full protein context where the polyglutamine expansion occurs and suggests different interactions with the cellular proteostasis machinery...
September 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Hilaree N Frazier, Shaniya Maimaiti, Katie L Anderson, Lawrence D Brewer, John C Gant, Nada M Porter, Olivier Thibault
Neuroscientists studying normal brain aging, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases have focused considerable effort on carefully characterizing intracellular perturbations in calcium dynamics or levels. At the cellular level, calcium is known for controlling life and death and orchestrating most events in between. For many years, intracellular calcium has been recognized as an essential ion associated with nearly all cellular functions from cell growth to degeneration...
August 20, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Sinoy Sugunan, Sreekala S Nampoothiri, Tanya Garg, Rajanikant G Krishnamurthy
KCa3.1 protein is part of a heterotetrameric voltage-independent potassium channel, the activity of which depends on the intracellular calcium binding to calmodulin. KCa3.1 is immensely significant in regulating immune responses and primarily expressed in cells of hematopoietic lineage. It is one of the attractive pharmacological targets that are known to inhibit neuroinflammation. KCa3.1 blockers mediate neuroprotection through multiple mechanisms, such as by targeting microglia-mediated neuronal killing. KCa3...
August 22, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Fernanda Marques, João Carlos Sousa, Alexandra Brito, Jens Pahnke, Cecilia Santos, Margarida Correia-Neves, Joana Almeida Palha
This article brings the choroid plexus into the context of health and disease. It is remarkable that the choroid plexus, composed by the monolayer of epithelial cells that lie in a highly vascularized stroma, floating within the brain ventricles, gets so little attention in major physiology and medicine text books and in the scientific literature in general. Consider that it is responsible for producing most of the about 150mL of cerebrospinal fluid that fills the brain ventricles and the subarachnoid space and surrounds the spinal cord in the adult human brain, which is renewed approximately 2-3 times daily...
August 18, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Yousef Mortazavi, Fatemeh Sheikhsaran, Gholamreza Khamisipour Khamisipour, Masoud Soleimani, Ali Teimuri, Somayeh Shokri
OBJECTIVE: Treatment and repair of neurodegenerative diseases such as brain tumors, spinal cord injuries, and functional disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, are challenging problems. A common treatment approach for such disorders involves the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an alternative cell source to replace injured cells. However, use of these cells in hosts may potentially cause adverse outcomes such as tumorigenesis and uncontrolled differentiation. In attempt to generate mesenchymal derived neural cells, we have infected MSCs with recombinant lentiviruses that expressed nerve growth factor (NGF) and assessed their neural lineage genes...
July 2016: Cell Journal
ShihWei Huang, WeiTe Wang, LinChuan Chou, TsanHon Liou, Hui-Wen Lin
Spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause physical disability and psychological distress; however, whether SCI is a risk factor for dementia is unclear. This study evaluated the incidence of dementia in patients with SCI. Study participants were recruited from a nationwide cohort during 2004-2007 and categorized into SCI (patients diagnosed with SCI; n = 941) and non-SCI (age- and sex-matched controls; n = 5,060) cohorts. Each participant was followed for 7 years until diagnosis of dementia or December 31, 2010, whichever occurred first...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Aparna Karthikeyan, Radhika Patnala, Shweta P Jadhav, Eng-Ang Ling, S Thameem Dheen
The significance of microglia and astrocytes in neural development, in maintaining synaptic connections and homeostasis in the healthy brain is well established. Microglia are dynamic immune cells of the brain that elicit an immune response during brain damage and also participate in tissue repair and regeneration, while astrocytes contribute to the local inflammatory response by producing proinflammatory cytokines and resolving neuronal damage through production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors...
August 13, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Siamak Beheshti, Rezvan Aghaie
OBJECTIVE: Frankincense improves memory in different models of learning. However, its influence on models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not been studied widely. In the present study, the therapeutic effect of frankincense was evaluated in a model of AD induced by i.c.v administration of streptozotocin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Under stereotaxic surgery, two guide cannulas were implanted in the lateral ventricles of adult male Wistar rats weighing 230-270 g. One group received streptozotocin (1...
July 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Bao-Chun Jiang, Tian Yang, Li-Na He, Yuan-Xiang Tao, Yong-Jing Gao
Spinal cord plays an important role in the transmission and modulation of nociceptive information. Global changes in gene expression in the spinal cord contribute to the induction and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Transcribed Ultraconserved Regions (T-UCRs), a novel class of long noncoding RNAs, can regulate gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels and are related to many human diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and heart diseases. In this study, we screened abnormal T-UCRs expression in the spinal cord under spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain condition...
