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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349039/engineering-escherichia-coli-for-the-production-of-terpene-mixture-enriched-in-caryophyllene-and-caryophyllene-alcohol-as-potential-aviation-fuel-compounds
#1
Weihua Wu, Fang Liu, Ryan W Davis
Recent studies have revealed that caryophyllene and its stereoisomers not only exhibit multiple biological activities but also have desired properties as renewable candidates for ground transportation and jet fuel applications. This study presents the first significant production of caryophyllene and caryolan-1-ol by an engineered E. coli with heterologous expression of mevalonate pathway genes with a caryophyllene synthase and a caryolan-1-ol synthase. By optimizing metabolic flux and fermentation parameters, the engineered strains yielded 449 mg/L of total terpene, including 406 mg/L sesquiterpene with 100 mg/L caryophyllene and 10 mg/L caryolan-1-ol...
June 2018: Metabolic Engineering Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341860/risk-management-of-free-radicals-involved-in-air-travel-syndromes-by-antioxidants
#2
Jeum-Nam Kim, Byung-Mu Lee
Frequent air travelers and airplane pilots may develop various types of illnesses. The environmental risk factors associated with air travel syndromes (ATS) or air travel-related adverse health outcomes raised concerns and need to be assessed in the context of risk management and public health. Accordingly, the aim of the present review was to determine ATS, risk factors, and mechanisms underlying ATS using scientific data and information obtained from Medline, Toxline, and regulatory agencies. Additional information was also extracted from websites of organizations, such as the International Air Transport Association (IATA), International Association for Medical Assistance to Travelers (IAMAT), and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336333/simulation-and-training-in-urology-in-collaboration-with-esu-esut
#3
Domenico Veneziano, Giovanni Cacciamani, Chandra Shekhar Biyani
Being a Surgeon today means taking on your shoulders countless responsibilities. It is definitely a high-stakes job but, even though the professionals do not go through the intense, focused and demanding training schedule as followed by the other equally risky fields, it doesn't yet require any practical training certification. Simulation was introduced in the aviation field in the early '30s with the "Link Trainer", designed to reproduce the most difficult flying case scenario: landing on an air-carrier. After almost a century, flight simulation is still becoming more sophisticated, while surgical training is slowly starting to fill the gap...
January 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334237/safety-of-working-patterns-among-uk-neuroradiologists-what-can-we-learn-from-the-aviation-industry-and-cognitive-science
#4
John Reicher, Stuart Currie, Daniel Birchall
As the volume and complexity of imaging in the UK continues to rise, there is pressure on radiologists to spend increasing lengths of time reporting to cope with the growing workload. However, there is limited guidance for radiologists about structuring the working day to achieve the necessary balance between satisfactory reporting volume and maintaining quality and safety. We surveyed 86 Neuroradiologists (receiving 59 responses), regarding time spent reporting, frequency and duration of work breaks, and break activities...
January 15, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328800/the-human-element-of-giving-and-receiving-feedback
#5
Dawn Stott
Human factors is the scientific subject that concerns the understanding of interactions amongst humans, it is what affects behaviour and performance in the work place (Ives and Hillier 2015), particularly in high risk areas such as the aviation industry and healthcare. In this opinion piece it will be limited to the healthcare profession.
May 2017: Journal of Perioperative Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313196/tripartite-equilibrium-strategy-for-a-carbon-tax-setting-problem-in-air-passenger-transport
#6
Jiuping Xu, Rui Qiu, Zhimiao Tao, Heping Xie
Carbon emissions in air passenger transport have become increasing serious with the rapidly development of aviation industry. Combined with a tripartite equilibrium strategy, this paper proposes a multi-level multi-objective model for an air passenger transport carbon tax setting problem (CTSP) among an international organization, an airline and passengers with the fuzzy uncertainty. The proposed model is simplified to an equivalent crisp model by a weighted sum procedure and a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) transformation method...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299909/chromatic-titanium-photoanode-for-dye-sensitized-solar-cells-under-rear-illumination
#7
Chih-Hsiang Huang, Yu-Wen Chen, Chih-Ming Chen
Titanium (Ti) has high potential in many practical applications such as biomedicine, architecture, aviation, and energy. In this study, we demonstrate an innovative application of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on Ti photoanode that can be integrated into the roof engineering of large-scale architectures. A chromatic Ti foil produced by anodizing oxidation (coloring) technology (AOT) is an attractive roof material for large-scale architecture, showing a colorful appearance due to the formation of a reflective TiO2 thin layer on both surfaces of Ti...
