keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Aviation

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230356/assessment-of-particle-pollution-from-jetliners-from-smoke-visibility-to-nanoparticle-counting
#1
Lukas Durdina, Benjamin T Brem, Ari Setyan, Frithjof Siegerist, Theo Rindlisbacher, Jing Wang
Aviation is a substantial and a fast growing emissions source. Besides greenhouse gases, aircraft engines emit black carbon (BC), a climate forcer and air pollutant. Aviation BC emissions have been regulated and estimated through exhaust smoke visibility (smoke number). Their impacts are poorly understood because emission inventories lack representative data. Here, we measured BC mass and number-based emissions of the most popular airliner's engines according to a new emission standard. We used a calibrated engine performance model to determine the emissions on the ground, at cruise altitude, and over entire flight missions...
February 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228722/transcranial-doppler-sonography-reveals-reductions-in-hemispheric-asymmetry-in-healthy-older-adults-during-vigilance
#2
Amanda E Harwood, Pamela M Greenwood, Tyler H Shaw
Given that older adults are remaining longer in the workforce, their ability to perform demanding cognitive tasks such as vigilance assignments needs to be thoroughly examined, especially since many vigilance assignments affect public safety (e.g., aviation, medicine and long distance driving). Previous research exploring the relation between aging and vigilance is conflicted, with some studies finding decreased vigilance performance in older adults but others finding no effect of age. We sought a better understanding of effects of age on vigilance by assessing neurophysiological change over the course of a vigil in young (aged 18-24) and healthy older (aged 66-77) adults...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216729/aerospace-dermatology
#3
Gp Capt Sandeep Arora
Evolutionarily, man is a terrestrial mammal, adapted to land. Aviation and now space/microgravity environment, hence, pose new challenges to our physiology. Exposure to these changes affects the human body in acute and chronic settings. Since skin reflects our mental and physical well-being, any change/side effects of this environment shall be detected on the skin. Aerospace industry offers a unique environment with a blend of all possible occupational disorders, encompassing all systems of the body, particularly the skin...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215013/crowded-skies-conflicts-between%C3%A2-expanding%C3%A2-goose-populations-and-aviation-safety
#4
David R Bradbeer, Camilla Rosenquist, Thomas Kjær Christensen, Anthony D Fox
We here review the collision risks posed by large-bodied, flocking geese to aircraft, exacerbated by recent major increases in northern hemisphere goose populations and air traffic volume. Mitigation of goose-aircraft strike risks requires knowledge of local goose movements, global goose population dynamics and ecology. Airports can minimise goose strikes by managing habitats within the airport property, applying deterrents to scare geese away and lethal control, but goose migration and movements at greater spatial scales present greater challenges...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214112/communicating-airport-noise-emission-data-to-the-general-public
#5
REVIEW
Luis Gasco, Cesar Asensio, Guillermo de Arcas
Despite the efforts that the aviation industry has undertaken during the last few decades, noise annoyance remains high, partly because of the continuous transport demands of modern societies and partly because of changes in citizen expectations and their growing environmental concerns. Although modern aircraft are considerably quieter than their predecessors, the number of complaints has not decreased as much as expected. Therefore, the aeronautical sector has tried more sociological and/or psychological strategies to gain acceptance through awareness and community engagement...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212709/erythrocyte-deformability-and-aggregation-responses-to-intermittent-and-continuous-artificial-gravity-exposure
#6
Grau Marijke, Abeln Vera, Vogt Tobias, Bloch Wilhelm, Schneider Stefan
Artificial gravity protocols are used to improve g-tolerance of aviators and discussed as countermeasure during prolonged space flight. Little is known about the impact of artificial gravity on the red blood cells (RBC). The purpose of the study was to test how artificial gravity affects RBC deformability and aggregation, which are important determinants of microcirculation. Nine male subjects were exposed to two hypergravity protocols using a short arm human centrifuge: a continuous (CONT) protocol with constant +2Gz for 30min and an intermittent (INTER) protocol with repeated intervals of +2Gz and rest...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185075/paediatric-patient-safety-and-the-need-for-aviation-black-box-thinking-to-learn-from-and-prevent-medication-errors
#7
Chi Huynh, Ian C K Wong, Jo Correa-West, David Terry, Suzanne McCarthy
Since the publication of To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System in 1999, there has been much research conducted into the epidemiology, nature and causes of medication errors in children, from prescribing and supply to administration. It is reassuring to see growing evidence of improving medication safety in children; however, based on media reports, it can be seen that serious and fatal medication errors still occur. This critical opinion article examines the problem of medication errors in children and provides recommendations for research, training of healthcare professionals and a culture shift towards dealing with medication errors...
