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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634464/anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-co-ultrapealut-in-a-mouse-model-of-vascular-dementia
#1
Rosalba Siracusa, Daniela Impellizzeri, Marika Cordaro, Rosalia Crupi, Emanuela Esposito, Stefania Petrosino, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Vascular dementia (VaD), the second most common cause of cognitive impairment in the population, is a disease that results from reduction in regional cerebral blood flow and involves oxidative stress and inflammation. Co-ultramicronized PEALut (co-ultra PEALut) is a new compound with beneficial effects, which include anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Recently, co-ultraPEALut has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects in models of Parkinson's disease, cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626015/reciprocal-interaction-of-dendrite-geometry-and-nuclear-calcium-vegfd-signaling-gates-memory-consolidation-and-extinction
#2
Thekla J Hemstedt, C Peter Bengtson, Omar Ramírez, Ana Mm Oliveira, Hilmar Bading
Nuclear calcium is an important signaling end-point in synaptic excitation-transcription coupling that is critical for long-term neuroadaptations. Here we show that nuclear calcium acting via a target gene VEGFD is required for hippocampus-dependent fear memory consolidation and extinction in mice. Nuclear calcium-VEGFD signaling upholds structural integrity and complexity of the dendritic arbor of CA1 neurons that renders those cells permissive for the efficient generation of synaptic input-evoked nuclear calcium transients driving the expression of plasticity-related genes...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611378/identification-of-postsynaptic-phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-pip2-roles-for-synaptic-plasticity-using-chemically-induced-dimerization
#3
Su-Jeong Kim, Min-Jae Jeong, Hee-Jung Jo, Jung Hoon Jung, Bong-Kiun Kaang, Yun-Beom Choi, Joung-Hun Kim
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), one of the key phospholipids, directly interacts with several membrane and cytosolic proteins at neuronal plasma membranes, leading to changes in neuronal properties including the feature and surface expression of ionotropic receptors. Although PIP2 is also concentrated at the dendritic spines, little is known about the direct physiological functions of PIP2 at postsynaptic as opposed to presynaptic sites. Most previous studies used genetic and pharmacological methods to modulate enzymes that alter PIP2 levels, making it difficult to delineate time- or region-specific roles of PIP2...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609458/dendritic-overgrowth-and-elevated-erk-signaling-during-neonatal-development-in-a-mouse-model-of-autism
#4
Ning Cheng, Fawaz Alshammari, Elizabeth Hughes, Maryam Khanbabaei, Jong M Rho
Autism spectrum disorder (hereafter referred to as "ASD") is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impaired social communication and interactions, and restricted, repetitive activities or interests. Alterations in network connectivity and memory function are frequently observed in autism patients, often involving the hippocampus. However, specific changes during early brain development leading to disrupted functioning remain largely unclear. Here, we investigated the development of dendritic arbor of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mouse model of autism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576939/the-x-linked-intellectual-disability-protein-il1rapl1-regulates-dendrite-complexity
#5
Caterina Montani, Mariana Ramos-Brossier, Luisa Ponzoni, Laura Gritti, Andrzej W Cwetsch, Daniela Braida, Yoann Saillour, Benedetta Terragni, Massimo Mantegazza, Mariaelvina Sala, Chiara Verpelli, Pierre Billuart, Carlo Sala
Mutations and deletions of Interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein like 1 (IL1RAPL1) gene, localized on X chromosome, are associated to intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). IL1RAPL1 protein is localized at the postsynaptic compartment of excitatory synapses and plays a role in synapse formation and stabilization. Here we characterized the role of IL1RAPL1 in regulating dendrite morphology using primary neuronal cultures and Il1rapl1-KO mice. We identified, associated to hippocampal cognitive impairment, an increased number of dendrite branching points in CA1 and CA2 hippocampal neurons of Il1rapl1-KO mice...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562478/neuroprotection-with-the-p53-inhibitor-pifithrin-%C3%AE-after-cardiac-arrest-in-a-rodent-model
#6
Michael Glas, Tamara Frick, Dirk Springe, Alessandro Putzu, Patrick Zuercher, Denis Grandgirard, Stephen L Leib, Stephan M Jakob, Jukka Takala, Matthias Haenggi
BACKGROUND: The small molecule pifithrin-μ reversibility inhibits the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. The neuronal effects of pifithrin-μ applied after cardiac arrest are unknown. We hypothesized that pifithrin-μ reduces neuronal damage in the most vulnerable brain region, the hippocampus, after cardiac arrest. METHODS: In two randomized controlled series we administered pifithrin-μ or control in 109 rats resuscitated after 8 or 10 minutes of cardiac arrest...
