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Infectious diseases modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738456/-cost-effectiveness-of-community-based-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-china
#1
S X Zhang, P C Yang, Y L Cai, Y Lin, Y H Zou
Objective: Since eliminating hepatitis B in China would need considerable public health resources, the economics problem of the strategy of community-based antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) has become an important issue. The cost-effectiveness and affordability of the strategy were evaluated in this study. Methods: According to the advocacy on eliminating hepatitis B by WHO and the comprehensive protocol of community based prevention of major infectious diseases and the guideline for CHB prevention and treatment in China, the decision analytic Markov model was constructed with the parameters from national surveys or Meta-analysis...
July 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738137/public-health-and-economic-consequences-of-vaccine-hesitancy-for-measles-in-the-united-states
#2
Nathan C Lo, Peter J Hotez
Importance: Routine childhood vaccination is declining in some regions of the United States due to vaccine hesitancy, which risks the resurgence of many infectious diseases with public health and economic consequences. There are ongoing policy debates on the state and national level, including legislation around nonmedical (personal-belief) exemptions for childhood vaccination and possibly a special government commission on vaccine safety, which may affect vaccine coverage. Objective: To estimate the number of measles cases in US children and the associated economic costs under scenarios of different levels of vaccine hesitancy, using the case example of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination and measles...
July 24, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736507/national-mortality-burden-due-to-communicable-non-communicable-and-other-diseases-in-ethiopia-1990-2015-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#3
Awoke Misganaw, Tilahun N Haregu, Kebede Deribe, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Amare Deribew, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw Ferede Abera, Molla Gedefaw, Muluken Dessalegn, Yihunie Lakew, Tolesa Bekele, Mesoud Mohammed, Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw, Solomon Abrha Damtew, Kristopher J Krohn, Tom Achoki, Jed Blore, Yibeltal Assefa, Mohsen Naghavi
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia lacks a complete vital registration system that would assist in measuring disease burden and risk factors. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) estimates to describe the mortality burden from communicable, non-communicable, and other diseases in Ethiopia over the last 25 years. METHODS: GBD 2015 mainly used cause of death ensemble modeling to measure causes of death by age, sex, and year for 195 countries...
2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733125/modulation-of-inflammatory-and-immune-responses-by-vitamin-d
#4
REVIEW
Francesco Colotta, Birger Jansson, Fabrizio Bonelli
Vitamin D (VitD) is a prohormone most noted for the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in circulation, and thus of bone metabolism. Inflammatory and immune cells not only convert inactive VitD metabolites into calcitriol, the active form of VitD, but also express the nuclear receptor of VitD that modulates differentiation, activation and proliferation of these cells. In vitro, calcitriol upregulates different anti-inflammatory pathways and downregulates molecules that activate immune and inflammatory cells...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732536/national-mortality-burden-due-to-communicable-non-communicable-and-other-diseases-in-ethiopia-1990-2015-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#5
Awoke Misganaw, Tilahun N Haregu, Kebede Deribe, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Amare Deribew, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw Ferede Abera, Molla Gedefaw, Muluken Dessalegn, Yihunie Lakew, Tolesa Bekele, Mesoud Mohammed, Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw, Solomon Abrha Damtew, Kristopher J Krohn, Tom Achoki, Jed Blore, Yibeltal Assefa, Mohsen Naghavi
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia lacks a complete vital registration system that would assist in measuring disease burden and risk factors. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) estimates to describe the mortality burden from communicable, non-communicable, and other diseases in Ethiopia over the last 25 years. METHODS: GBD 2015 mainly used cause of death ensemble modeling to measure causes of death by age, sex, and year for 195 countries...
July 21, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729702/structure-of-general-population-antibody-titer-distributions-to-influenza-a-virus
#6
Nguyen Thi Duy Nhat, Stacy Todd, Erwin de Bruin, Tran Thi Nhu Thao, Nguyen Ha Thao Vy, Tran Minh Quan, Dao Nguyen Vinh, Janko van Beek, Pham Hong Anh, Ha Minh Lam, Nguyen Thanh Hung, Nguyen Thi Le Thanh, Huynh Le Anh Huy, Vo Thi Hong Ha, Stephen Baker, Guy E Thwaites, Nguyen Thi Nam Lien, Tran Thi Kim Hong, Jeremy Farrar, Cameron P Simmons, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Marion Koopmans, Maciej F Boni
Seroepidemiological studies aim to understand population-level exposure and immunity to infectious diseases. Their results are normally presented as binary outcomes describing the presence or absence of pathogen-specific antibody, despite the fact that many assays measure continuous quantities. A population's natural distribution of antibody titers to an endemic infectious disease may include information on multiple serological states - naiveté, recent infection, non-recent infection, childhood infection - depending on the disease in question and the acquisition and waning patterns of immunity...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729558/early-life-disruption-of-amphibian-microbiota-decreases-later-life-resistance-to-parasites
#7
Sarah A Knutie, Christina L Wilkinson, Kevin D Kohl, Jason R Rohr
Changes in the early-life microbiota of hosts might affect infectious disease risk throughout life, if such disruptions during formative times alter immune system development. Here, we test whether an early-life disruption of host-associated microbiota affects later-life resistance to infections by manipulating the microbiota of tadpoles and challenging them with parasitic gut worms as adults. We find that tadpole bacterial diversity is negatively correlated with parasite establishment in adult frogs: adult frogs that had reduced bacterial diversity as tadpoles have three times more worms than adults without their microbiota manipulated as tadpoles...
