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Infectious diseases modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918056/the-therapeutic-potential-of-crispr-cas9-systems-in-oncogene-addicted-cancer-types-virally-driven-cancers-as-a-model-system
#1
REVIEW
Luqman Jubair, Nigel A J McMillan
The field of gene editing is undergoing unprecedented growth. The first ex vivo human clinical trial in China started in 2016, more than 1000 US patents have been filed, and there is exponential growth in publications. The ability to edit genes with high fidelity is promising for the development of new treatments for a range of diseases, particularly inherited conditions, infectious diseases, and cancers. For cancer, a major issue is the identification of driver mutations and oncogenes to target for therapeutic effect, and this requires the development of robust models with which to prove their efficacy...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914100/acute-myeloid-leukemia-and-the-infectious-diseases-consultant
#2
Victor Mulanovich, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
Infectious complications following treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are important causes of morbidity and mortality. The spectrum and complexity of these infections is reflected by the severe net state of immunosuppression of AML patients, that is dynamic and continuously changing, the polypharmacy, including the widespread use of anti-infectives and the complex epidemiology of severe and frequently resistant pathogens afflicting these patients. Infectious diseases (ID) consultants having a critical mass of expertise and intimate knowledge of the intricacies of leukemia care, add considerable value in improving outcomes of patients with AML who develop infections...
September 15, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911979/opening-pandora-s-box-mechanisms-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-resuscitation
#3
REVIEW
Ashley V Veatch, Deepak Kaushal
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) characteristically causes an asymptomatic infection. While this latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is not contagious, reactivation to active tuberculosis disease (TB) causes the patient to become infectious. A vaccine has existed for TB for a century, while drug treatments have been available for over 70 years; despite this, TB remains a major global health crisis. Understanding the factors which allow the bacillus to control responses to host stress and mechanisms leading to latency are critical for persistence...
September 11, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910933/-visual-spatial-and-temporal-characteristics-related-to-infectious-tuberculosis-epidemics-in-guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region-2012-2015
#4
M Lin, Z Z Cui, D W Lin, D B Liang, M Y Huang, H B Su, X Y Tang
Objective: To study the spatial and temporal mode of infectious TB transmission in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi). Methods: Data related to infectious TB case (Include smear and/or culture positive patients) in Guangxi were collected from the National Notifiable Disease Reported System (NNDRS) from 2010 to 2015. Spatial-temporal analysis and prediction were performed by SaTScan 7.0.2, GeoDa 1.8.12, R program v 3.3.1 and SPSS 19.0 software, using the time series model, Moran's I global and local spatial autocorrelation (Empirical Bayes adjustment)...
September 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906133/an-online-calculator-to-estimate-the-impact-of-changes-in-breastfeeding-rates-on-population-health-and-costs
#5
Alison M Stuebe, Briana J Jegier, Eleanor Bimla Schwarz, Brittany D Green, Arnold G Reinhold, Tarah T Colaizy, Debra L Bogen, Andrew J Schaefer, Jamus T Jegier, Noah S Green, Melissa C Bartick
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the impact of changes in breastfeeding rates on population health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a Monte Carlo simulation model to estimate the population-level changes in disease burden associated with marginal changes in rates of any breastfeeding at each month from birth to 12 months of life, and in rates of exclusive breastfeeding from birth to 6 months of life. We used these marginal estimates to construct an interactive online calculator (available at www...
September 14, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905653/induction-of-cellular-and-molecular-immunomodulatory-pathways-by-vitamin-e-and-vitamin-c
#6
Joseph J Bivona, Sapna Patel, Michael Vajdy
Vitamins E and C are well known small molecules that have been used to maintain health for decades. Recent studies of the cellular and molecular pathways leading to immunomodulation by these molecules have been of interest, as have their anti-oxidant properties and signal transduction pathways for curing or improving infectious diseases and cancer. Areas covered: Herein, the authors provide a definition and the structural classification of vitamins E and C and how these molecules influence cellular function...
September 14, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905403/infectious-disease-prediction-with-kernel-conditional-density-estimation
#7
Evan L Ray, Krzysztof Sakrejda, Stephen A Lauer, Michael A Johansson, Nicholas G Reich
Creating statistical models that generate accurate predictions of infectious disease incidence is a challenging problem whose solution could benefit public health decision makers. We develop a new approach to this problem using kernel conditional density estimation (KCDE) and copulas. We obtain predictive distributions for incidence in individual weeks using KCDE and tie those distributions together into joint distributions using copulas. This strategy enables us to create predictions for the timing of and incidence in the peak week of the season...
