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Infectious diseases modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098883/developmental-expression-of-toll%C3%A2-like-receptors-in-the-guinea-pig-lung
#1
Lingjie Ma, Jiali Yang, Li Yang, Juan Shi, Jing Xue, Yong Li, Xiaoming Liu
The guinea pig is a useful model for investigating infectious and non‑infectious lung diseases due to the sensitivity of its respiratory system and susceptibility to infectious agents. Toll‑like receptors (TLRs) are important components of the innate immune response and are critical for lung immune function. In the present study, the differentiation of epithelial cells in the guinea pig lung was examined during gestation by studying anatomic morphology and the major epithelial cell types using cell type‑specific markers...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098813/reverse-vaccinology-an-approach-for-identifying-leptospiral-vaccine-candidates
#2
REVIEW
Odir A Dellagostin, André A Grassmann, Caroline Rizzi, Rodrigo A Schuch, Sérgio Jorge, Thais L Oliveira, Alan J A McBride, Daiane D Hartwig
Leptospirosis is a major public health problem with an incidence of over one million human cases each year. It is a globally distributed, zoonotic disease and is associated with significant economic losses in farm animals. Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp. that can infect a wide range of domestic and wild animals. Given the inability to control the cycle of transmission among animals and humans, there is an urgent demand for a new vaccine. Inactivated whole-cell vaccines (bacterins) are routinely used in livestock and domestic animals, however, protection is serovar-restricted and short-term only...
January 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097052/population-dynamics-of-epidemic-and-endemic-states-of-drug-resistance-emergence-in-infectious-diseases
#3
Diána Knipl, Gergely Röst, Seyed M Moghadas
The emergence and spread of drug-resistance during treatment of many infectious diseases continue to degrade our ability to control and mitigate infection outcomes using therapeutic measures. While the coverage and efficacy of treatment remain key factors in the population dynamics of resistance, the timing for the start of the treatment in infectious individuals can significantly influence such dynamics. We developed a between-host disease transmission model to investigate the short-term (epidemic) and long-term (endemic) states of infections caused by two competing pathogen subtypes, namely the wild-type and resistant-type, when the probability of developing resistance is a function of delay in start of the treatment...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095513/changes-in-circulating-b-cell-subsets-associated-with-aging-and-acute-siv-infection-in-rhesus-macaques
#4
W L William Chang, Denise F Gonzalez, Hung T Kieu, Luis D Castillo, Ilhem Messaoudi, Xiaoying Shen, Georgia D Tomaras, Barbara L Shacklett, Peter A Barry, Ellen E Sparger
Aging and certain viral infections can negatively impact humoral responses in humans. To further develop the nonhuman primate (NHP) model for investigating B cell dynamics in human aging and infectious disease, a flow cytometric panel was developed to characterize circulating rhesus B cell subsets. Significant differences between human and macaque B cells included the proportions of cells within IgD+ and switched memory populations and a prominent CD21-CD27+ unswitched memory population detected only in macaques...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095405/defining-the-risk-of-zika-and-chikungunya-virus-transmission-in-human-population-centers-of-the-eastern-united-states
#5
Carrie A Manore, Richard S Ostfeld, Folashade B Agusto, Holly Gaff, Shannon L LaDeau
The recent spread of mosquito-transmitted viruses and associated disease to the Americas motivates a new, data-driven evaluation of risk in temperate population centers. Temperate regions are generally expected to pose low risk for significant mosquito-borne disease; however, the spread of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) across densely populated urban areas has established a new landscape of risk. We use a model informed by field data to assess the conditions likely to facilitate local transmission of chikungunya and Zika viruses from an infected traveler to Ae...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094206/hepatocyte-growth-factor-in-physiology-and-infectious-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Ryu Imamura, Kunio Matsumoto
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine composed of an α-chain and a β-chain, and these chains contain four kringle domains and a serine protease-like structure, respectively. The receptor for HGF was identified as the c-met proto-oncogene product of transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase. HGF-induced signaling through the receptor Met provokes dynamic biological responses that support morphogenesis, regeneration, and the survival of various cells and tissues, which includes hepatocytes, renal tubular cells, and neurons...
January 13, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091971/mate-limitation-in-fungal-plant-parasites-can-lead-to-cyclic-epidemics-in-perennial-host-populations
#7
Virginie Ravigné, Valérie Lemesle, Alicia Walter, Ludovic Mailleret, Frédéric M Hamelin
Fungal plant parasites represent a growing concern for biodiversity and food security. Most ascomycete species are capable of producing different types of infectious spores both asexually and sexually. Yet the contributions of both types of spores to epidemiological dynamics have still to been fully researched. Here we studied the effect of mate limitation in parasites which perform both sexual and asexual reproduction in the same host. Since mate limitation implies positive density dependence at low population density, we modeled the dynamics of such species with both density-dependent (sexual) and density-independent (asexual) transmission rates...
