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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711476/treatment-in-early-psychosis-with-n-acetyl-cysteine-for-6months-improves-low-level-auditory-processing-pilot-study
#1
Chrysa Retsa, Jean-François Knebel, Eveline Geiser, Carina Ferrari, Raoul Jenni, Margot Fournier, Luis Alameda, Philipp S Baumann, Stephanie Clarke, Philippe Conus, Kim Q Do, Micah M Murray
Sensory impairments constitute core dysfunctions in schizophrenia. In the auditory modality, impaired mismatch negativity (MMN) has been observed in chronic schizophrenia and may reflect N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) hypo-function, consistent with models of schizophrenia based on oxidative stress. Moreover, a recent study demonstrated deficits in the N100 component of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) in early psychosis patients. Previous work has shown that add-on administration of the glutathione precursor N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) improves the MMN and clinical symptoms in chronic schizophrenia...
July 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705614/tracing-molecular-and-structural-changes-upon-mucolysis-with-n-acetyl-cysteine-in-human-airway-mucus
#2
Branko Vukosavljevic, Xabier Murgia, Konrad Schwarzkopf, Ulrich F Schaefer, Claus-Michael Lehr, Maike Windbergs
The conducting airways of the human lungs are lined by mucus, which lubricates the lung epithelium and provides a first-line protection against airborne threats. As a novel approach for visualization of the human mucus microstructure, we applied confocal Raman microscopy as a label-free and chemically selective technique. We were successfully able to chemically resolve the pulmonary surfactant from the mucus matrix and show its spatial distribution, as well as to visualize the structural changes within the freeze-dried mucus mesh upon chemical mucolysis...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704996/imidacloprid-promotes-high-fat-diet-induced-adiposity-in-female-c57bl-6j-mice-and-enhance-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-via-ampk%C3%AE-mediated-pathway
#3
Quancai Sun, Weipeng Qi, Xiao Xiao, Szu-Hao Yang, Daeyoung Kim, Kyong-Sup Yoon, John M Clark, Yeonhwa Park
Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, has been reported to enhance adipogenesis and resulted in insulin resistance in vitro. It was also reported to promote high fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in male C57BL/6J mice. The current study was to determine the effects of imidacloprid and its interaction with dietary fat in the development of adiposity and insulin resistance in female C57BL/6J mice. Mice were fed with imidacloprid (0.06, 0.6, or 6 mg/kg bw/day) mixed in low fat (4% w/w) or high fat (20% w/w) diet for 12 weeks...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700660/cancer-selective-single-agent-chemoradiosensitising-gold-nanoparticles
#4
Sophie Grellet, Konstantina Tzelepi, Meike Roskamp, Phil Williams, Aquila Sharif, Richard Slade-Carter, Peter Goldie, Nicky Whilde, Małgorzata A Śmiałek, Nigel J Mason, Jon P Golding
Two nanometre gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), bearing sugar moieties and/or thiol-polyethylene glycol-amine (PEG-amine), were synthesised and evaluated for their in vitro toxicity and ability to radiosensitise cells with 220 kV and 6 MV X-rays, using four cell lines representing normal and cancerous skin and breast tissues. Acute 3 h exposure of cells to AuNPs, bearing PEG-amine only or a 50:50 ratio of alpha-galactose derivative and PEG-amine resulted in selective uptake and toxicity towards cancer cells at unprecedentedly low nanomolar concentrations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698075/comparison-of-metformin-and-n-acetyl-cysteine-as-an-adjuvant-to-clomiphene-citrate-in-clomiphene-resistant-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#5
M Nemati, Sh Nemati, A-M Taheri, B Heidari
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of short- and long-term treatment with metformin and NAC, in an adjuvant to clomiphene citrate (CC), on the improvement of hormonal profile (SHBG, total testosterone, FBS, and fasting insulin) and fertility status in CC-resistant women with PCOS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and eight CC-resistant PCOS patients were participated in the study and received either metformin (1500mg/day) or NAC (1800mg/day) with 100mg/day of CC for 8 and 12 weeks...
