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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741401/comparison-of-%C3%AE-2-microglobulin-serum-level-between-alzheimer-s-patients-cognitive-healthy-and-mild-cognitive-impaired-individuals
#1
Roberto Dominici, Dario Finazzi, Letizia Polito, Emanuela Oldoni, Giovanna Bugari, Alessandro Montanelli, Elio Scarpini, Daniela Galimberti, Antonio Guaita
BACKGROUND: Several studies performed in the last years on the brain, showed that beta2-microglobulin (β2m) and MHC can act independently of their canonical immune function to regulate normal brain development, synaptic plasticity and behaviour. Increased systemic levels of soluble β2m have been implicated in cognitive impairments like that associated with chronic hemodialysis, or aortic valve replacement. Increased soluble β2m has also been detected in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of patients with HIV-associated dementia and Alzheimer's disease...
May 9, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740382/circadian-rhythm-dysfunction-accelerates-disease-progression-in-a-mouse-model-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#2
Zhilin Huang, Qiang Liu, Yu Peng, Jiaying Dai, Youna Xie, Weineng Chen, Simei Long, Zhong Pei, Huanxing Su, Xiaoli Yao
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by interactions between environmental factors and genetic susceptibility. Circadian rhythm dysfunction (CRD) is a significant contributor to neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, whether CRD contributes to the progression of ALS remains little known. We performed behavioral and physiological tests on SOD1G93A ALS model mice with and without artificially induced CRD, and on wild-type controls; we also analyzed spinal cord samples histologically for differences between groups...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725981/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-and-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-are-characterised-by-differential-activation-of-er-stress-pathways-focus-on-upr-target-genes
#3
L Montibeller, J de Belleroche
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in maintenance of proteostasis through the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is strongly activated in most neurodegenerative disorders. UPR signalling pathways mediated by IRE1α and ATF6 play a crucial role in the maintenance of ER homeostasis through the transactivation of an array of transcription factors. When activated, these transcription factors induce the expression of genes involved in protein folding and degradation with pro-survival effects...
May 4, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706957/microglia-and-beyond-innate-immune-cells-as-regulators-of-brain-development-and-behavioral-function
#4
REVIEW
Kathryn M Lenz, Lars H Nelson
Innate immune cells play a well-documented role in the etiology and disease course of many brain-based conditions, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, and brain cancers. In contrast, it is only recently becoming clear that innate immune cells, primarily brain resident macrophages called microglia, are also key regulators of brain development. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding microglia in brain development, with particular emphasis on how microglia during development are distinct from microglia later in life...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706146/neuropsychological-profiles-and-trajectories-in-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Jean K Ho, Daniel A Nation
OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the independent and synergistic effects of amyloid beta (Aβ1-42) and phosphorylated tau (Ptau) pathologies on neuropsychological profiles and trajectories in cognitively normal older adults. METHODS: Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants identified as cognitively normal at baseline underwent longitudinal assessment (N=518; 0, 12, 24, 36 months), baseline lumbar puncture and follow-up cognitive exams...
April 30, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692406/structural-basis-for-the-activation-of-acid-ceramidase
#6
Ahmad Gebai, Alexei Gorelik, Zixian Li, Katalin Illes, Bhushan Nagar
Acid ceramidase (aCDase, ASAH1) hydrolyzes lysosomal membrane ceramide into sphingosine, the backbone of all sphingolipids, to regulate many cellular processes. Abnormal function of aCDase leads to Farber disease, spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy, and is associated with Alzheimer's, diabetes, and cancer. Here, we present crystal structures of mammalian aCDases in both proenzyme and autocleaved forms. In the proenzyme, the catalytic center is buried and protected from solvent. Autocleavage triggers a conformational change exposing a hydrophobic channel leading to the active site...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679161/present-and-future-of-ultra-high-field-mri-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Graziella Donatelli, Roberto Ceravolo, Daniela Frosini, Michela Tosetti, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Mirco Cosottini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With a high signal-to-noise ratio, unparalleled spatial resolution, and improved contrasts, ultra-high field MR (≥ 7 T) has great potential in depicting the normal radiological anatomy of smaller structures in the brain and can also provide more information about morphological, quantitative, and metabolic changes associated with a wide range of brain disorders. By focusing attention on specific brain regions believed to be associated with early pathological change, or by more closely inspecting recognized foci of brain pathology, ultra-high field MR can improve the accuracy and sensitivity of neuroimaging...