January 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091706/microclimates-might-limit-indirect-spillover-of-the-bat-borne-zoonotic-hendra-virus
#8
Gerardo Martin, Rebecca J Webb, Carla Chen, Raina K Plowright, Lee F Skerratt
Infectious diseases are transmitted when susceptible hosts are exposed to pathogen particles that can replicate within them. Among factors that limit transmission, the environment is particularly important for indirectly transmitted parasites. To try and assess a pathogens' ability to be transmitted through the environment and mitigate risk, we need to quantify its decay where transmission occurs in space such as the microclimate harbouring the pathogen. Hendra virus, a Henipavirus from Australian Pteropid bats, spills-over to horses and humans, causing high mortality...
January 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090783/probing-the-druggability-of-membrane-bound-rab5-by-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#9
Eileen Edler, Matthias Stein
Rab5 is a small GTPase and a key regulator in early endosomal trafficking. Rab5 and its effectors are involved in a large number of infectious diseases and certain types of cancer. We performed µs atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of inactive and active full-length Rab5 anchored to a complex model bilayer with composition of the early endosome membrane. Direct interactions between the Rab5 G domain and the bilayer were observed. We found two dominant nucleotide-dependent orientations characterised by a different accessibility of the switch regions...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089098/toward-a-collaborative-model-of-pandemic-preparedness-and-response-taiwan-s-changing-approach-to-pandemics
#10
REVIEW
Jonathan Schwartz, Muh-Yong Yen
BACKGROUND: Over time, as newly emerging infectious diseases have become increasingly common and more easily spread, it has become clear that traditional response mechanisms have proven inadequate to the task of prevention and control. PURPOSE: To explore whether enhanced cooperation with local government and community institutions can effectively supplement traditional state-centric public health epidemic responses. METHODS: Drawing on Taiwan as a case study, we assess the role of the whole-of-society approach to epidemic response as arises from the collaborative governance literature...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088623/a-novel-role-of-topical-iodine-in-skin-activation-of-the-nrf2-pathway
#11
Maya Ben-Yehuda Greenwald, Marina Frušić-Zlotkin, Yoram Soroka, Shmuel Ben-Sasson, Havazelet Bianco-Peled, Ron Kohen
For a long time iodine has been used as an active dermal agent in the treatment of inflammatory, immune-mediated and infectious diseases. Moreover, topical iodine application has been reported to provide protection against sulfur-mustard-induced skin lesions, heat-induced and acid-induced skin burns in both haired guinea-pigs and mouse ear swelling models. However, the exact mechanism of action underlying these benefits of iodine has not yet been elucidated. In the current study, a novel mechanism of action by which iodine provides skin protection and relief, based on its electrophilic nature, is suggested...
January 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088124/nipah-virus-transmission-of-a-zoonotic-paramyxovirus
#12
REVIEW
Bronwyn Anne Clayton
Nipah virus is a recently-recognised, zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe disease and high fatality rates in people. Outbreaks have occurred in Malaysia, Singapore, India and Bangladesh, and a putative Nipah virus was also recently associated with human disease in the Philippines. Worryingly, human-to-human transmission is common in Bangladesh, where outbreaks occur with near-annual frequency. Onward human transmission of Nipah virus in Bangladesh is associated with close contact with clinically-unwell patients or their infectious secretions...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087950/amyloid-prions-in-fungi
#13
Sven J Saupe, Daniel F Jarosz, Heather L True
Prions are infectious protein polymers that have been found to cause fatal diseases in mammals. Prions have also been identified in fungi (yeast and filamentous fungi), where they behave as cytoplasmic non-Mendelian genetic elements. Fungal prions correspond in most cases to fibrillary β-sheet-rich protein aggregates termed amyloids. Fungal prion models and, in particular, yeast prions were instrumental in the description of fundamental aspects of prion structure and propagation. These models established the "protein-only" nature of prions, the physical basis of strain variation, and the role of a variety of chaperones in prion propagation and amyloid aggregate handling...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086922/transcriptional-profiles-in-bursal-b-lymphoid-dt40-cells-infected-with-very-virulent-infectious-bursal-disease-virus
#14
Rong Quan, Shanshan Zhu, Li Wei, Jing Wang, Xu Yan, Zixuan Li, Jue Liu
BACKGROUND: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes a highly contagious, immunosuppressive disease in chickens. The virus mainly infects immature B lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius (BF). Chicken B cell line DT40, an avian leukosis virus-induced B cell line, supports very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) infection in vitro and thereby serves as a good model for investigating the infection and pathogenesis of this virus. However, a transcriptome-wide understanding of the interaction between vvIBDV and B cells has not yet been achieved...
