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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324600/light-sheet-fluorescence-microscopy-chemical-clearing-and-labeling-protocols-for-ultramicroscopy
#1
Nina Jährling, Klaus Becker, Saiedeh Saghafi, Hans-Ulrich Dodt
Light-sheet microscopy is an effective technique in neuroscience, developmental biology, and cancer research for visualizing and analyzing cellular networks and whole organs in three dimensions. Because this technique requires specimens to be translucent they commonly have to be cleared before microscopy inspection. Here, we provide 3DISCO based protocols for preparing cleared samples of immuno-stained neural networks, lectin-labeled vascular networks, and Methoxy-X04 labeled beta-amyloid plaques in mice. 3DISCO utilizes the lipophilic solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dibenzylether (DBE) for dehydration and successive clearing...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324139/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-dysphagia
#2
S Cantemir, A Laubert
Most swallowing problems can be treated, although the treatment depends on the type of dysphagia. A multidisciplinary team of surgeons, phoniatrists, and speech-language therapists is necessary to develop the appropriate treatment strategy. A thorough medical history, clinical investigation of the swallowing muscles, and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with foods of different consistencies help to decide whether swallowing exercises alone are sufficient, or whether an additional pharmacologic or surgical treatment is needed to prevent aspiration, malnutrition, and dehydration...
March 21, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318155/-biomineralization-of-electrospun-polycaprolactone-guided-bone-regeneration-membrane
#3
Deng Xia, Bai Shi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biomineralization of the tissue-engineering electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold and its potential use for guided bone regeneration (GBR) membranes. METHODS: PCL ultrafinefiber scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning and then immersed in supersaturated calcification solution (SCS) for biomineralization investigation. The electrospun PCL scaffolds and the calcium phosphate coating were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
December 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317607/nutritional-aspects-of-dysphagia-management
#4
C Gallegos, E Brito-de la Fuente, P Clavé, A Costa, G Assegehegn
This chapter describes the nutritional aspects of dysphagia management by starting with the definition of these two conditions (dysphagia and malnutrition) that share three main clinical characteristics: (a) their prevalence is very high, (b) they can lead to severe complications, and (c) they are frequently underrecognized and neglected conditions. From an anatomical standpoint, dysphagia can result from oropharyngeal and/or esophageal causes; from a pathophysiological perspective, dysphagia can be caused by organic or structural diseases (either benign or malignant) or diseases causing impaired physiology (mainly motility and/or perception disorders)...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316054/the-effect-of-fluid-intake-following-dehydration-on-subsequent-athletic-and-cognitive-performance-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Danielle McCartney, Ben Desbrow, Christopher Irwin
BACKGROUND: The deleterious effects of dehydration on athletic and cognitive performance have been well documented. As such, dehydrated individuals are advised to consume fluid in volumes equivalent to 1.25 to 1.5 L kg(-1) body mass (BM) lost to restore body water content. However, individuals undertaking subsequent activity may have limited time to consume fluid. Within this context, the impact of fluid intake practices is unclear. This systematic review investigated the effect of fluid consumption following a period of dehydration on subsequent athletic and cognitive performance...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315876/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-ins-del-polymorphism-and-body-composition-the-intermediary-role-of-hydration-status
#6
Laura Bordoni, Valerio Napolioni, Francesca Marchegiani, Emilio Amadio, Rosita Gabbianelli
BACKGROUND: The well-known insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs4646994) of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been previously associated with obesity, blood flow, muscular strength, and ACE enzyme activity. Despite the relevant role of ACE in homeostasis, few data are currently available on the relationship between rs4646994 and hydration status. Thus, we tested the association between the ACE Ins/Del polymorphism, body composition, and hydration status in a young Italian population...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314688/nivolumab-treatment-for-oesophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-an-open-label-multicentre-phase-2-trial
#7
Toshihiro Kudo, Yasuo Hamamoto, Ken Kato, Takashi Ura, Takashi Kojima, Takahiro Tsushima, Shuichi Hironaka, Hiroki Hara, Taroh Satoh, Satoru Iwasa, Kei Muro, Hirofumi Yasui, Keiko Minashi, Kensei Yamaguchi, Atsushi Ohtsu, Yuichiro Doki, Yuko Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: Nivolumab is a human monoclonal IgG4 antibody that inhibits programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expressed on activated T cells. We investigated the safety and activity of nivolumab in patients with treatment-refractory oesophageal cancer. METHODS: We did an open-label, single-arm, multicentre phase 2 study. Eligible patients had advanced squamous-cell carcinoma, adenosquamous-cell carcinoma, or adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus refractory or intolerant to fluoropyrimidine-based, platinum-based, and taxane-based chemotherapy...
March 14, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314423/dental-and-orofacial-injuries
#8
REVIEW
Paul Piccininni, Anthony Clough, Ray Padilla, Gabriella Piccininni
Oral and facial injuries are very common in sport, and can be very expensive to treat. Many of these injuries are preventable with proper pre-competition assessment and suitable well-designed protection. Prompt sideline identification and management of orofacial injuries and appropriate follow-up are crucial to successful outcomes. There have been significant recent advances in both trauma management and mouth guard design and fabrication techniques. Athletes have a unique set of challenges-including collisions, finances, travel and training, dehydration, sport beverages, and high carbohydrate diets-that may compromise their oral health...