April 20, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624752/biomarkers-for-cognitive-impairment-in-lewy-body-disorders-status-and-relevance-for-clinical-trials
#8
REVIEW
Andrew Siderowf, Dag Aarsland, Brit Mollenhauer, Jennifer G Goldman, Bernard Ravina
Biomarkers have the potential to improve diagnosis and prognosis, and guide clinical treatment decisions. In research, biomarkers can be used for patient selection and as outcome measures in clinical trials. A range of biochemical and imaging biomarkers are relevant to patients with Lewy body disorders, including PD, PD dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies. Dopaminergic imaging is used for differential diagnosis of parkinsonian disorders versus tremor disorders without dopamingeric deficits, and also to differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease...
April 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595076/anti-apoptotic-mechanisms-of-acupuncture-in-neurological-diseases-a-review
#9
Wa Cai, Wei-Dong Shen
Apoptosis, known as programmed cell death, plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. Most of these diseases can be obviously alleviated by means of acupuncture treatment. Current research studies have shown that the efficacy of acupuncture to these medical conditions is closely associated with the anti-apoptotic potentials. Mainly based on the acupuncture's anti-apoptotic efficacy in prevalent neurological disorders, including cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, Alzheimer's disease, depression or stress related-modes, spinal cord injuries, etc...
2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568517/surfen-and-oxalyl-surfen-decrease-tau-hyperphosphorylation-and-mitigate-neuron-deficits-in-vivo-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-tauopathy
#10
Seyedeh Maryam Alavi Naini, Constantin Yanicostas, Rahma Hassan-Abdi, Sébastien Blondeel, Mohamed Bennis, Ryan J Weiss, Yitzhak Tor, Jeffrey D Esko, Nadia Soussi-Yanicostas
Background: Tauopathies comprise a family of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease for which there is an urgent and unmet need for disease-modifying treatments. Tauopathies are characterized by pathological tau hyperphosphorylation, which has been shown to correlate tightly with disease progression and memory loss in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. We recently demonstrated an essential requirement for 3- O -sulfated heparan sulfate in pathological tau hyperphosphorylation in zebrafish, a prominent model organism for human drug discovery...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568268/synergistic-effect-on-neurodegeneration-by-n-truncated-a%C3%AE-4-42-and-pyroglutamate-a%C3%AE-3-42-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Jose S Lopez-Noguerola, Nicolai M E Giessen, Maximilian Ueberück, Julius N Meißner, Charlotte E Pelgrim, Johnathan Adams, Oliver Wirths, Yvonne Bouter, Thomas A Bayer
The N-terminally truncated pyroglutamate Aβ3-42 (AβpE3-42 ) and Aβ4-42 peptides are known to be highly abundant in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Both peptides show enhanced aggregation and neurotoxicity in comparison to full-length Aβ, suggesting that these amyloid peptides may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. The aim of the present work was to study the direct effect of the combination of AβpE3-42 and Aβ4-42 on ongoing AD-related neuron loss, pathology, and neurological deficits in transgenic mice...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559889/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-spinal-cord-contributes-to-the-development-of-morphine-tolerance
#12
Daiqiang Liu, Yaqun Zhou, Yawen Peng, Peng Su, Zheng Li, Qiaoqiao Xu, Ye Tu, Xuebi Tian, Hui Yang, Zhen Wu, Wei Mei, Feng Gao
Morphine tolerance remains an intractable problem, which hinders its prolonged use in clinical practice. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been proved to play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, etc. In this study, we provide the first direct evidence that ER stress may be a significant driver of morphine tolerance. Binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP), the ER stress marker, was significantly upregulated in neurons in spinal dorsal horn in rats being treated with morphine for 7 days...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520379/evaluation-of-apolipoprotein-e-fragmentation-as-a-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
J W Gause, R J Day, C A Caraway, W W Poon, T T Rohn
Recent studies have supported a role for the proteolytic cleavage of apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) as a potential mechanism for the enhanced dementia risk associated with Alzheimer's disease. To determine whether APOE4 fragmentation is correlated with AD, ELISA assays were performed with cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples utilizing an antibody that specifically detects a 17 kDa amino-terminal fragment (p17) of APOE (nApoECF antibody). In CSF samples, levels of APOE fragmentation were minimal in both neuropathological normals (NPNs) and AD cases and there were no significant differences between the two cohorts across APOE genotypes...
