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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441505/error-detection-based-model-to-assess-educational-outcomes-in-crisis-resource-management-training-a-pilot-study
#1
Sarah Bouhabel, Emily Kay-Rivest, Carol Nhan, Ilana Bank, Peter Nugus, Rachel Fisher, Lily Hp Nguyen
Otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OTL-HNS) residents face a variety of difficult, high-stress situations, which may occur early in their training. Since these events occur infrequently, simulation-based learning has become an important part of residents' training and is already well established in fields such as anesthesia and emergency medicine. In the domain of OTL-HNS, it is gradually gaining in popularity. Crisis Resource Management (CRM), a program adapted from the aviation industry, aims to improve outcomes of crisis situations by attempting to mitigate human errors...
April 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436539/valuing-equal-protection-in-aviation-security-screening
#2
Kenneth D Nguyen, Heather Rosoff, Richard S John
The growing number of anti-terrorism policies has elevated public concerns about discrimination. Within the context of airport security screening, the current study examines how American travelers value the principle of equal protection by quantifying the "equity premium" that they are willing to sacrifice to avoid screening procedures that result in differential treatments. In addition, we applied the notion of procedural justice to explore the effect of alternative selective screening procedures on the value of equal protection...
April 24, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432908/particulate-matter-pollution-from-aviation-related-activity-at-a-small-airport-of-the-aegean-sea-insular-region
#3
C Psanis, E Triantafyllou, M Giamarelou, M Manousakas, K Eleftheriadis, G Biskos
The unprecedented growth in aviation during the last years has resulted in a notable increase of local air pollution related to airports. The impacts of aviation on air quality can be extremely high particularly around airports serving remote insular regions with pristine atmospheric environments. Here we report measurements that show how the atmospheric aerosol is affected by the activity at a small airport in a remote region. More specifically, we provide measurements performed at the airport of Mytilene, Greece, a regional yet international airport that serves the entire island of Lesvos; the third largest island of the country...
April 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420482/detection-of-driver-drowsiness-using-wearable-devices-a-feasibility-study-of-the-proximity-sensor
#4
Jibo He, William Choi, Yan Yang, Junshi Lu, Xiaohui Wu, Kaiping Peng
BACKGROUND: Drowsiness is one of the major factors that cause crashes in the transportation industry. Drowsiness detection systems can alert drowsy operators and potentially reduce the risk of crashes. In this study, a Google-Glass-based drowsiness detection system was developed and validated. METHODS: The proximity sensor of Google Glass was used to monitor eye blink frequency. A simulated driving study was carried out to validate the system. Driving performance and eye blinks were compared between the two states of alertness and drowsiness while driving...
April 15, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417843/letter-to-the-editor-re-hypoxia-occurrence-in-a-military-aviator-below-3048-m-letter
#5
Savas Ilbasmis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417840/emergency-highway-landings-in-general-aviation-and-the-possible-role-of-media-reports
#6
Emily Holzman, Alex de Voogt
BACKGROUND: To examine the causes and factors of airplane landings on highways and the dangers to occupants of vehicles on the ground. METHODS: The U.S. National Transportation Safety Board online database provided 133 accidents involving a highway landing dating from 2000 to 2013. Supplemental information was sought in online media archives, which reported on 53 of these accidents. Collisions with highway-related objects, other options for landing, and witness accounts were added categories extracted from the narrative statements and media reports...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417838/transferring-aviation-practices-into-clinical-medicine-for-the-promotion-of-high-reliability
#7
Nicole Powell-Dunford, Mark K McPherson, Joseph S Pina, Steven J Gaydos
BACKGROUND: Aviation is a classic example of a high reliability organization (HRO)-an organization in which catastrophic events are expected to occur without control measures. As health care systems transition toward high reliability, aviation practices are increasingly transferred for clinical implementation. METHODS: A PubMed search using the terms aviation, crew resource management, and patient safety was undertaken. Manuscripts authored by physician pilots and accident investigation regulations were analyzed...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400716/evaluation-of-the-display-of-cognitive-state-feedback-to-drive-adaptive-task-sharing
#8
Michael C Dorneich, Břetislav Passinger, Christopher Hamblin, Claudia Keinrath, Jiři Vašek, Stephen D Whitlow, Martijn Beekhuyzen
This paper presents an adaptive system intended to address workload imbalances between pilots in future flight decks. Team performance can be maximized when task demands are balanced within crew capabilities and resources. Good communication skills enable teams to adapt to changes in workload, and include the balancing of workload between team members This work addresses human factors priorities in the aviation domain with the goal to develop concepts that balance operator workload, support future operator roles and responsibilities, and support new task requirements, while allowing operators to focus on the most safety critical tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399328/high-throughput-label-free-single-cell-microalgal-lipid-screening-by-machine-learning-equipped-optofluidic-time-stretch-quantitative-phase-microscopy
#9
Baoshan Guo, Cheng Lei, Hirofumi Kobayashi, Takuro Ito, Yaxiaer Yalikun, Yiyue Jiang, Yo Tanaka, Yasuyuki Ozeki, Keisuke Goda
The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels to petroleum is required to tackle the global energy crisis. One such alternative is microalgal biofuel, which is expected to play a key role in reducing the detrimental effects of global warming as microalgae absorb atmospheric CO2 via photosynthesis. Unfortunately, conventional analytical methods only provide population-averaged lipid amounts and fail to characterize a diverse population of microalgal cells with single-cell resolution in a non-invasive and interference-free manner...