July 8, 2017: Journal of gynecology obstetrics and human reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696987/nutritional-supplements-for-the-treatment-and-prevention-of-sports-related-concussion-evidence-still-lacking
#6
Thomas H Trojian, David H Wang, John J Leddy
Concussions are common neurologic events that affect many athletes. Very little has been studied on the treatment of concussions with supplements and medications. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reminds us that no supplement has been proven to treat concussions. Many animal studies show that supplements have potential for improving the effects of a brain injury but none have been shown to be of consistent benefit in human studies. Animal studies on severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) may not therefore be applicable transfer to sports-related concussions (SRC)...
July 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686023/phoxi-a-high-quantum-yield-solvent-sensitive-blue-fluorescent-5-hydroxytryptophan-derivative-synthesized-within-ten-minutes-under-aqueous-ambient-conditions
#7
Alexandre Grigoryan, Azaria S Eisenberg, Laura J Juszczak
Multiple tryptophan (Trp) proteins are not amenable to fluorescence study because individual residue emission is not resolvable. Biosynthetic incorporation of an indole analogue such as 5-hydroxyindole has not provided sufficient spectroscopic resolution because of low quantum yield and small emission shift. Here, 5-hydroxyindole is used as the starting framework for building a blue emitting fluorophore of high quantum yield, 2-phenyl-6H-oxazolo[4,5-e]indole (PHOXI). This is a three reagent reaction completed in 10 min under ambient conditions in borate buffer at pH 8...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684792/fungus-derived-hydroxyl-radicals-kill-hepatic-cells-by-enhancing-nuclear-transglutaminase
#8
Ronak Shrestha, Rajan Shrestha, Xian-Yang Qin, Ting-Fang Kuo, Yugo Oshima, Shun Iwatani, Ryutaro Teraoka, Keisuke Fujii, Mitsuko Hara, Mengqian Li, Azusa Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Hiroji Chibana, Jun Lu, Muyi Cai, Susumu Kajiwara, Soichi Kojima
We previously reported the importance of induced nuclear transglutaminase (TG) 2 activity, which results in hepatic cell death, in ethanol-induced liver injury. Here, we show that co-incubation of either human hepatic cells or mouse primary hepatocytes derived from wild-type but not TG2(-/-) mice with pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and C. glabrata, but not baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, induced cell death in host cells by enhancing cellular, particularly nuclear, TG activity. Further pharmacological and genetic approaches demonstrated that this phenomenon was mediated partly by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radicals, as detected by a fluorescent probe and electron spin resonance...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681938/%C3%AF-hydroxyundec-9-enoic-acid-induces-apoptosis-by-ros-mediated-jnk-and-p38-phosphorylation-in-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#9
Joungjwa Ahn, Youn Wook Chung, Jin-Byung Park, Kyung Mi Yang
ω-Hydroxyundec-9-enoic acid (ω-HUA), a plant secondary metabolite, exhibits anti-fungal activity. However, its effect on breast cancer cells is unknown. Here, we investigated the anti- breast cancer activity of ω-HUA and its underlying mechanism. Treatment of human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435, with ω-HUA induced apoptotic cell death with increased cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) levels, and p38 and JNK phosphorylation. Inhibition of these mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways using specific inhibitors or siRNA, for p38 and JNK, respectively, blocked the ω-HUA-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681934/3-4-dihydroxybenzalacetone-and-caffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-induce-preconditioning-er-stress-and-autophagy-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#10
Ryoichi Tomiyama, Ken Takakura, Shouhei Takatou, Thuong Manh Le, Takumi Nishiuchi, Yutaka Nakamura, Tetsuya Konishi, Seiichi Matsugo, Osamu Hori
3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL) and Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) are both catechol-containing phenylpropanoid derivatives with diverse bioactivities. In the present study, we analyzed the ability of these compounds to activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the oxidative stress response. When human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated with DBL or CAPE, the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related genes such as HSPA5, HYOU1, DDIT3, and SEC61b increased to a larger extent in response to CAPE treatment, while that of antioxidant genes such as HMOX1, GCLM, and NQO1 increased to a larger extent in response to DBL treatment...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680151/synergistic-cellular-effects-including-mitochondrial-destabilization-autophagy-and-apoptosis-following-low-level-exposure-to-a-mixture-of-lipophilic-persistent-organic-pollutants
#11
Nathan E Rainey, Ana Saric, Alexandre Leberre, Etienne Dewailly, Christian Slomianny, Guillaume Vial, Harold I Zeliger, Patrice X Petit