2016: Translational Perioperative and Pain Medicine
O Şahap Atik, Fatih I Can, M Selçuk Şenol, Toygun K Eren
A 90-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic complaining of pain in her left hip which occurred due to fall from a chair. Her medical history included memory loss and mental changes associated with Alzheimer's disease and depression. Patient's cooperation and orientation were weak. Range of motion of the left hip was restricted and painful. Radiographs of the left hip demonstrated subtrochanteric comminuted fracture of femur. Laboratory tests revealed anemia and liver insufficiency. Departments of internal medicine and anesthesiology reported high risk for surgery...
August 2016: Eklem Hastalıkları Ve Cerrahisi, Joint Diseases & related Surgery
Tiziana Bisogno, Sergio Oddi, Alessandra Piccoli, Domenico Fazio, Mauro Maccarrone
Based on its wide expression in immune cells, type-2 cannabinoid (CB2) receptors were traditionally thought to act as "peripheral receptors" with an almost exclusively immunomodulatory function. However, their recent identification in mammalian brain areas, as well as in distinct neuronal cells, has opened the way to a re-consideration of CB2 signaling in the context of brain pathophysiology, synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. To date, accumulated evidence from several independent preclinical studies has offered new perspectives on the possible involvement of CB2 signaling in brain and spinal cord traumatic injury, as well as in the most relevant neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's chorea...
September 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Giridhar Murlidharan, Kensuke Sakamoto, Lavanya Rao, Travis Corriher, Dan Wang, Guangping Gao, Patrick Sullivan, Aravind Asokan
Gene therapy using recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors is emerging as a promising approach to treat central nervous system disorders such as Spinal muscular atrophy, Batten, Parkinson and Alzheimer disease amongst others. A critical remaining challenge for central nervous system-targeted gene therapy, silencing or gene editing is to limit potential vector dose-related toxicity in off-target cells and organs. Here, we characterize a lab-derived AAV chimeric (AAV2g9), which displays favorable central nervous system attributes derived from both parental counterparts, AAV2 and AAV9...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Peter Deng, Audrey Torrest, Kari Pollock, Heather Dahlenburg, Geralyn Annett, Jan A Nolta, Kyle D Fink
Progress to date from our group and others indicate that using genetically-engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to secrete brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports our plan to submit an Investigational New Drug application to the Food and Drug Administration for the future planned Phase 1 safety and tolerability trial of MSC/BDNF in patients with Huntington's disease (HD). There are also potential applications of this approach beyond HD. Our biological delivery system for BDNF sets the precedent for adult stem cell therapy in the brain and could potentially be modified for other neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), Alzheimer's disease, and some forms of Parkinson's disease...
May 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Marina de Tommaso, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Ruth Defrin, Miriam Kunz, Gisele Pickering, Massimiliano Valeriani
Neurodegenerative diseases are going to increase as the life expectancy is getting longer. The management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias, Parkinson's disease (PD) and PD related disorders, motor neuron diseases (MND), Huntington's disease (HD), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), is mainly addressed to motor and cognitive impairment, with special care to vital functions as breathing and feeding. Many of these patients complain of painful symptoms though their origin is variable, and their presence is frequently not considered in the treatment guidelines, leaving their management to the decision of the clinicians alone...
2016: Behavioural Neurology
Yahyah Aman, Thomas Pitcher, Raffaele Simeoli, Clive Ballard, Marzia Malcangio
Individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are in susceptible patient groups in which pain is an important clinical issue that is often underdiagnosed. However, it is unclear whether decreased pain complaints in patients with AD result from elevated pain tolerance or an impaired ability to communicate sensations. Here, we explored if AD-related pathology is present in key regions of the pain pathway and assessed whether nociceptive thresholds to acute noxious stimulation are altered in the double-mutant APPswe × PS1...
October 2016: Pain
Zhe Huang, Hiroaki Adachi
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) are a group of intractable diseases that significantly affect human health. To date, the pathogenesis of NDDs is still poorly understood and effective disease-modifying therapies for NDDs have not been established. NDDs share the common morphological characteristic of the deposition of abnormal proteins in the nervous system, including neurons. Autophagy is one of the major processes by which damaged organelles and abnormal proteins are removed from cells. Impairment of autophagy has been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of NDDs, and the regulation of autophagy may become a therapeutic strategy for NDDs...
June 1, 2016: Journal of UOEH
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