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Infectious diseases modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546072/dendrimer-conjugated-peptide-vaccine-enhances-clearance-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-genital-infection
#1
Ingrid S Ganda, Qian Zhong, Mirabela Hali, Ricardo L C Albuquerque, Francine F Padilha, Sandro R P da Rocha, Judith A Whittum-Hudson
Peptide-based vaccines have emerged in recent years as promising candidates in the prevention of infectious diseases. However, there are many challenges to maintaining in vivo peptide stability and enhancement of peptide immunogenicity to generate protective immunity which enhances clearance of infections. Here, a dendrimer-based carrier system is proposed for peptide-based vaccine delivery, and shows its anti-microbial feasibility in a mouse model of Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydiae are the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacteria worldwide, and also the causal agent of trachoma, the leading cause of preventable infectious blindness...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545882/emerging-infectious-diseases-and-blood-safety-modeling-the-transfusion-transmission-risk
#2
REVIEW
Philip Kiely, Manoj Gambhir, Allen C Cheng, Zoe K McQuilten, Clive R Seed, Erica M Wood
While the transfusion-transmission (TT) risk associated with the major transfusion-relevant viruses such as HIV is now very low, during the last 20 years there has been a growing awareness of the threat to blood safety from emerging infectious diseases, a number of which are known to be, or are potentially, transfusion transmissible. Two published models for estimating the transfusion-transmission risk from EIDs, referred to as the Biggerstaff-Petersen model and the European Upfront Risk Assessment Tool (EUFRAT), respectively, have been applied to several EIDs in outbreak situations...
May 15, 2017: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545478/ltb4-and-montelukast-in-transplantation-related-bronchiolitis-obliterans-in-rats
#3
Zheng-Liang Tu, Zhen-Yu Zhou, Hai-Chao Xu, Jin-Lin Cao, Peng Ye, Lu-Ming Wang, Wang Lv, Jian Hu
BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation is the only effective treatment for end-stage lung diseases. Bronchiolitis obliterans, which is known as non-infectious chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) in the new classification, is the greatest threat to long-term survival after lung transplantation. This study investigated the role of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and montelukast in transplantation-related bronchiolitis obliterans and discussed the pathophysiological significance of LTB4 in chronic rejection...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545083/simultaneous-inference-of-phylogenetic-and-transmission-trees-in-infectious-disease-outbreaks
#4
Don Klinkenberg, Jantien A Backer, Xavier Didelot, Caroline Colijn, Jacco Wallinga
Whole-genome sequencing of pathogens from host samples becomes more and more routine during infectious disease outbreaks. These data provide information on possible transmission events which can be used for further epidemiologic analyses, such as identification of risk factors for infectivity and transmission. However, the relationship between transmission events and sequence data is obscured by uncertainty arising from four largely unobserved processes: transmission, case observation, within-host pathogen dynamics and mutation...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543438/humanized-mice-a-brief-overview-on-their-diverse-applications-in-biomedical-research
#5
REVIEW
Shigeyoshi Fujiwara
Model animals naturally differ from humans in various respects and results from the former are not directly translatable to the latter. One approach to address this issue is humanized mice that are defined as mice engrafted with functional human cells or tissues. In humanized mice, we can investigate the development and function of human cells or tissues (including their products encoded by human genes) in the in vivo context of a small animal. As such, humanized mouse models have played important roles that cannot be substituted by other animal models in various areas of biomedical research...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542578/illness-experiences-of-diabetes-in-the-context-of-malaria-in-settings-experiencing-double-burden-of-disease-in-southeastern-tanzania
#6
Emmy Metta, Ajay Bailey, Flora Kessy, Eveline Geubbels, Hinke Haisma
BACKGROUND: Tanzania is doubly burdened with both non-communicable and infectious diseases, but information on how Tanzanians experience the co-existence of these conditions is limited. Using Kleinman's eight prompting questions the study synthesizes explanatory models from patients to describe common illness experiences of diabetes in a rural setting where malaria is the predominant health threat. METHODS: We conducted 17 focus group discussions with adult members of the general community, diabetes patients, neighbours and relatives of diabetes patients to gain insight into shared experiences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542182/modelling-the-transmission-and-control-strategies-of-varicella-among-school-children-in-shenzhen-china
#7
Xiujuan Tang, Shi Zhao, Alice P Y Chiu, Hanwu Ma, Xu Xie, Shujiang Mei, Dongfeng Kong, Yanmin Qin, Zhigao Chen, Xin Wang, Daihai He
OBJECTIVES: Varicella (chickenpox) is a highly transmissible childhood disease. Between 2010 and 2015, it displayed two epidemic waves annually among school populations in Shenzhen, China. However, their transmission dynamics remain unclear and there is no school-based vaccination programme in Shenzhen to-date. In this study, we developed a mathematical model to compare a school-based vaccination intervention scenario with a baseline (i.e. no intervention) scenario. METHODS: Data on varicella reported cases were downloaded from the Infectious Disease Reporting Information Management System...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539723/antimicrobial-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-ethanol-extract-of-corylopsis-coreana-uyeki-flos
#8
Da-Eon Park, In-Soo Yoon, Jung-Eun Kim, Ji-Hye Seo, Jin-Cheol Yoo, Chun-Sik Bae, Chang-Dai Lee, Dae-Hun Park, Seung-Sik Cho