Humans are exposed to multiple exogenous environmental pollutants. Many of these compounds are parts of mixtures that can exacerbate harmful effects of the individual mixture components. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), is primarily produced via industrial processes including incineration and the manufacture of herbicides. Both endosulfan and TCDD are persistent organic pollutants which elicit cytotoxic effects by inducing reactive oxygen species generation. Sublethal concentrations of mixtures of TCDD and endosulfan increase oxidative stress, as well as mitochondrial homeostasis disruption, which is preceded by a calcium rise and, in fine, induce cell death...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669854/uptake-of-dendrimer-drug-by-different-cell-types-in-the-hippocampus-after-hypoxic-ischemic-insult-in-neonatal-mice-effects-of-injury-microglial-activation-and-hypothermia
#12
Christina L Nemeth, Gabrielle T Drummond, Manoj K Mishra, Fan Zhang, Patrice Carr, Maxine S Garcia, Sydney Doman, Ali Fatemi, Michael V Johnston, Rangaramanujam M Kannan, Sujatha Kannan, Mary Ann Wilson
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) can result in neurodevelopmental disability, including cerebral palsy. The only treatment, hypothermia, provides incomplete neuroprotection. Hydroxyl polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers are being explored for targeted delivery of therapy for HIE. Understanding the biodistribution of dendrimer-conjugated drugs into microglia, neurons and astrocytes after brain injury is essential for optimizing drug delivery. We conjugated N-acetyl-L-cysteine to Cy5-labeled PAMAM dendrimer (Cy5-D-NAC) and used a mouse model of perinatal HIE to study effects of timing of administration, hypothermia, brain injury, and microglial activation on uptake...
June 30, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667779/suberoylanilide-hydroxamic-acid-induces-thioredoxin1-mediated-apoptosis-in-lung-cancer-cells-via-up-regulation-of-mir-129-5p
#13
Bo Ra You, Woo Hyun Park
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, especially suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) induce apoptosis in various cancer cells. Here we investigated the effect of SAHA on apoptosis in lung cancer cells and addressed the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), and thioredoxin1 (Trx1) levels in this process. We also identified the miRNAs that down-regulate Trx1 expression at RNA level and thereby influence apoptotic cell death of SAHA increased intracellular ROS levels and promoted apoptotic cell death in cancerous cells but not in non-cancerous normal lung cells...
July 1, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637361/antioxidant-activity-of-phenolic-compounds-from-extracts-of-eucalyptus-globulus-and-melaleuca-styphelioides-and-their-protective-role-on-d-glucose-induced-hyperglycemic-stress-and-oxalate-stress-in-nrk-49fcells
#14
Divya Ganesan, Eman Al-Sayed, Abhishek Albert, Eldho Paul, Abdel Nasser B Singab, Selvam Govindan Sadasivam, Luciano Saso
Phytochemicals serve as potential therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of diseases. In this study, we elucidate the renoprotective activity of compounds isolated from Eucalyptus globulus and Melaleuca styphelioides extracts in glucose- and oxalate-challenged NRK-49F cell model. The antioxidant potential of isolated compounds was evaluated based on their effect on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels. The results demonstrated that exposure of NRK-49F cells to glucose and oxalate stress augmented cell damage and attenuated antioxidant enzyme activities...
June 21, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634445/antioxidant-treatment-with-n-acetyl-cysteine-prevents-the-development-of-cognitive-and-social-behavioral-deficits-that-result-from-perinatal-ketamine-treatment
#15
Aarron Phensy, Hasmik E Duzdabanian, Samantha Brewer, Anurag Panjabi, Christopher Driskill, Annuska Berz, George Peng, Sven Kroener
Alterations of the normal redox state can be found in all stages of schizophrenia, suggesting a key role for oxidative stress in the etiology and maintenance of the disease. Pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors can disrupt natural antioxidant defense systems and induce schizophrenia-like behaviors in animals and healthy human subjects. Perinatal administration of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine produces persistent behavioral deficits in adult mice which mimic a range of positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms that characterize schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632169/the-novel-mechanisms-concerning-the-inhibitions-of-palmitate-induced-proinflammatory-factor-releases-and-endogenous-cellular-stress-with-astaxanthin-on-min6-%C3%AE-cells
#16
Atsuko Kitahara, Kazuto Takahashi, Naru Morita, Toshitaka Murashima, Hirohisa Onuma, Yoshikazu Sumitani, Toshiaki Tanaka, Takuma Kondo, Toshio Hosaka, Hitoshi Ishida
Astaxanthin, an antioxidant agent, can protect pancreatic β-cells of db/db mice from glucotoxicity and resolve chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. Nonetheless, the effects of astaxanthin on free-fatty-acid-induced inflammation and cellular stress in β-cells remain to be demonstrated. Meanwhile, palmitate enhances the secretion of pro-inflammatory adipokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and VEGF120 (vascular endothelial growth factor). We therefore investigated the influence of astaxanthin on palmitate-stimulated MCP-1 and VEGF120 secretion in mouse insulinoma (MIN6) pancreatic β-cells...