July 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728607/zika-virus-transmission-to-mouse-ear-by-mosquito-bite-a-laboratory-model-that-replicates-the-natural-transmission-process
#8
Nagila Francinete Costa Secundino, Barbara Aparecida Chaves, Alessandra Silva Orfano, Karine Renata Dias Silveira, Nilton Barnabe Rodrigues, Thais Bonifácio Campolina, Rafael Nacif-Pimenta, Luiz Eduardo Martinez Villegas, Breno Melo Silva, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda, Douglas Eric Norris, Paulo Filemon Paolucci Pimenta
BACKGROUND: Zika disease has transformed into a serious global health problem due to the rapid spread of the arbovirus and alarming severity including congenital complications, microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Zika virus (ZIKV) is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of an infective mosquito, with Aedes aegypti being the main vector. METHODS: We successfully developed a ZIKV experimental transmission model by single infectious Ae. aegypti bite to a laboratory mouse using circulating Brazilian strains of both arbovirus and vector...
July 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728590/chikungunya-virus-infection-in-cynomolgus-macaques-following-intradermal-and-aerosol-exposure
#9
Chris M Cirimotich, Eric M Vela, Jennifer Garver, Roy E Barnewall, Brian D Miller, Gabriel T Meister, James V Rogers
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted via mosquito bite and potentially by aerosol, causing chikungunya fever and arthritic disease in humans. There are currently no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapeutics to protect against CHIKV infection in humans. Animal models recapitulating human disease, especially for transmission by aerosol, are needed for licensure of such medical countermeasures. METHODS: Cynomolgus macaques (CMs) were challenged by intradermal (ID) inoculation or exposure to an aerosol containing CHIKV Ross strain at different target infectious doses (10(3)-10(7) plaque forming units (PFU))...
July 20, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728309/escherichia-coli-outer-membrane-protein-f-ompf-an-immunogenic-protein-induces-cross-reactive-antibodies-against-escherichia-coli-and-shigella
#10
Xiao Wang, Da Teng, Qingfeng Guan, Ruoyu Mao, Ya Hao, Xiumin Wang, Junhu Yao, Jianhua Wang
Diarrhea caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the most serious infectious diseases in humans and animals. Due to antibiotics resistance and the lack of efficient vaccine, more attention should be paid to find potential versatile vaccine candidates to prevent diseases. In this study, the sequence homology analysis indicated that OmpF from E. coli CVCC 1515 shares a high identity (90-100%) with about half of the E. coli (46.7%) and Shigella (52.8%) strains. Then the recombinant OmpF was supposed to be developed as a versatile vaccine to prevent E...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727164/the-innate-host-response-in-caries-and-periodontitis
#11
Joerg Meyle, Henrik Dommisch, Sabine Groeger, Rodrigo A Giacaman, Massimo Costalonga, Mark Herzberg
Innate immunity rapidly defends the host against infectious insults. These reactions are of limited specificity and exhaust without providing long-term protection. Functional fluids and effector molecules contribute to the defence against infectious agents, drive the immune response, and direct the cellular players. AIM: To review the literature and present a summary of current knowledge about the function of tissues, cellular players and soluble mediators of innate immunity relevant to caries and periodontitis...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726770/a-model-for-the-regulation-of-follicular-dendritic-cells-predicts-invariant-reciprocal-time-decay-of-post-vaccine-antibody-response
#12
Anthony Almudevar
Follicular dendritic cells (FDC) play a crucial role in the regulation of humoral immunity. They are believed to be responsible for long-term persistence of antibody, due to their role in antibody response induction and their ability to retain antigen in immunogenic form for long periods. In this article, a regulatory control model is proposed which links persistence of humoral immunity with cellular processes associated with FDCs. The argument is comprised of three elements. The first is a literature review of population-level studies of post-vaccination antibody persistence...
July 20, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726467/the-importance-of-the-neighborhood-in-the-2014-ebola-outbreak-in-the-united-states-distress-worry-and-functioning
#13
Rupa Jose, E Alison Holman, Roxane Cohen Silver
OBJECTIVE: Ebola media coverage directed public attention to potential disease carriers: residents or travelers from West Africa. We investigated the role of neighborhood population factors (i.e., the concentration of West African foreigners, non-West African foreigners, non-Hispanic Blacks) on individual responses to the Ebola outbreak in the United States. The role of these community-level factors in emotional responses to this public health crisis is poorly understood. METHOD: Demographic factors, mental health, and stressful event history, collected as part of an ongoing longitudinal study of residents from 2 metropolitan communities (New York City and Boston, total N = 1,346), were combined with neighborhood data from the U...