BACKGROUND: Corylopsis coreana Uyeki (Hamamelidaceae) is a medicinal plant cultivated in Northeast Asia. Previously, we have reported that an ethanol extract of Corylopsis coreana Uyeki flos (ECCF) contains four active compounds with antioxidant activity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial spectrum against infectious bacteria and anti-inflammatory effect of ECCF in a mouse model of acute local inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated using standard plate assay technique...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539663/modelling-farm-to-farm-disease-transmission-through-personnel-movements-from-visits-to-contacts-and-back
#9
Gianluigi Rossi, Rebecca L Smith, Stefano Pongolini, Luca Bolzoni
Infectious diseases in livestock can be transmitted through fomites: objects able to convey infectious agents. Between-farm spread of infections through fomites is mostly due to indirect contacts generated by on-farm visits of personnel that can carry pathogens on their clothes, equipment, or vehicles. However, data on farm visitors are often difficult to obtain because of the heterogeneity of their nature and privacy issues. Thus, models simulating disease spread between farms usually rely on strong assumptions about the contribution of indirect contacts on infection spread...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537465/sulfated-archaeal-glycolipid-archaeosomes-as-a-safe-effective-vaccine-adjuvant-for-induction-of-cell-mediated-immunity
#10
Michael J McCluskie, Lise Deschatelets, Lakshmi Krishnan
Archaeosomes are liposomal vesicles composed of ether glycerolipids unique to the domain of Archaea. Unlike conventional ester-linked liposomes, archaeosomes exhibit high stability and possess strong adjuvant and immunostimulatory properties making them an attractive vaccine delivery vehicle. Traditionally comprised of total polar lipids (TPL) or semi-synthetic phospho-glycerolipids of ether-linked isoprenoid phytanyl cores with varied glycol- and amino-head groups, archaeosomes can induce robust and long-lasting humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against antigenic cargo and provide protection in murine models of infectious disease and cancer...
May 24, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537262/induction-of-resident-memory-t-cells-enhances-the-efficacy-of-cancer-vaccine
#11
Mevyn Nizard, Hélène Roussel, Mariana O Diniz, Soumaya Karaki, Thi Tran, Thibault Voron, Estelle Dransart, Federico Sandoval, Marc Riquet, Bastien Rance, Elie Marcheteau, Elizabeth Fabre, Marion Mandavit, Magali Terme, Charlotte Blanc, Jean-Baptiste Escudie, Laure Gibault, Françoise Le Pimpec Barthes, Clemence Granier, Luis C S Ferreira, Cecile Badoual, Ludger Johannes, Eric Tartour
Tissue-resident memory T cells (Trm) represent a new subset of long-lived memory T cells that remain in tissue and do not recirculate. Although they are considered as early immune effectors in infectious diseases, their role in cancer immunosurveillance remains unknown. In a preclinical model of head and neck cancer, we show that intranasal vaccination with a mucosal vector, the B subunit of Shiga toxin, induces local Trm and inhibits tumour growth. As Trm do not recirculate, we demonstrate their crucial role in the efficacy of cancer vaccine with parabiosis experiments...
May 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536576/implication-of-apoptosis-for-the-pathogenesis-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection
#12
REVIEW
Débora Decote-Ricardo, Marise P Nunes, Alexandre Morrot, Celio G Freire-de-Lima
Apoptosis is induced during the course of immune response to different infectious agents, and the ultimate fate is the recognition and uptake of apoptotic bodies by neighboring cells or by professional phagocytes. Apoptotic cells expose specific ligands to a set of conserved receptors expressed on macrophage cellular surface, which are the main cells involved in the clearance of the dying cells. These scavenger receptors, besides triggering the production of anti-inflammatory factors, also block the production of inflammatory mediators by phagocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534949/regulatory-b-cells-in-infectious-disease-review
#13
You-Chao Dai, Jixin Zhong, Jun-Fa Xu
Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are a subset of B cells, which reportedly exert significant immunomodulatory effects through the production of interleukin (IL)‑10, IL‑35 and transforming growth factor‑β. Over the last decade, studies have indicated that Bregs function in autoimmune and allergic diseases through antigen‑specific and non‑specific immunoregulatory mechanisms. However, only a limited number of reviews have focused on the role of Bregs during infection, particularly their functions in intracellular infections...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533402/behavioral-and-neural-correlates-to-multisensory-detection-of-sick-humans
#14
Christina Regenbogen, John Axelsson, Julie Lasselin, Danja K Porada, Tina Sundelin, Moa G Peter, Mats Lekander, Johan N Lundström, Mats J Olsson
Throughout human evolution, infectious diseases have been a primary cause of death. Detection of subtle cues indicating sickness and avoidance of sick conspecifics would therefore be an adaptive way of coping with an environment fraught with pathogens. This study determines how humans perceive and integrate early cues of sickness in conspecifics sampled just hours after the induction of immune system activation, and the underlying neural mechanisms for this detection. In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, the immune system in 22 sample donors was transiently activated with an endotoxin injection [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531167/a-role-for-the-host-dna-damage-response-in-hepatitis-b-virus-cccdna-formation-and-beyond
#15
REVIEW
Sabrina Schreiner, Michael Nassal
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection puts more than 250 million people at a greatly increased risk to develop end-stage liver disease. Like all hepadnaviruses, HBV replicates via protein-primed reverse transcription of a pregenomic (pg) RNA, yielding an unusually structured, viral polymerase-linked relaxed-circular (RC) DNA as genome in infectious particles. Upon infection, RC-DNA is converted into nuclear covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA. Associating with cellular proteins into an episomal minichromosome, cccDNA acts as template for new viral RNAs, ensuring formation of progeny virions...
