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Infectious diseases modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231269/a-mouse-model-of-paralytic-myelitis-caused-by-enterovirus-d68
#1
Alison M Hixon, Guixia Yu, J Smith Leser, Shigeo Yagi, Penny Clarke, Charles Y Chiu, Kenneth L Tyler
In 2014, the United States experienced an epidemic of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) cases in children coincident with a nationwide outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) respiratory disease. Up to half of the 2014 AFM patients had EV-D68 RNA detected by RT-PCR in their respiratory secretions, although EV-D68 was only detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from one 2014 AFM patient. Given previously described molecular and epidemiologic associations between EV-D68 and AFM, we sought to develop an animal model by screening seven EV-D68 strains for the ability to induce neurological disease in neonatal mice...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229466/insight-into-calculated-risk-an-application-to-the-prioritization-of-emerging-infectious-diseases-for-blood-transfusion-safety
#2
R E J Neslo, W Oei, M P Janssen
Increasing identification of transmissions of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) by blood transfusion raised the question which of these EIDs poses the highest risk to blood safety. For a number of the EIDs that are perceived to be a threat to blood safety, evidence on actual disease or transmission characteristics is lacking, which might render measures against such EIDs disputable. On the other hand, the fact that we call them "emerging" implies almost by definition that we are uncertain about at least some of their characteristics...
February 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228144/incorporating-one-health-into-medical-education
#3
EDITORIAL
Peter M Rabinowitz, Barbara J Natterson-Horowitz, Laura H Kahn, Richard Kock, Marguerite Pappaioanou
One Health is an emerging concept that stresses the linkages between human, animal, and environmental health, as well as the need for interdisciplinary communication and collaboration to address health issues including emerging zoonotic diseases, climate change impacts, and the human-animal bond. It promotes complex problem solving using a systems framework that considers interactions between humans, animals, and their shared environment. While many medical educators may not yet be familiar with the concept, the One Health approach has been endorsed by a number of major medical and public health organizations and is beginning to be implemented in a number of medical schools...
February 23, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225907/characterisation-of-iunh-gene-knockout-strain-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#4
Anne Drumond Villela, Valnês da Silva Rodrigues, Antônio Frederico Michel Pinto, Priscila Lamb Wink, Zilpa Adriana Sánchez-Quitian, Guilherme Oliveira Petersen, Maria Martha Campos, Luiz Augusto Basso, Diógenes Santiago Santos
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused mainly by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The better understanding of important metabolic pathways from M. tuberculosis can contribute to the development of novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies to combat TB. Nucleoside hydrolase (MtIAGU-NH), encoded by iunH gene (Rv3393), is an enzyme from purine salvage pathway in M. tuberculosis. MtIAGU-NH accepts inosine, adenosine, guanosine, and uridine as substrates, which may point to a pivotal metabolic role...
March 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223936/two-pore-channels-catalyzers-of-endolysosomal-transport-and-function
#5
REVIEW
Christian Grimm, Cheng-Chang Chen, Christian Wahl-Schott, Martin Biel
Two-pore channels (TPCs) have recently emerged as a novel class of non-selective cation channels in the endolysosomal system. There are two members in the human genome, TPC1 and TPC2. Studies with TPC knockout and knockdown models have revealed that these channels participate in the regulation of multiple endolysosomal trafficking pathways which when dysregulated can lead to or influence the development of a range of different diseases such as lysosomal storage, metabolic, or infectious diseases. TPCs have been demonstrated to be activated by different endogenous stimuli, PI(3,5)P2 and NAADP, and ATP has been found to block TPC activation via mTOR...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223068/parasite-control-and-skeletal-myositis-in-trypanosoma-cruzi-infected-and-exercised-rats
#6
Rômulo D Novaes, Reggiani V Gonçalves, Arlete R Penitente, Marli C Cupertino, Izabel R S C Maldonado, André Talvani, Antônio J Natali
Non-pharmacological strategies have been rarely described in the treatment of infectious diseases. Although exercise training has been recently incorporated in the clinical management of Chagas disease, the rationale basis that supports this indication is poorly understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of an aerobic exercise on the parasitism, inflammation and oxidative tissue damage in a murine model of Trypanosoma cruzi-induced skeletal myositis. Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: trained not infected (TNI) and infected (TI), sedentary not infected (SNI) and infected (SI)...
February 20, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222841/phenotypic-and-functional-characterization-of-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-from-various-age-and-sex-specific-groups-of-owl-monkeys-aotus-nancymaae
#7
Pramod N Nehete, Bharti P Nehete, Sriram Chitta, Lawrence E Williams, Christian R Abee
Owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) are New World NHP that serve an important role in vaccine development and as a model for human disease conditions such as malaria. Despite the past contributions of this animal model, limited information is available about the phenotype and functional properties of peripheral blood lymphocytes in reference to sex and age. Using a panel of human antibodies and a set of standardized human immune assays, we identified and characterized various peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets, evaluated the immune functions of T cells, and analyzed cytokines relative to sex and age in healthy owl monkeys...