September 14, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904191/the-dose-of-retroviral-infection-determines-the-induction-of-anti-viral-nk-cell-responses
#8
Elisabeth Littwitz-Salomon, Simone Schimmer, Ulf Dittmer
Natural killer (NK) cells are part of the innate immune system and recognize virus-infected cells as well as tumor cells. Conflicting data about the beneficial or even detrimental role of NK cells in different infectious diseases were described. While the type of pathogen strongly influences NK cell functionality, less is known about how the infection dose influences the quality of a NK cell response against retroviruses. Here we used the well-established Friend retrovirus (FV) mouse model to investigate the impact of virus dose on the induction of anti-viral NK cell functions...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904125/enhancing-vaccine-efficacy-by-engineering-a-complex-synthetic-peptide-to-become-a-super-immunogen
#9
Therése Nordström, Manisha Pandey, Ainslie Calcutt, Jessica Powell, Zachary N Phillips, Grace Yeung, Ashwini K Giddam, Yun Shi, Thomas Haselhorst, Mark von Itzstein, Michael R Batzloff, Michael F Good
Peptides offer enormous promise as vaccines to prevent and protect against many infectious and noninfectious diseases. However, to date, limited vaccine efficacy has been reported and none have been licensed for human use. Innovative ways to enhance their immunogenicity are being tested, but rational sequence modification as a means to improve immune responsiveness has been neglected. Our objective was to establish a two-step generic protocol to modify defined amino acids of a helical peptide epitope to create a superior immunogen...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903874/mortality-in-danish-swine-herds-spatio-temporal-clusters-and-risk-factors
#10
Ana Carolina Lopes Antunes, Annette Kjær Ersbøll, Kristine Bihrmann, Nils Toft
The aim of this study was to explore spatio-temporal mortality patterns in Danish swine herds from December 2013 to October 2015, and to discuss the use of mortality data for syndromic surveillance in Denmark. Although it has previously been assessed within the context of syndromic surveillance, the value of mortality data generated on a regular and mandatory basis from all swine herds remains unexplored in terms of swine surveillance in Denmark. A total of 5010 farms were included in the analysis, corresponding to 1896 weaner herds, 1490 sow herds and 3839 finisher herds...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903873/validation-of-a-model-for-ranking-aquaculture-facilities-for-risk-based-disease-surveillance
#11
Nicolas Diserens, Laura Cristina Falzon, Beat von Siebenthal, Gertraud Schüpbach-Regula, Thomas Wahli
A semi-quantitative model for risk ranking of aquaculture facilities in Switzerland with regard to the introduction and spread of Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS) and Infectious Haematopoietic Necrosis (IHN) was developed in a previous study (Diserens et al., 2013). The objective of the present study was to validate this model using data collected during field visits on aquaculture sites in four Swiss cantons compared to data collected through a questionnaire in the previous study. A discrepancy between the values obtained with the two different methods was found in 32...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902374/bupleurum-chinense-roots-a-bioactivity-guided-approach-toward-saponin-type-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibitors
#12
Xin Liu, Simone Latkolik, Atanas G Atanasov, Olaf Kunert, Eva-Maria Pferschy-Wenzig, Elke H Heiss, Clemens Malainer, Andreas Schinkovitz, Manfred Kollroser, Verena M Dirsch, Rudolf Bauer
The roots of Bupleurum chinense have a long history in traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases and inflammatory disorders. Two major compounds, saikosaponins A and D, were reported to exert potent anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting NF-κB. In the present study, we isolated new saikosaponin analogues from the roots of B. chinese interfering with NF-κB activity in vitro. The methanol-soluble fraction of the dichloromethane extract of Radix Bupleuri was subjected to activity-guided isolation yielding 18 compounds, including triterpenoids and polyacetylenes...
September 8, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902024/association-of-socioeconomic-and-geographic-factors-with-google-trends-for-tanning-and-sunscreen
#13
Divya Seth, Haley Gittleman, Jill Barnholtz-Sloan, Jeremy S Bordeaux
BACKGROUND: Internet search trends are used to track both infectious diseases and noncommunicable conditions. OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to characterize Google Trends search volume index (SVI) for the terms "sunscreen" and tanning ("tanning salon" and "tanning bed") in the United States from 2010 to 2015 and analyze association with educational attainment, average income, and percent white data by state. METHODS: SVI is search frequency data relative to total search volume...
September 8, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901976/determinants-of-short-term-movement-in-a-developing-region-and-implications-for-disease-transmission
#14
Alicia N M Kraay, James Trostle, Andrew F Brouwer, William C Trujillo, Joseph N S Eisenberg
BACKGROUND: Human mobility is important for infectious disease spread. However, little is known about how travel varies by demographic groups and how this heterogeneity influences infectious disease risk. METHODS: We analyzed ten years of survey data from 15 communities in a remote but rapidly changing region in rural Ecuador where road development in the past 15-20 years has dramatically changed travel. We identify determinants of travel and incorporate them into an infection transmission model...