April 2017: Clinics in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306420/ventriculo-ureteral-shunt-insertion-using-percutaneous-nephrostomy-a-novel-minimally-invasive-option-in-a-patient-with-chronic-hydrocephalus-complicated-by-multiple-distal-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-failures
#9
Ashok Pillai, Georgie Mathew, Sivasankaran Nachimuthu, Sanjeevan Vasudevan Kalavampara
The management of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt failure is a common problem in neurosurgical practice. On occasion, extraperitoneal sites for CSF diversion are required when shunting to the peritoneal cavity has failed after multiple attempts. The authors report a novel minimally invasive procedure allowing cannulation of the ureter for the purpose of ventriculo-ureteral (VU) shunting. Sixteen years prior to presentation, this 46-year-old woman had contracted tuberculous meningitis and had chronic hydrocephalus, with multiple distal shunt failures in recent months...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304249/diagnosis-and-management-of-polycythemia-vera-in-a-ferret-mustela-putorius-furo
#10
Kim Le, Hugues Beaufrère, Laura L Bassel, Sarah Wills, Delphine Laniesse, Shauna L Blois, Dale A Smith
A 5-y-old female ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was evaluated for diarrhea, anorexia, and lethargy for 1 wk. Only mild dehydration was detected on physical examination. CBC analysis revealed marked erythrocytosis with an unremarkable plasma biochemistry panel; follow-up CBC analyses revealed a consistent primary erythrocytosis. Whole-body radiographs and abdominal ultrasonography were unremarkable except for a small nephrolith in the right kidney and a small cyst in the left kidney. The plasma erythropoietin level was 17...
December 1, 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303774/physiological-evaluation-of-personal-protective-ensembles-recommended-for-use-in-west-africa
#11
Aitor Coca, Tyler Quinn, Jung-Hyun Kim, Tianzhou Wu, Jeff Powell, Raymond Roberge, Ronald Shaffer
OBJECTIVE: Personal protective equipment (PPE) provides health care workers with a barrier to prevent human contact with viruses like Ebola and potential transmission of the disease. However, PPE can also introduce an additional physiological burden from potentially increased heat stress. This study evaluated the human physiological and subjective responses to continuous light exercise within environmental conditions similar to those in West Africa while wearing 3 different, commonly used PPE ensembles (E1, E2, and E3)...
March 17, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303369/clinical-aspects-of-changes-in-water-and-sodium-homeostasis-in-the-elderly
#12
REVIEW
Christian A Koch, Tibor Fulop
The population of elderly individuals is increasing worldwide. With aging, various hormonal and kidney changes occur, both affecting water homeostasis. Aging is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and many features of CKD are reproduced in the aging kidney. Dehydration and hyperosmolarity can be triggered by diminished thirst perception in this population. Elderly with dementia are especially susceptible to abnormalities of their electrolyte and body water homeostasis and should be (re-)assessed for polypharmacy...
March 16, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303044/fourier-transform-infrared-and-raman-spectroscopic-study-of-the-effect-of-the-thermal-treatment-and-extraction-methods-on-the-characteristics-of-ayocote-bean-starches
#13
Aurea Bernardino-Nicanor, Gerardo Acosta-García, Norma Güemes-Vera, José Luis Montañez-Soto, María de Los Ángeles Vivar-Vera, Leopoldo González-Cruz
Starches isolated from four ayocote bean varieties were modified by thermal treatment to determinate the effect of the treatment on the structural changes of ayocote bean starch. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the starch granules have oval and round shapes, with heterogeneous sizes and fractures when the extraction method is used. The presence of new bands at 2850 and 1560 cm(-1) in the FT-IR spectra showed that the thermal treatment of ayocote beans induced an interaction between the protein or lipid and the amylose or amylopectin, while the sharpest band at 3400 cm(-1) indicated a dehydration process in the starch granule in addition to the presence of the band at 1260 cm(-1), indicating the product of the retrogradation process...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301712/hypoxia-responsive-erfs-involved-in-post-deastringency-softening-of-persimmon-fruit
#14
Miao-Miao Wang, Qing-Gang Zhu, Chu-Li Deng, Zheng-Rong Luo, Ning-Jing Sun, Donald Grierson, Xue-Ren Yin, Kun-Song Chen
Removal of astringency by endogenously formed acetaldehyde, achieved by postharvest anaerobic treatment, is of critical importance for many types of persimmon fruit. Although an anaerobic environment accelerates de-astringency it also has the deleterious effect of promoting excessive softening, reducing shelf-life and marketability. Some hypoxia-responsive ethylene response factor (ERFs) participate in anaerobic de-astringency, but their role in accelerated softening was unclear. Undesirable rapid softening induced by high CO2 (95%) was ameliorated by adding the ethylene inhibitor 1-MCP (1 μl L(-1) ), resulting in reduced astringency while maintaining firmness, suggesting that CO2 -induced softening involves ethylene signalling...