February 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222802/counts-of-bovine-monocyte-subsets-prior-to-calving-are-predictive-for-postpartum-occurrence-of-mastitis-and-metritis
#8
Brianna Pomeroy, Anja Sipka, Jamal Hussen, Melanie Eger, Ynte Schukken, Hans-Joachim Schuberth
The heightened susceptibility to infectious diseases in postpartum dairy cows is often attributed to immune dysfunction associated with the transition period. However, the cell populations involved in this immune dysfunction and the dynamics between those populations are not well defined. Monocytes play a crucial role in governing initial immune response in bacterial infections. Bovine monocytes are subdivided in classical (CD14(+)/CD16(-)), intermediate (CD14(+)/CD16(+)) and non-classical monocytes (CD14(-)/CD16(+)) with distinct phenotypic and functional differences...
February 21, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221900/mental-health-disorders-associated-with-foodborne-pathogens
#9
Declan J Bolton, Lucy J Robertson
Human infections with foodborne pathogenic organisms are relatively well described in terms of their overt physical symptoms, such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, fever, and associated sequelae. Indeed, some of these are key for diagnosis and treatment, although it should be noted that, for some foodborne pathogens, the physical symptoms might be more diffuse, particularly those associated with some of the foodborne parasites. In contrast, the impact of these pathogens on mental health is less well described, and symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and general malaise are usually ignored when foodborne infections are recorded...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217934/population-dynamics-of-wild-rodents-induce-stochastic-fadeouts-of-a-zoonotic-pathogen
#10
Giorgio Guzzetta, Valentina Tagliapietra, Sarah E Perkins, Heidi C Hauffe, Piero Poletti, Stefano Merler, Annapaola Rizzoli
Stochastic processes play an important role in the infectious disease dynamics of wildlife, especially in species subject to large population oscillations. Here we study the case of a free ranging population of yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) in northern Italy, where circulation of Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus (DOBV) has been detected intermittently since 2001, until an outbreak emerged in 2010. We analyzed the transmission dynamics of the recent outbreak using a computational model that accounts for seasonal changes of the host population and territorial behavior...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216442/a-seven-day-course-of-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-may-be-as-effective-as-a-seven-day-course-of-ciprofloxacin-for-the-treatment-of-pyelonephritis
#11
Miriam T Fox, Michael T Melia, Rebecca G Same, Anna T Conley, Pranita D Tamma
INTRODUCTION: The Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines recommend either 14 days of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) or 7 days of ciprofloxacin for the treatment of pyelonephritis. Antibiotic courses of 7 days of TMP-SMX versus 7 days of ciprofloxacin for pyelonephritis have not been previously compared. We evaluated the odds of a subsequent, symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) for women with E. coli pyelonephritis receiving a 7-day course of TMP-SMX versus a 7-day course of ciprofloxacin...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216237/development-of-an-anti-ferret-cd4-monoclonal-antibody-for-the-characterisation-of-ferret-t-lymphocytes
#12
Daniel S Layton, Xiaowen Xiao, John D Bentley, Louis Lu, Cameron R Stewart, Andrew G D Bean, Timothy E Adams
The ferret is an established animal model for a number of human respiratory viral infections, such as influenza virus and more recently, Ebola virus. However, a paucity of immunological reagents has hampered the study of cellular immune responses. Here we describe the development and characterisation of a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the ferret CD4 antigen and the characterisation of ferret CD4 T lymphocytes. Recombinant production and purification of the ferret CD4 ectodomain soluble protein allowed hybridoma generation and the generation of a mAb (FeCD4) showing strong binding to ferret CD4 protein and lymphoid cells by flow cytometry...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215561/analyzing-structural-changes-in-snomed-ct-s-bacterial-infectious-diseases-using-a-visual-semantic-delta
#13
Christopher Ochs, James T Case, Yehoshua Perl
Thousands of changes are applied to SNOMED CT's concepts during each release cycle. These changes are the result of efforts to improve or expand the coverage of health domains in the terminology. Understanding which concepts changed, how they changed, and the overall impact of a set of changes is important for editors and end users. Each SNOMED CT release comes with delta files, which identify all of the individual additions and removals of concepts and relationships. These files typically contain tens of thousands of individual entries, overwhelming users...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215501/serial-quantiferon-testing-and-tuberculosis-disease-risk-among-young-children-an-observational-cohort-study
#14
Jason R Andrews, Elisa Nemes, Michele Tameris, Bernard S Landry, Hassan Mahomed, J Bruce McClain, Helen A Fletcher, Willem A Hanekom, Robin Wood, Helen McShane, Thomas J Scriba, Mark Hatherill
BACKGROUND: The value of quantitative interferon-γ release assay results for predicting progression from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to active disease is unknown. We aimed to investigate the relation between QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) conversion interferon-γ values and risk of subsequent active tuberculosis disease and of QFT reversion. METHODS: We analysed data from a reported vaccine efficacy trial of the tuberculosis vaccine MVA85A in South Africa...