September 7, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901381/anti%C3%A2-allergic-action-of-bacillus-calmette%C3%A2-guerin-extract-in-experimental-mast-cell%C3%A2-mediated-anaphylactic-models
#15
Mingli Sun, Yong Wang, Haishan Zhao, Weifan Yao, Xiaosong Yu
Allergy is an acquired hypersensitivity reaction of the immune system mediated by IgE‑induced mast cell degranulation. In China, bacillus Calmette‑Guerin extract (BCGE) has been shown to be clinically effective for regulating immunity, which enhances the resistance of the body to anaphylactic disease, infectious diseases and cancer. However, the mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. The present study investigated the potential anti‑allergic effects of BCGE in animal models of mast cell‑dependent anaphylaxis and mechanisms of BCGE in mast cells...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901005/delivery-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#16
REVIEW
Agustín Ciapponi, Simon Lewin, Cristian A Herrera, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Elizabeth Paulsen, Gabriel Rada, Charles S Wiysonge, Gabriel Bastías, Lilian Dudley, Signe Flottorp, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Claire Glenton, Charles I Okwundu, Blanca Peñaloza, Fatima Suleman, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: Delivery arrangements include changes in who receives care and when, who provides care, the working conditions of those who provide care, coordination of care amongst different providers, where care is provided, the use of information and communication technology to deliver care, and quality and safety systems. How services are delivered can have impacts on the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of health systems. This broad overview of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers and other stakeholders identify strategies for addressing problems and improve the delivery of services...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893741/prevention-and-assessment-of-infectious-diseases-among-children-and-adult-migrants-arriving-to-the-european-union-european-economic-association-a-protocol-for-a-suite-of-systematic-reviews-for-public-health-and-health-systems
#17
Kevin Pottie, Alain D Mayhew, Rachael L Morton, Christina Greenaway, Elie A Akl, Prinon Rahman, Dominik Zenner, Manish Pareek, Peter Tugwell, Vivian Welch, Joerg Meerpohl, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Charles Hui, Beverley-Ann Biggs, Ana Requena-Méndez, Eric Agbata, Teymur Noori, Holger J Schünemann
INTRODUCTION: The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control is developing evidence-based guidance for voluntary screening, treatment and vaccine prevention of infectious diseases for newly arriving migrants to the European Union/European Economic Area. The objective of this systematic review protocol is to guide the identification, appraisal and synthesis of the best available evidence on prevention and assessment of the following priority infectious diseases: tuberculosis, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis (polio), Haemophilus influenza disease, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893198/lessons-from-a-decade-of-individual-based-models-for-infectious-disease-transmission-a-systematic-review-2006-2015
#18
Lander Willem, Frederik Verelst, Joke Bilcke, Niel Hens, Philippe Beutels
BACKGROUND: Individual-based models (IBMs) are useful to simulate events subject to stochasticity and/or heterogeneity, and have become well established to model the potential (re)emergence of pathogens (e.g., pandemic influenza, bioterrorism). Individual heterogeneity at the host and pathogen level is increasingly documented to influence transmission of endemic diseases and it is well understood that the final stages of elimination strategies for vaccine-preventable childhood diseases (e...
September 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893037/periodontal-initial-radiological-findings-of-genetically-predisposed-finnish-adolescents
#19
Anna Maria Heikkinen, Elmira Pakbaznejad Esmaeili, Leena Kovanen, Hellevi Ruokonen, Kaisa Kettunen, Jari Haukka, Taina Tervahartiala, Timo Sorsa
INTRODUCTION: Periodontitis is a multifactorial infectious disease of the supporting tissues of teeth in which bacterial, genetic and lifestyle factors such as smoking have an important role. AIM: The aim was to examine if Bleeding On Probing (BOP ≥ 20%) and ≥ 4 mm deep pockets correlated with any suspicion of initial radiological findings of periodontitis and bone loss. We also investigated whether any pro-inflammatory-related candidate Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with any suspicion of radiological findings...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892499/effectiveness-and-economic-assessment-of-routine-larviciding-for-prevention-of-chikungunya-and-dengue-in-temperate-urban-settings-in-europe
#20
Giorgio Guzzetta, Filippo Trentini, Piero Poletti, Frederic Alexandre Baldacchino, Fabrizio Montarsi, Gioia Capelli, Annapaola Rizzoli, Roberto Rosà, Stefano Merler, Alessia Melegaro
In the last decades, several European countries where arboviral infections are not endemic have faced outbreaks of diseases such as chikungunya and dengue, initially introduced by infectious travellers from tropical endemic areas and then spread locally via mosquito bites. To keep in check the epidemiological risk, interventions targeted to control vector abundance can be implemented by local authorities. We assessed the epidemiological effectiveness and economic costs and benefits of routine larviciding in European towns with temperate climate, using a mathematical model of Aedes albopictus populations and viral transmission, calibrated on entomological surveillance data collected from ten municipalities in Northern Italy during 2014 and 2015...
September 11, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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