March 16, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300673/semi-microbiological-synthesis-of-an-active-lysinoalanine-bridged-analog-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1
#15
Anneke Kuipers, Louwe de Vries, Marcel P de Vries, Rick Rink, Tjibbe Bosma, Gert N Moll
Some modified glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs are highly important for treating type 2 diabetes. Here we investigated whether GLP-1 analogs expressed in Lactococcus lactis could be substrates for modification and export by the nisin dehydratase and transporter enzyme. Subsequently we introduced a lysinoalanine by coupling a formed dehydroalanine with a lysine and investigated the structure and activity of the formed lysinoalanine-bridged GLP-1 analog. Our data show: i) GLP-1 fused to the nisin leader peptide is very well exported via the nisin transporter NisT, ii) production of leader-GLP-1 via NisT is higher than via the SEC system, iii) leader-GLP-1 exported via NisT was more efficiently dehydrated by the nisin dehydratase NisB than when exported via the SEC system, iv) individual serines and threonines in GLP-1 are dehydrated by NisB to a significantly different extent, v) an introduced Ser30 is well dehydrated and can be coupled to Lys34 to form a lysinoalanine-bridged GLP-1 analog, vi) a lysinoalanine(30-34) variant's conformation shifts in the presence of 25% trifluoroethanol towards a higher alpha helix content than observed for wild type GLP-1 under identical condition, vii) a lysinoalanine(30-34) GLP-1 variant has retained significant activity...
March 11, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300294/sorption-desorption-test-for-functional-assessment-of-skin-treated-with-a-lipid-system-that-mimics-epidermal-lamellar-bodies
#16
Verónica Moner, Estibalitz Fernández, Alfonso Del Pozo, Gelen Rodríguez, Mercedes Cócera, Alfonso de la Maza, Olga López
BACKGROUND: Many skin diseases are associated with either increases or decreases in lamellar body secretion, or dysfunctional lamellar bodies. Consequently, diseased skin is characterized by reduced barrier function and altered lipid composition and organization. Human skin is commonly evaluated in vivo with non-invasive biophysical techniques. The dynamic functions of the skin are evaluated with repeat measurements such as the sorption-desorption test (SDT). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo skin hydration-dehydration kinetics after treatment with a lipid system that mimics the morphology, structure and composition of lamellar bodies in both healthy and irritated human skin...
March 16, 2017: Contact Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298677/uvra-expression-of-lactococcus-lactis-nz9000-improve-multiple-stresses-tolerance-and-fermentation-of-lactic-acid-against-salt-stress
#17
Taher Khakpour Moghaddam, Juan Zhang, Guocheng Du
Lactococcus lactis is subjected to several stressful conditions during industrial fermentation including oxidation, heating and cooling, acid, high osmolarity/dehydration and starvation. DNA lesion is a major cause of genetic instability in L. lactis that usually occurs at a low frequency, but it is greatly enhanced by environmental stresses. DNA damages produced by these environmental stresses are thought to induce DNA double-strand breaks, leading to illegitimate recombination. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) protein UvrA suppresses multiple stresses-induced illegitimate recombination...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295357/an-analysis-of-systematic-elemental-changes-in-decomposing-bone
#18
Steven J Walden, Jacqui Mulville, Jeffrey P Rowlands, Sam L Evans
The aim of this pilot study was to investigate compositional changes in bone during decomposition. Elemental concentrations of barium, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus in porcine bone (as an experimental analog for human bone) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The samples were taken from porcine bone subjected to shallow burial and surface depositions at 28-day intervals for a period of 140 days. Results indicated that ICP-OES elemental profiling has potential to be developed as a forensic test for determining whether a bone sample originates from the early stages of soft tissue putrefaction...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295002/-ultrastructural-characteristics-of-gap-junctions-in-human-glial-brain-tumors
#19
E Yu Kirichenko, A F Savchenko, D V Kozachenko, A E Matsionis, A K Logvinov
AIM: to conduct an electron microscopic study of intercellular communication in the samples of gemistocytic astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and glioblastoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Surgically resected tumor tissue fragments were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde solution, afterfixed in 1% OsO4 solution, dehydrated, and embedded in epoxy resin. Ultrathin sections were examined using a Jem 1011 electron microscope (Jeol, Japan). RESULTS: Solitary and closely spaced gap junctions (GJs) formed by the thin processes that have the ultrastructure of an astroglial processes were identified in the astrocytoma samples...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294577/the-enigma-of-inhaled-salbutamol-and-sport-unresolved-after-45-years
#20
K D Fitch
During the past 45 years, there have been more changes on the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) Prohibited List (the List) to the status of inhaled salbutamol than any other substance. With 658 athletes, 6.1% of all participating athletes approved to inhale salbutamol at the 2008 Beijing Games, it is one of the medications used most frequently by Olympic athletes. Nevertheless, since the 2008 Games, WADA has made numerous changes to inhaled salbutamol on the List including prohibiting its use, then a year later permitting it without prior notification and recommending a pharmacokinetic study if an athlete exceeds the urinary threshold of 1000 ng/mL...
March 11, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
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