April 11, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373684/eeg-based-cognitive-control-behaviour-assessment-an-ecological-study-with-professional-air-traffic-controllers
#10
Gianluca Borghini, Pietro Aricò, Gianluca Di Flumeri, Giulia Cartocci, Alfredo Colosimo, Stefano Bonelli, Alessia Golfetti, Jean Paul Imbert, Géraud Granger, Railane Benhacene, Simone Pozzi, Fabio Babiloni
Several models defining different types of cognitive human behaviour are available. For this work, we have selected the Skill, Rule and Knowledge (SRK) model proposed by Rasmussen in 1983. This model is currently broadly used in safety critical domains, such as the aviation. Nowadays, there are no tools able to assess at which level of cognitive control the operator is dealing with the considered task, that is if he/she is performing the task as an automated routine (skill level), as procedures-based activity (rule level), or as a problem-solving process (knowledge level)...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368319/detection-localization-and-quantification-of-impact-events-on-a-stiffened-composite-panel-with-embedded-fiber-bragg-grating-sensor-networks
#11
Alfredo Lamberti, Geert Luyckx, Wim Van Paepegem, Ali Rezayat, Steve Vanlanduit
Nowadays, it is possible to manufacture smart composite materials with embedded fiber optic sensors. These sensors can be exploited during the composites' operating life to identify occurring damages such as delaminations. For composite materials adopted in the aviation and wind energy sector, delaminations are most often caused by impacts with external objects. The detection, localization and quantification of such impacts are therefore crucial for the prevention of catastrophic events. In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility to perform impact identification in smart composite structures with embedded fiber optic sensors...
April 1, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348895/in-flight-hypoxemia-in-a-tracheostomy-dependent-infant
#12
Jason Quevreaux, Christopher Cropsey
Millions of passengers board commercial flights every year. Healthcare providers are often called upon to treat other passengers during in-flight emergencies. The case presented involves an anesthesia resident treating a tracheostomy-dependent infant who developed hypoxemia on a domestic flight. The patient had an underlying congenital muscular disorder and was mechanically ventilated while at altitude. Although pressurized, cabin barometric pressure while at altitude is less than at sea level. Due to this environment patients with underlying pulmonary or cardiac pathology might not be able to tolerate commercial flight...
2017: Case Reports in Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339697/are-informed-policies-in-place-to-promote-safe-and-usable-ehrs-a-cross-industry-comparison
#13
Erica L Savage, Rollin J Fairbanks, Raj M Ratwani
Objective: Despite federal policies put in place by the Office of the National Coordinator (ONC) to promote safe and usable electronic health record (EHR) products, the usability of EHRs continues to frustrate providers and have patient safety implications. This study sought to compare government policies on usability and safety, and methods of examining compliance to those policies, across 3 federal agencies: the ONC and EHRs, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and avionics, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and medical devices...
February 19, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334313/colour-vision-requirements-in-visually-demanding-occupations
#14
J L Barbur, M Rodriguez-Carmona
Normal trichromatic colour vision (CV) is often required as a condition for employment in visually demanding occupations. If this requirement could be enforced using current, colour assessment tests, a significant percentage of subjects with anomalous, congenital trichromacy who can perform the suprathreshold, colour-related tasks encountered in many occupations with the same accuracy as normal trichromats would fail. These applicants would therefore be discriminated against unfairly. One solution to this problem is to produce minimum, justifiable CV requirements that are specific to each occupation...