May 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528860/purifying-selection-and-concerted-evolution-of-rna-sensing-toll-like-receptors-in-migratory-waders
#16
Nynke Raven, Simeon Lisovski, Marcel Klaassen, Nathan Lo, Thomas Madsen, Simon Y W Ho, Beata Ujvari
Migratory birds encounter a broad range of pathogens during their journeys, making them ideal models for studying immune gene evolution. Despite the potential value of these species to immunoecology and disease epidemiology, previous studies have typically focused on their adaptive immune gene repertoires. In this study, we examined the evolution of innate immune genes in three long-distance migratory waders (order Charadriiformes). We analysed two parts of the extracellular domains of two Toll-like receptors (TLR3 and TLR7) involved in virus recognition in the Sanderling (Calidris alba), Red-necked Stint (Calidris ruficollis), and Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres)...
May 18, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528587/persistent-infections-support-maintenance-of-a-coronavirus-in-a-population-of-australian-bats-myotis-macropus
#17
J Jeong, C S Smith, A J Peel, R K Plowright, D H Kerlin, J McBroom, H McCallum
Understanding viral transmission dynamics within populations of reservoir hosts can facilitate greater knowledge of the spillover of emerging infectious diseases. While bat-borne viruses are of concern to public health, investigations into their dynamics have been limited by a lack of longitudinal data from individual bats. Here, we examine capture-mark-recapture (CMR) data from a species of Australian bat (Myotis macropus) infected with a putative novel Alphacoronavirus within a Bayesian framework. Then, we developed epidemic models to estimate the effect of persistently infectious individuals (which shed viruses for extensive periods) on the probability of viral maintenance within the study population...
May 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527664/a-new-hdv-mouse-model-identifies-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-protein-mavs-as-a-key-player-in-ifn-%C3%AE-induction
#18
Lester Suárez-Amarán, Carla Usai, Marianna Di Scala, Cristina Godoy, Yi Ni, Mirja Hommel, Laura Palomo, Víctor Segura, Cristina Olagüe, Africa Vales, Alicia Ruiz-Ripa, Maria Buti, Eduardo Salido, Jesús Prieto, Stephan Urban, Francisco Rodríguez-Frias, Rafael Aldabe, Gloria González-Aseguinolaza
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studying hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and developing new treatments is hampered by the limited availability of small animal models. Here a description of a robust mouse model of HDV infection that mimics several important characteristics of the human disease is presented. METHODS: HDV- and HBV-replication competent genomes were delivered to the mouse liver using adeno-associated viruses (AAV) (AAV-HDV and AAV-HBV). Viral load, antigen expression and genomes were quantified at different time points after AAV injection...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526790/post-epizootic-persistence-of-asymptomatic-mycoplasma-conjunctivae-infection-in-iberian-ibex
#19
Xavier Fernández-Aguilar, Oscar Cabezón, José Enrique Granados, Joachim Frey, Emmanuel Serrano, Roser Velarde, Francisco Javier Cano-Manuel, Gregorio Mentaberre, Arián Ráez-Bravo, Paulino Fandos, Jorge Ramón López-Olvera
The susceptibility of Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) to Mycoplasma conjunctivae ocular infection and the changes in their interaction over time were studied in terms of clinical outcome, molecular detection and IgG immune response in a captive population that underwent a severe infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) outbreak. Mycoplasma conjunctivae was detected for the first time in the Iberian ibexes coinciding with the IKC outbreak. Its prevalence had a decreasing trend in 2013 that was consistent with the clinical resolution (August 35...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526306/reliability-of-n95-respirators-for-respiratory-protection-before-during-and-after-nursing-procedures
#20
Lorna K P Suen, Lin Yang, Suki S K Ho, Keith H K Fung, Maureen V Boost, Cynthia S T Wu, Cypher H Au-Yeung, Margaret O'Donoghue
BACKGROUND: The adequate fit of an N95 respirator is important for health care workers to reduce the transmission of airborne infectious diseases in the clinical setting. This study aimed to evaluate whether adequately sealed N95 respirators may provide consistent protection for the wearer while performing nursing procedures. METHODS: Participants were a group of nursing students (N = 120). The best fitting respirator for these participants was identified from the 3 common models, 1860, 1860S, and 1870+ (3M), using the quantitative fit test (QNFT) method...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
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