February 16, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212398/modelling-the-risk-of-taenia-solium-exposure-from-pork-produced-in-western-kenya
#15
Lian F Thomas, William A de Glanville, Elizabeth A J Cook, Barend M De C Bronsvoort, Ian Handel, Claire N Wamae, Samuel Kariuki, Eric M Fèvre
The tapeworm Taenia solium is the parasite responsible for neurocysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease of public health importance, thought to cause approximately 1/3 of epilepsy cases across endemic regions. The consumption of undercooked infected pork perpetuates the parasite's life-cycle through the establishment of adult tapeworm infections in the community. Reducing the risk associated with pork consumption in the developing world is therefore a public health priority. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of any one pork meal in western Kenya containing a potentially infective T...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209904/noninvasive-imaging-of-human-immune-responses-in-a-human-xenograft-model-of-graft-versus-host-disease
#16
Catharina H M J Van Elssen, Mohammad Rashidian, Vladimir Vrbanac, Kai W Wucherpfennig, Zeina El Habre, Jana Sticht, Christian Freund, Johanne Jacobsen, Juanjo Cragnolini, Jessica Ingram, Loes Plaisier, Eric Spierings, Andrew M Tager, Hidde Ploegh
The immune system plays a crucial role in many diseases. Activation or suppression of immunity is often related to clinical outcome. Methods to explore the dynamics of immune responses are important to elucidate their role in conditions characterized by inflammation, such as infectious disease, cancer or auto-immunity. Immuno-PET is a non-invasive method by which disease and immune cell infiltration can be explored simultaneously. Using radiolabeled antibodies or fragments derived from them, it is possible to image disease-specific antigens and immune cell subsets...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209207/recombinant-%C3%AE-actinin-subunit-antigens-of-trichomonas-vaginalis-as-potential-vaccine-candidates-in-protecting-against-trichomoniasis
#17
Yi-Ting Xie, Jiang-Mei Gao, Ya-Ping Wu, Petrus Tang, Geoff Hide, De-Hua Lai, Zhao-Rong Lun
BACKGROUND: Human trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases with more than 200 million cases worldwide. It has caused a series of health problems to patients. For prevention and control of infectious diseases, vaccines are usually considered as one of the most cost-efficient tools. However, until now, work on the development of T. vaginalis vaccines is still mainly focused on the screening of potential immunogens. Alpha-actinin characterized by high immunogenicity in T...
February 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204830/monoclonal-antibody-against-toll-like-receptor%C3%A2-4-attenuates-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-in-rats-by-inhibiting-myd88-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-signaling
#18
Cuiyuan Huang, Linghui Pan, Fei Lin, Huijun Dai, Ruili Fu
The mechanisms through which mechanical ventilation causes non-infectious inflammatory diseases and lung injury are poorly understood. Animals models of this type of injury suggest that it involves signaling mediated by Toll‑like receptor (TLR)4 and 9. In this study, in order to gain further insight into the involvement of TLR4 in this type of injury, we performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to determine the mechanisms through which TLR4 triggers inflammation. We also examined whether the use of TLR4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) can alleviate this type of injury...
March 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203411/development-of-a-non-infectious-rat-model-of-acute-exacerbation-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#19
Shan-Shan Chen, Zhao-Fang Yin, Tao Chen, Hui Qiu, Ya-Ru Wei, Shan-Shan Du, Yue-Ping Jin, Meng-Meng Zhao, Qin Wu, Dong Weng, Hui-Ping Li
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive interstitial lung disease with severe pulmonary fibrosis. The main cause of IPF-associated death is acute exacerbation of IPF (AE-IPF). This study aims to develop a rat model of AE-IPF by two intratracheal perfusions with bleomycin (BLM). METHODS: Ninety male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into three groups: an AE-IPF model group (BLM + BLM group), an IPF model group (BLM group), and a normal control group...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203122/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-radiofrequency-radiation-emitted-from-wi-fi-router-and-mobile-phone-simulator-on-the-antibacterial-susceptibility-of-pathogenic-bacteria-listeria-monocytogenes-and-escherichia-coli
#20
M Taheri, S M J Mortazavi, M Moradi, S Mansouri, G R Hatam, F Nouri
Mobile phones and Wi-Fi radiofrequency radiation are among the main sources of the exposure of the general population to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Previous studies have shown that exposure of microorganisms to RF-EMFs can be associated with a wide spectrum of changes ranged from the modified bacterial growth to the alterations of the pattern of antibiotic resistance. Our laboratory at the nonionizing department of the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center has performed experiments on the health effects of exposure to animal models and humans to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as cellular phones, mobile base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, radars, dentistry cavitrons, magnetic resonance imaging, and Helmholtz coils...
January 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
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