February 10, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154739/excess-weight-in-regular-aviation-pilots-associated-with-work-and-sleep-characteristics
#8
Magna Lúcia de Souza Palmeira, Elaine Cristina Marqueze
OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and associated factors of overweight and obesity in Brazilian commercial airline pilots. Methods An observational, cross-sectional study involving 1198 Brazilian commercial airline pilots with a sampling power >80% (ß=20%) and confidence level of 95% (α=5%) was carried out. The pilots completed an on-line questionnaire collecting data on sociodemographics, work, health, lifestyle and sleep. Poisson regression, with robust variance (stepwise forward technique), was employed to analyze the factors associated with excess weight (overweight and obesity)...
October 2016: Sleep Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146676/from-here-to-autonomy
#9
Mica R Endsley
As autonomous and semiautonomous systems are developed for automotive, aviation, cyber, robotics and other applications, the ability of human operators to effectively oversee and interact with them when needed poses a significant challenge. An automation conundrum exists in which as more autonomy is added to a system, and its reliability and robustness increase, the lower the situation awareness of human operators and the less likely that they will be able to take over manual control when needed. The human-autonomy systems oversight model integrates several decades of relevant autonomy research on operator situation awareness, out-of-the-loop performance problems, monitoring, and trust, which are all major challenges underlying the automation conundrum...
February 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138339/well-to-wake-analysis-of-ethanol-to-jet-and-sugar-to-jet-pathways
#10
Jeongwoo Han, Ling Tao, Michael Wang
BACKGROUND: To reduce the environmental impacts of the aviation sector as air traffic grows steadily, the aviation industry has paid increasing attention to bio-based alternative jet fuels (AJFs), which may provide lower life-cycle petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than petroleum jet fuel. This study presents well-to-wake (WTWa) results for four emerging AJFs: ethanol-to-jet (ETJ) from corn and corn stover, and sugar-to-jet (STJ) from corn stover via both biological and catalytic conversion...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117813/setting-up-a-stroke-team-algorithm-and-conducting-simulation-based-training-in-the-emergency-department-a-practical-guide
#11
Damla Tahtali, Ferdinand Bohmann, Peter Rostek, Marlies Wagner, Helmuth Steinmetz, Waltraud Pfeilschifter
Time is of the essence when caring for an acute stroke patient. The ultimate goal is to restore blood flow to the ischemic brain. This can be achieved by either thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA), the standard therapy for stroke patients who present within the first hours of symptom onset without contraindications, or by an endovascular approach, if a proximal brain vessel occlusion is detected. As the efficacy of both therapies declines over time, every minute saved along the way will improve the patient's outcome...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114082/airline-passenger-profiling-based-on-fuzzy-deep-machine-learning
#12
Yu-Jun Zheng, Wei-Guo Sheng, Xing-Ming Sun, Sheng-Yong Chen
Passenger profiling plays a vital part of commercial aviation security, but classical methods become very inefficient in handling the rapidly increasing amounts of electronic records. This paper proposes a deep learning approach to passenger profiling. The center of our approach is a Pythagorean fuzzy deep Boltzmann machine (PFDBM), whose parameters are expressed by Pythagorean fuzzy numbers such that each neuron can learn how a feature affects the production of the correct output from both the positive and negative sides...
September 27, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112195/neutron-radiation-tolerance-of-two-benchmark-thiophene-based-conjugated-polymers-the-importance-of-crystallinity-for-organic-avionics
#13
G M Paternò, V Robbiano, K J Fraser, C Frost, V García Sakai, F Cacialli
Aviation and space applications can benefit significantly from lightweight organic electronics, now spanning from displays to logics, because of the vital importance of minimising payload (size and mass). It is thus crucial to assess the damage caused to such materials by cosmic rays and neutrons, which pose a variety of hazards through atomic displacements following neutron-nucleus collisions. Here we report the first study of the neutron radiation tolerance of two poly(thiophene)s-based organic semiconductors: poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), P3HT, and the liquid-crystalline poly(2,5-bis (3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene), PBTTT...