January 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296044/comments-on-radiological-risk-assessment-of-cosmic-radiation-at-aviation-altitudes-a-trip-from-houston-intercontinental-airport-to-lagos-international-airport
#8
Munish Kumar, D Datta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275906/optimizing-performance-through-stress-training-an-educational-strategy-for-surgical-residents
#9
Michael B Goldberg, Michael Mazzei, Zoë Maher, Joel H Fish, Richard Milner, Daohai Yu, Amy J Goldberg
BACKGROUND: Stress management programs improve efficacy in aviation, military, and professional sports; however, similar educational strategies have not been adopted in surgical training. We have evaluated the effectiveness of a stress management program for surgical residents. METHODS: From 2011 to 2016, 137 surgical residents participated in a prospective, blinded study. The intervention group (n = 65) underwent training in self-awareness, focus, relaxation, positive self-talk, visualization, and team building...
December 8, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233243/pilot-mental-health-negative-life-events-and-improving-safety-with-peer-support-and-a-just-culture
#10
Sanne Mulder, Diederik de Rooy
BACKGROUND: In the last 35 yr, 17 commercial aviation accidents and incidents, with 576 fatalities, could likely have been attributed to mental disease of a pilot. Screening tools for mental health risks in airline pilots are needed. There is growing interest in pilot peer-support programs and how to incorporate them in a just culture, meaning that pilots can report mental health complaints without a risk of job or income loss. We combined findings from aviation accidents and incidents with a search of scientific literature to provide data-based recommendations for screening, peer-support, and a just culture approach to mental health problems...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228515/aging-and-cardiometabolic-risk-in-european-hems-pilots-an-assessment-of-occupational-old-age-limits-as-a-regulatory-risk-management-strategy
#11
Hans Bauer, Dennis Nowak, Britta Herbig
Old-age limits are imposed in some occupations in an effort to ensure public safety. In aviation, the "Age 60 Rule" limits permissible flight operations conducted by pilots aged 60 and over. Using a retrospective cohort design, we assessed this rule's validity by comparing age-related change rates of cardiometabolic incapacitation risk markers in European helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) pilots near age 60 with those in younger pilots. Specifically, individual clinical, laboratory, and electrocardiogram (ECG)-based risk markers and an overall cardiovascular event risk score were determined from aeromedical examination records of 66 German, Austrian, Polish, and Czech HEMS pilots (average follow-up 8...
December 11, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212841/hyperbaric-oxygen-pretreatment-benefits-on-decompression-sickness-in-bama-pigs
#12
Long Qing, Hong-Jie Yi, Ye-Wei Wang, Quan Zhou, Dinesh K Ariyadewa, Wei-Gang Xu
Decompression sickness (DCS) occurs when ambient pressure severely reduces during diving and aviation. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) pretreatment has been proven to exert beneficial effects on DCS in rats via heat-shock proteins (HSPs). We hypothesize that HBO pretreatment will also reduce DCS via HSPs in swine models. In part 1, six swine were subjected to a session of HBO treatment. HSP 32, 60, 70 and 90 were detected, before and at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 h following exposure in lymphocytes. In part 2, another ten swine were randomly assigned into 2 groups, 5 in each...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210756/the-survey-checklist-manifesto
#13
Hunter Gehlbach, Anthony R Artino
Checklists can mitigate a multitude of high-cost mistakes in fields ranging from surgery to aviation. As part of a standard protocol, checklists may provide many benefits, including improved equity and communication among team members and more efficient integration of different processes during complex tasks. Mostly, though, checklists serve as easy, efficient means to remind professionals of what they already know but can easily forget. By improving processes, checklists can reduce procedural errors, miscommunications, and even deaths...