September 2017: Journal of Neurology and Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504292/current-clinical-applications-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-neurological-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Woo Suk Tae, Byung Joo Ham, Sung Bom Pyun, Shin Hyuk Kang, Byung Jo Kim
Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive medical imaging tool used to investigate the structure of white matter. The signal contrast in DTI is generated by differences in the Brownian motion of the water molecules in brain tissue. Postprocessed DTI scalars can be used to evaluate changes in the brain tissue caused by disease, disease progression, and treatment responses, which has led to an enormous amount of interest in DTI in clinical research. This review article provides insights into DTI scalars and the biological background of DTI as a relatively new neuroimaging modality...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501041/plumbagin-ameliorates-memory-dysfunction-in-streptozotocin-induced-alzheimer-s-disease-via-activation-of-nrf2-are-pathway-and-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-secretase
#15
Kartik T Nakhate, Ashish P Bharne, Vinay Sagar Verma, Deepali N Aru, Dadasaheb M Kokare
Although plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) protects against cerebral ischemia and spinal cord injury-induced oxidative stress and inflammation by activating the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 /antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) pathway, its role in the amelioration of neurodegenerative diseases remains unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of plumbagin on Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like condition in mice. The animals were treated intracerebroventricularly with streptozotocin (STZ; 3 mg/kg) twice, on day 1 and 3, to induce AD-like condition, and the symptoms were evaluated after 14 days...
May 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497366/confocal-synaptology-synaptic-rearrangements-in-neurodegenerative-disorders-and-upon-nervous-system-injury
#16
REVIEW
Maja Vulovic, Nevena Divac, Igor Jakovcevski
The nervous system is a notable exception to the rule that the cell is the structural and functional unit of tissue systems and organs. The functional unit of the nervous system is the synapse, the contact between two nerve cells. As such, synapses are the foci of investigations of nervous system organization and function, as well as a potential readout for the progression of various disorders of the nervous system. In the past decade the development of antibodies specific to presynaptic terminals has enabled us to assess, at the optical, laser scanning microscopy level, these subcellular structures, and has provided a simple method for the quantification of various synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474391/support-service-utilization-and-out-of-pocket-payments-for-health-services-in-a-population-based-sample-of-adults-with-neurological-conditions
#17
Adebimpe O Obembe, Charlie H Goldsmith, Lisa A Simpson, Brodie M Sakakibara, Janice J Eng
BACKGROUND: Social support can help to deal with the consequences of neurological conditions and promote functional independence and quality of life. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of neurological conditions on the use of support and health-care services in a population-based sample of community-dwelling adults with neurological conditions. METHODS: Data were from the Survey of Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada, which was derived from a representative sample of household residents...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462608/mrnp-assembly-axonal-transport-and-local-translation-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#18
Bilal Khalil, Dmytro Morderer, Phillip L Price, Feilin Liu, Wilfried Rossoll
The development, maturation, and maintenance of the mammalian nervous system rely on complex spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression. In neurons, this is achieved by the expression of differentially localized isoforms and specific sets of mRNA-binding proteins (mRBPs) that regulate RNA processing, mRNA trafficking, and local protein synthesis at remote sites within dendrites and axons. There is growing evidence that axons contain a specialized transcriptome and are endowed with the machinery that allows them to rapidly alter their local proteome via local translation and protein degradation...
February 17, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452686/technological-advances-and-changing-indications-for-lumbar-puncture-in-neurological-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Joost M Costerus, Matthijs C Brouwer, Diederik van de Beek
Technological advances have changed the indications for and the way in which lumbar puncture is done. Suspected CNS infection remains the most common indication for lumbar puncture, but new molecular techniques have broadened CSF analysis indications, such as the determination of neuronal autoantibodies in autoimmune encephalitis. New screening techniques have increased sensitvity for pathogen detection and can be used to identify pathogens that were previously unknown to cause CNS infections. Evidence suggests that potential treatments for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, will rely on early detection of the disease with the use of CSF biomarkers...
March 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434537/how-can-a-ketogenic-diet-improve-motor-function
#20
REVIEW
Charlotte Veyrat-Durebex, Pascal Reynier, Vincent Procaccio, Rudolf Hergesheimer, Philippe Corcia, Christian R Andres, Hélène Blasco
A ketogenic diet (KD) is a normocaloric diet composed by high fat (80-90%), low carbohydrate, and low protein consumption that induces fasting-like effects. KD increases ketone body (KBs) production and its concentration in the blood, providing the brain an alternative energy supply that enhances oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. In addition to its profound impact on neuro-metabolism and bioenergetics, the neuroprotective effect of specific polyunsaturated fatty acids and KBs involves pleiotropic mechanisms, such as the modulation of neuronal membrane excitability, inflammation, or reactive oxygen species production...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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