January 13, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081372/role-of-hyperplasia-of-gingival-lymphatics-in-periodontal-inflammation
#15
P Papadakou, A Bletsa, M A Yassin, T V Karlsen, H Wiig, E Berggreen
Lymphatic vessels are important for maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis and afferent antigen transport. In chronic inflammation, lymphangiogenesis takes place and is characterized by lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation and lymphatic hyperplasia. Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) is the main known lymphangiogenic growth factor, and its expression is increased in periodontitis, a common chronic infectious disease that results in tissue destruction and alveolar bone loss. The role of lymphangiogenesis during development of periodontitis is unknown...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081120/epidemiology-of-chikungunya-virus-outbreaks-in-guadeloupe-and-martinique-2014-an-observational-study-in-volunteer-blood-donors
#16
Pierre Gallian, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Pascale Richard, Françoise Maire, Olivier Flusin, Rachid Djoudi, Jacques Chiaroni, Remi Charrel, Pierre Tiberghien, Xavier de Lamballerie
BACKGROUND: During Dec-2013, a chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak was first detected in the French-West Indies. Subsequently, the virus dispersed to other Caribbean islands, continental America and many islands in the Pacific Ocean. Previous estimates of the attack rate were based on declaration of clinically suspected cases. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Individual testing for CHIKV RNA of all (n = 16,386) blood donations between Feb-24th 2014 and Jan-31st 2015 identified 0·36% and 0·42% of positives in Guadeloupe and Martinique, respectively...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080980/climate-forcing-of-an-emerging-pathogenic-fungus-across-a-montane-multi-host-community
#17
Frances C Clare, Julia B Halder, Olivia Daniel, Jon Bielby, Mikhail A Semenov, Thibaut Jombart, Adeline Loyau, Dirk S Schmeller, Andrew A Cunningham, Marcus Rowcliffe, Trenton W J Garner, Jaime Bosch, Matthew C Fisher
Changes in the timings of seasonality as a result of anthropogenic climate change are predicted to occur over the coming decades. While this is expected to have widespread impacts on the dynamics of infectious disease through environmental forcing, empirical data are lacking. Here, we investigated whether seasonality, specifically the timing of spring ice-thaw, affected susceptibility to infection by the emerging pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) across a montane community of amphibians that are suffering declines and extirpations as a consequence of this infection...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078989/a-comprehensive-review-of-mtor-inhibiting-pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-non-infectious-uveitis
#18
Joshua Blair, Robert Barry, David J Moore, Alastair K Denniston
BACKGROUND: Non-infectious uveitis is a sight-threatening inflammatory disease that often necessitates prolonged use of high-dose corticosteroids, resulting in significant systemic side effects. There is a need for efficacious steroid-sparing immunomodulatory therapy for these patients, and the mTOR inhibitors (sirolimus and everolimus) may be contenders for this role. METHODS: A comprehensive review of preclinical and clinical research on mTOR inhibitors for non-infectious uveitis was performed...
January 11, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078341/the-role-of-uv-radiation-and-vitamin-d-in-the-seasonality-and-outcomes-of-infectious-disease
#19
Abhimanyu, Anna K Coussens
The seasonality of infectious disease outbreaks suggests that environmental conditions have a significant effect on disease risk. One of the major environmental factors that can affect this is solar radiation, primarily acting through ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and its subsequent control of vitamin D production. Here we show how UVR and vitamin D, which are modified by latitude and season, can affect host and pathogen fitness and relate them to the outcomes of bacterial, viral and vector-borne infections...
January 12, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077263/learning-in-mosquito-larvae-aedes-aegypti-habituation-to-a-visual-danger-signal
#20
Hugo Baglan, Claudio Lazzari, Fernando Guerrieri
In spite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti being a vector of several infectious diseases, a limited number of studies has been undertaken on learning in this species. Moreover, larval stages have been neglected as model organisms, although they are active, aquatic and perform stereotyped behavioural responses, e.g. the escape response when disturbed. To study the learning abilities of mosquito larvae, we focused on habituation, a form of non-associative learning widely studied in vertebrates and invertebrates. Habituation was defined as the progressive and reversible decrease in response to a reiterative stimulus...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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