July 20, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726454/attitude-roots-and-jiu-jitsu-persuasion-understanding-and-overcoming-the-motivated-rejection-of-science
#14
Matthew J Hornsey, Kelly S Fielding
There is a worryingly large chasm between scientific consensus and popular opinion. Roughly one third of Americans are skeptical that humans are primarily responsible for climate change; rates of some infectious diseases are climbing in the face of anti-immunization beliefs; and significant numbers of the population worldwide are antievolution creationists. It is easy to assume that resistance to an evidence-based message is a result of ignorance or failure to grasp evidence (the "deficit model" of science communication)...
July 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726033/recommendations-for-the-inclusion-of-fabry-disease-as-a-rare-febrile-condition-in-existing-algorithms-for-fever-of-unknown-origin
#15
Raffaele Manna, Roberto Cauda, Sandro Feriozzi, Giovanni Gambaro, Antonio Gasbarrini, Didier Lacombe, Avi Livneh, Alberto Martini, Huri Ozdogan, Antonio Pisani, Eleonora Riccio, Elena Verrecchia, Lorenzo Dagna
Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is a rather rare clinical syndrome representing a major diagnostic challenge. The occurrence of more than three febrile attacks with fever-free intervals of variable duration during 6 months of observation has recently been proposed as a subcategory of FUO, Recurrent FUO (RFUO). A substantial number of patients with RFUO have auto-inflammatory genetic fevers, but many patients remain undiagnosed. We hypothesize that this undiagnosed subgroup may be comprised of, at least in part, a number of rare genetic febrile diseases such as Fabry disease...
July 19, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725219/gut-microbiota-co-microevolution-with-selection-for-host-humoral-immunity
#16
Lingyu Yang, Shuyun Liu, Jinmei Ding, Ronghua Dai, Chuan He, Ke Xu, Christa F Honaker, Yan Zhang, Paul Siegel, He Meng
To explore coevolution between the gut microbiota and the humoral immune system of the host, we used chickens as the model organism. The host populations were two lines (HAS and LAS) developed from a common founder that had undergone 40 generations of divergent selection for antibody titers to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and two relaxed sublines (HAR and LAR). Analysis revealed that microevolution of host humoral immunity contributed to the composition of gut microbiota at the taxa level. Relaxing selection enriched some microorganisms whose functions were opposite to host immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724483/using-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-infectious-disease-research
#17
Mitchell V Palmer, Rebecca J Cox, W Ray Waters, Tyler C Thacker, Diana L Whipple
Between 1940 and 2004, more than 335 emerging infectious disease events were reported in the scientific literature. The majority (60%) of these events involved zoonoses, most of which (72%) were of wildlife origin or had an epidemiologically important wildlife host. Because this trend of increasing emerging diseases likely will continue, understanding the pathogenesis, transmission, and diagnosis of these diseases in the relevant wildlife host is paramount. Achieving this goal often requires using wild animals as research subjects, which are vastly different from the traditional livestock or laboratory animals used by most universities and institutions...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721471/evaluations-of-interventions-using-mathematical-models-with-exponential-and-non-exponential-distributions-for-disease-stages-the-case-of-ebola
#18
Xiaojing Wang, Yangyang Shi, Zhilan Feng, Jingan Cui
Many mathematical models for the disease transmission dynamics of Ebola have been developed and studied, particularly during and after the 2014 outbreak in West Africa. Most of these models are systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). One of the common assumptions made in these ODE models is that the duration of disease stages, such as latent and infectious periods, follows an exponential distribution. Gamma distributions have also been used in some of these models. It has been demonstrated that, when the models are used to evaluate disease control strategies such as quarantine or isolation, the models with exponential and Gamma distribution assumptions may generate contradictory results (Feng et al...
July 18, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720886/spatio-temporal-variations-of-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-fevers-in-zhejiang-province-china-from-2005-to-2015
#19
Hua Gu, Wenjie Fan, Kui Liu, Shuwen Qin, Xiuyang Li, Jianmin Jiang, Enfu Chen, Yibiao Zhou, Qingwu Jiang
Typhoid and paratyphoid are two common enteric infectious diseases with serious gastrointestinal symptoms. Data was collected of the registered cases in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2015. The epidemiological characteristics were investigated and high-risk regions were detected with descriptive epidemiological methods and in-depth spatio-temporal statistics. A sharp decline in the incidences of both diseases was observed. The seasonal patterns were identified with typhoid and paratyphoid, one in summer from May to September was observed from 2005 to 2010 and the other lesser one in spring from January to March only observed from 2005 to 2007...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720770/multivariate-time-series-analysis-on-the-dynamic-relationship-between-class-b-notifiable-diseases-and-gross-domestic-product-gdp-in-china
#20
Tao Zhang, Fei Yin, Ting Zhou, Xing-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Song Li
The surveillance of infectious diseases is of great importance for disease control and prevention, and more attention should be paid to the Class B notifiable diseases in China. Meanwhile, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the annual growth of Chinese gross domestic product (GDP) would decelerate below 7% after many years of soaring. Under such circumstances, this study aimed to answer what will happen to the incidence rates of infectious diseases in China if Chinese GDP growth remained below 7% in the next five years...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
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