March 18, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323591/treatment-and-monitoring-of-central-serous-chorioretinopathy-in-pilots
#15
Ari Shinojima, Ryusaburo Mori, Kyoko Fujita, Mitsuko Yuzawa
BACKGROUND: Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), which has the characteristics of a serous retinal detachment (SRD) in the macular area, affects mostly men in the 30- to 50-yr age range. Some patients have persistent SRD, which may cause retinal thinning and photoreceptor impairment. CSC symptoms are gradual vision loss and/or metamorphopsia. Some commercial airline pilots are concerned about CSC symptoms, which can disqualify them from flying for months and can also reoccur. Thus, careful monitoring and treatment of CSC are critical for pilots, especially those with chronic or recurrent CSC...
December 1, 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323590/the-ecology-of-medical-care-among-israeli-military-aviators
#16
Barak Gordon, Yuval Levy, Tal Yemini, Erez Carmon, Yifat Erlich, Doron Hermoni
BACKGROUND: The ecology of medical care model has been used in various populations with varying results. We aimed to apply this model in the population of Israeli Air Force (IAF) aviators. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was presented to all Israeli Air Force aviators during their mandatory yearly check-up over 1 yr starting on November 26th, 2012. The questionnaire contained items on demographic, personal, and military details, as well as items on the presence of clinical symptoms, and various health care contacts in the previous month...
December 1, 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304157/characterization-of-gas-phase-organics-using-proton-transfer-reaction-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-aircraft-turbine-engines
#17
Dogushan Kilic, Benjamin T Brem, Felix Klein, Imad El-Haddad, Lukas Durdina, Theo Rindlisbacher, Ari Setyan, Rujin Huang, Jing Wang, Jay G Slowik, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S H Prevot
Nonmethane organic gas emissions (NMOGs) from in-service aircraft turbine engines were investigated using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) at an engine test facility at Zurich Airport, Switzerland. Experiments consisted of 60 exhaust samples for seven engine types (used in commercial aviation) from two manufacturers at thrust levels ranging from idle to takeoff. Emission indices (EIs) for more than 200 NMOGs were quantified, and the functional group fractions (including acids, carbonyls, aromatics, and aliphatics) were calculated to characterize the exhaust chemical composition at different engine operation modes...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300096/biofuel-blending-reduces-particle-emissions-from-aircraft-engines-at-cruise-conditions
#18
Richard H Moore, Kenneth L Thornhill, Bernadett Weinzierl, Daniel Sauer, Eugenio D'Ascoli, Jin Kim, Michael Lichtenstern, Monika Scheibe, Brian Beaton, Andreas J Beyersdorf, John Barrick, Dan Bulzan, Chelsea A Corr, Ewan Crosbie, Tina Jurkat, Robert Martin, Dean Riddick, Michael Shook, Gregory Slover, Christiane Voigt, Robert White, Edward Winstead, Richard Yasky, Luke D Ziemba, Anthony Brown, Hans Schlager, Bruce E Anderson
Aviation-related aerosol emissions contribute to the formation of contrail cirrus clouds that can alter upper tropospheric radiation and water budgets, and therefore climate. The magnitude of air-traffic-related aerosol-cloud interactions and the ways in which these interactions might change in the future remain uncertain. Modelling studies of the present and future effects of aviation on climate require detailed information about the number of aerosol particles emitted per kilogram of fuel burned and the microphysical properties of those aerosols that are relevant for cloud formation...
March 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296928/the-probability-and-severity-of-decompression-sickness
#19
Laurens E Howle, Paul W Weber, Ethan A Hada, Richard D Vann, Petar J Denoble
Decompression sickness (DCS), which is caused by inert gas bubbles in tissues, is an injury of concern for scuba divers, compressed air workers, astronauts, and aviators. Case reports for 3322 air and N2-O2 dives, resulting in 190 DCS events, were retrospectively analyzed and the outcomes were scored as (1) serious neurological, (2) cardiopulmonary, (3) mild neurological, (4) pain, (5) lymphatic or skin, and (6) constitutional or nonspecific manifestations. Following standard U.S. Navy medical definitions, the data were grouped into mild-Type I (manifestations 4-6)-and serious-Type II (manifestations 1-3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295202/in-situ-esterification-and-extractive-fermentation-for-butyl-butyrate-production-with-clostridium-tyrobutyricum
#20
Zhong-Tian Zhang, Steven Taylor, Yi Wang
Butyl butyrate (BB) is a valuable chemical that can be used as flavor, fragrance, extractant, and so on in various industries. Meanwhile, BB can also be used as a fuel source with excellent compatibility as gasoline, aviation kerosene, and diesel components. The conventional industrial production of BB is highly energy-consuming and generates various environmental pollutants. Recently, there have been tremendous interests in producing BB from renewable resources through biological routes. In this study, based on the fermentation using the hyper-butyrate producing strain Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755, efficient BB production through in situ esterification was achieved by supplementation of lipase and butanol into the fermentation...
March 15, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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