November 28, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193997/predicting-airport-screening-officers-visual-search-competency-with-a-rapid-assessment
#14
Stephen R Mitroff, Justin M Ericson, Benjamin Sharpe
Objective The study's objective was to assess a new personnel selection and assessment tool for aviation security screeners. A mobile app was modified to create a tool, and the question was whether it could predict professional screeners' on-job performance. Background A variety of professions (airport security, radiology, the military, etc.) rely on visual search performance-being able to detect targets. Given the importance of such professions, it is necessary to maximize performance, and one means to do so is to select individuals who excel at visual search...
November 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192612/aviation-noise-impacts-state-of-the-science
#15
REVIEW
Mathias Basner, Charlotte Clark, Anna Hansell, James I Hileman, Sabine Janssen, Kevin Shepherd, Victor Sparrow
Noise is defined as "unwanted sound." Aircraft noise is one, if not the most detrimental environmental effect of aviation. It can cause community annoyance, disrupt sleep, adversely affect academic performance of children, and could increase the risk for cardiovascular disease of people living in the vicinity of airports. In some airports, noise constrains air traffic growth. This consensus paper was prepared by the Impacts of Science Group of the Committee for Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil Aviation Organization and summarizes the state of the science of noise effects research in the areas of noise measurement and prediction, community annoyance, children's learning, sleep disturbance, and health...
March 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184137/potential-ash-impact-from-antarctic-volcanoes-insights-from-deception-island-s-most-recent-eruption
#16
A Geyer, A Marti, S Giralt, A Folch
Ash emitted during explosive volcanic eruptions may disperse over vast areas of the globe posing a threat to human health and infrastructures and causing significant disruption to air traffic. In Antarctica, at least five volcanoes have reported historic activity. However, no attention has been paid to the potential socio-economic and environmental consequences of an ash-forming eruption occurring at high southern latitudes. This work shows how ash from Antarctic volcanoes may pose a higher threat than previously believed...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175087/iso-risk-air-no-decompression-limits-after-scoring-marginal-decompression-sickness-cases-as-non-events
#17
F Gregory Murphy, Ashleigh J Swingler, Wayne A Gerth, Laurens E Howle
Decompression sickness (DCS) in humans is associated with reductions in ambient pressure that occur during diving, aviation, or certain manned spaceflight operations. Its signs and symptoms can include, but are not limited to, joint pain, radiating abdominal pain, paresthesia, dyspnea, general malaise, cognitive dysfunction, cardiopulmonary dysfunction, and death. Probabilistic models of DCS allow the probability of DCS incidence and time of occurrence during or after a given hyperbaric or hypobaric exposure to be predicted based on how the gas contents or gas bubble volumes vary in hypothetical tissue compartments during the exposure...
November 15, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174807/impact-of-hydration-and-nutrition-on-personal-performance-in-the-clinical-workplace
#18
REVIEW
D Parry, R S Oeppen, H Gass, P A Brennan
As clinicians we sometimes fail to look after ourselves at work. We often do not drink enough during the day or miss lunch breaks while caring for patients, and this can be particularly evident during an all-day operating list when procedures are long and complex. Some operating theatre staff do not even eat breakfast regularly. Inadequate intake of fluids or nutrition can impair performance, lead to tiredness and headaches, and may compromise both our own health and the care we provide to patients. Other high-risk organisations, including aviation, have recognised that employees must look after themselves if they are to optimise their performance...
November 23, 2017: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163278/can-limitations-of-visuospatial-attention-be-circumvented-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Basil Wahn, Peter König
In daily life, humans are bombarded with visual input. Yet, their attentional capacities for processing this input are severely limited. Several studies have investigated factors that influence these attentional limitations and have identified methods to circumvent them. Here, we provide a review of these findings. We first review studies that have demonstrated limitations of visuospatial attention and investigated physiological correlates of these limitations. We then review studies in multisensory research that have explored whether limitations in visuospatial attention can be circumvented by distributing information processing across several sensory modalities...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157771/situational-awareness-in-critical-care-an-aviation-approach-to-reduce-error
#20
Adrian C Rodriguez, Darrell A Lee, Mary Beth Flynn Makic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
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