January 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103093/why-aviation-safety-is-not-a-good-model-for-healthcare-safety
#14
Pat Baird, Erin Sparnon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095959/general-aviation-pilots-over-70-years-old
#15
Alpo Vuorio, Saryani Asmayawati, Bruce Budowle, Robin Griffiths, Timo Strandberg, Jaana Kuoppala, Antti Sajantila
BACKGROUND: Currently it is not unusual for general aviation pilots in the United States to continue to fly beyond the age of 70, even into their 80s and 90s. Pilots have regular examinations according to protocols which do not specify special or additional requirements for pilots over 70 yr of age. Additionally, the third class medical reforms passed by the U.S. Senate on 15 July 2016 could potentially result in even less stringent medical certification requirements for general aviation pilots...
February 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095957/point-of-care-ultrasound-utility-and-potential-for-high-altitude-crew-recovery-missions
#16
Laura A Galdamez, Jonathan B Clark, Erik L Antonsen
INTRODUCTION: Flights to high altitude can lead to exposure and unique pathology not seen in normal commercial aviation. METHODS: This paper assesses the potential for point-of-care ultrasound to aid in management and disposition of injured crewmembers from a high altitude incident. This was accomplished through a systematic literature review regarding current diagnostic and therapeutic uses of ultrasound for injuries expected in high altitude free fall and parachuting...
February 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095953/reported-back-pain-in-army-aircrew-in-relation-to-airframe-gender-age-and-experience
#17
Amanda M Kelley, Jason MacDonnell, Deahndra Grigley, John Campbell, Steven J Gaydos
INTRODUCTION: Back pain has remained an issue of significance among aircraft crewmembers for decades, occurring in the majority of military helicopter pilots with potential deleterious effects on performance, safety, and operational readiness. This exploratory, correlational survey study was designed to evaluate the presence of patterns and relationships that may require further examination to understand causal factors. METHODS: The study population consisted of U...
February 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095603/review-of-regulatory-emphasis-on-transportation-safety-in-the-united-states-2002-2009-public-versus-private-modes
#18
Garrett C Waycaster, Taiki Matsumura, Volodymyr Bilotkach, Raphael T Haftka, Nam H Kim
The U.S. Department of Transportation is responsible for implementing new safety improvements and regulations with the goal of ensuring limited funds are distributed to where they can have the greatest impact on safety. In this work, we conduct a study of new regulations and other reactions (such as recalls) to fatal accidents in several different modes of transportation implemented from 2002 to 2009. We find that in the safest modes of commercial aviation and bus transport, the amount of spending on new regulations is high in relation to the number of fatalities compared to the regulatory attention received by less safe modes of general aviation and private automobiles...
January 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088866/combined-experimental-and-computational-study-on-the-unimolecular-decomposition-of-jp-8-jet-fuel-surrogates-ii-n-dodecane-n-c12h26
#19
Long Zhao, Tao Yang, Ralf I Kaiser, Tyler P Troy, Musahid Ahmed, Joao Marcelo Ribeiro, Daniel Belisario-Lara, Alexander M Mebel
We investigated temperature-dependent products in the pyrolysis of helium-seeded n-dodecane, which represents a surrogate of the n-alkane fraction of Jet Propellant-8 (JP-8) aviation fuel. The experiments were performed in a high temperature chemical reactor over a temperature range of 1200 K to 1600 K at a pressure of 600 Torr, with in situ identification of the nascent products in a supersonic molecular beam using single photon vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization coupled with the analysis of the ions in a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ReTOF)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079216/one-step-hydroprocessing-of-fatty-acids-into-renewable-aromatic-hydrocarbons-over-ni-hzsm-5-insights-into-the-major-reaction-pathways
#20
Shiyou Xing, Pengmei Lv, Jiayan Wang, Junying Fu, Pei Fan, Lingmei Yang, Gaixiu Yang, Zhenhong Yuan, Yong Chen
For high caloricity and stability in bio-aviation fuels, a certain content of aromatic hydrocarbons (AHCs, 8-25 wt%) is crucial. Fatty acids, obtained from waste or inedible oils, are a renewable and economic feedstock for AHC production. Considerable amounts of AHCs, up to 64.61 wt%, were produced through the one-step hydroprocessing of fatty acids over Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts. Hydrogenation, hydrocracking, and aromatization constituted the principal AHC formation processes. At a lower temperature, fatty acids were first hydrosaturated and then hydrodeoxygenated at metal sites to form long-chain hydrocarbons...
January 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
keyword
keyword
3356
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"