June 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623559/ifn-%C3%AE-induced-reactive-oxygen-species-and-mitochondrial-damage-contribute-to-muscle-impairment-and-inflammation-maintenance-in-dermatomyositis
#17
Alain Meyer, Gilles Laverny, Yves Allenbach, Elise Grelet, Vanessa Ueberschlag, Andoni Echaniz-Laguna, Béatrice Lannes, Ghada Alsaleh, Anne Laure Charles, François Singh, Joffrey Zoll, Evelyne Lonsdorfer, François Maurier, Olivier Boyer, Jacques-Eric Gottenberg, Anne Sophie Nicot, Jocelyn Laporte, Olivier Benveniste, Daniel Metzger, Jean Sibilia, Bernard Geny
Dermatomyositis (DM) is an autoimmune disease associated with enhanced type I interferon (IFN) signalling in skeletal muscle, but the mechanisms underlying muscle dysfunction and inflammation perpetuation remain unknown. Transcriptomic analysis of early untreated DM muscles revealed that the main cluster of down-regulated genes was mitochondria-related. Histochemical, electron microscopy, and in situ oxygraphy analysis showed mitochondrial abnormalities, including increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased respiration, which was correlated with low exercise capacities and a type I IFN signature...
June 16, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621211/copper-doping-enhanced-the-oxidative-stress-mediated-cytotoxicity-of-tio2-nanoparticles-in-a549-cells
#18
J Ahmad, M A Siddiqui, M J Akhtar, H A Alhadlaq, A Alshamsan, S T Khan, R Wahab, A A Al-Khedhairy, A Al-Salim, J Musarrat, Q Saquib, M Fareed, M Ahamed
Physicochemical properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) can be tuned by doping with metals or nonmetals. Copper (Cu) doping improved the photocatalytic behavior of TiO2 NPs that can be applied in various fields such as environmental remediation and nanomedicine. However, interaction of Cu-doped TiO2 NPs with human cells is scarce. This study was designed to explore the role of Cu doping in cytotoxic response of TiO2 NPs in human lung epithelial (A549) cells. Characterization data demonstrated the presence of both TiO2 and Cu in Cu-doped TiO2 NPs with high-quality lattice fringes without any distortion...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614987/role-of-amino-acid-supplementation-in-prevention-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-neonates-a-review-of-current-evidences
#19
Bhawan Deep Garg, Nandkishor S Kabra
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most common acute and fatal gastrointestinal emergency in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates with mortality range from 15-30%. NEC is likely due to multifactorial process such as oxidative injury, ischemic necrosis and over reactive inflammatory response to intestinal microbes. AIMS: To evaluate the role of amino acid supplementation for reduction of neonatal NEC in preterm neonates. METHOD: The literature search was done for various randomized control trial (RCT) by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, Index Copernicus, African Index Medicus (AIM), Thomson Reuters (ESCI), Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) and other data base...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605780/uremia-induces-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-muscle-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#20
Maria P Martinez Cantarin, Diana Whitaker-Menezes, Zhao Lin, Bonita Falkner
Background.: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with inflammation and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Inflammation and oxidative stress are associated with several complications of ESRD. The aim of this study was to determine histological characteristics of adipose tissue and muscle mitochondrial function in uremia and its relationship with inflammation. Methods.: ESRD patients ( n  = 18) and controls ( n  = 6) were enrolled for studies of adipose and muscle tissue by immunohistochemistry and western blot...
June 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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