May 30, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558129/somatostatin-depresses-the-excitability-of-subicular-bursting-cells-roles-of-inward-rectifier-k-channels-kcnq-channels-and-epac
#7
Binqi Hu, Nicholas I Cilz, Saobo Lei
The hippocampus is a crucial component for cognitive and emotional processing. The subiculum provides much of the output for this structure but the modulation and function of this region is surprisingly under-studied. The neuromodulator somatostatin (SST) interacts with five subtypes of SST receptors (sst1 to sst5 ) and each of these SST receptor subtypes is coupled to Gi proteins resulting in inhibition of adenylyl cyclase (AC) and decreased level of intracellular cAMP. SST modulates many physiological functions including cognition, emotion, autonomic responses and locomotion...
May 30, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549967/hippocampal-nicotinic-receptors-have-a-modulatory-role-for-ethanol-and-mdma-interaction-in-memory-retrieval
#8
Maryam Rostami, Ameneh Rezayof, Sakineh Alijanpour, Khadijeh Alsadat Sharifi
The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of dorsal hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) activation on the functional interaction between ethanol and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) in memory retrieval. The dorsal hippocampal CA1 regions of adult male NMRI mice were bilaterally cannulated and memory retrieval was measured in a step-down type passive avoidance apparatus. Post-training or pre-test systemic administration of ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.) induced amnesia...
May 23, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501693/necrostatin-1-protects-hippocampal-neurons-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-the-rip3-daxx-signaling-pathway-in-rats
#9
Rongli Yang, Kun Hu, Jieyun Chen, Shiguang Zhu, Lei Li, Hailong Lu, Pingjing Li, Ruiguo Dong
Global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induces selective neuronal injury in CA1 region of hippocampus, leading to severe impairment in behavior, learning and memory functions. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the processes was not elucidated clearly. RIP3 is a key molecular switch connecting apoptosis, necrosis and necroptosis. DAXX, as a novel substrate of RIP3, plays a vital role in ischemia-induced neuronal death. The aim of this study is to investigate the role and mechanism of RIP3/DAXX signaling pathway on neurons in CA1 region of the rat hippocampus after cerebral I/R...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456171/on-the-role-of-the-entorhinal-cortex-in-the-effective-connectivity-of-the-hippocampal-formation
#10
Víctor J López-Madrona, Fernanda S Matias, Ernesto Pereda, Santiago Canals, Claudio R Mirasso
Inferring effective connectivity from neurophysiological data is a challenging task. In particular, only a finite (and usually small) number of sites are simultaneously recorded, while the response of one of these sites can be influenced by other sites that are not being recorded. In the hippocampal formation, for instance, the connections between areas CA1-CA3, the dentate gyrus (DG), and the entorhinal cortex (EC) are well established. However, little is known about the relations within the EC layers, which might strongly affect the resulting effective connectivity estimations...
April 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449208/complex-modulation-by-stress-of-the-effect-of-seizures-on-long-term-potentiation-in-mouse-hippocampal-slices
#11
Nicola Maggio, Efrat Shavit Stein, Menahem Segal
Stress has a profound effect on ability to express neuronal plasticity, learning and memory. Likewise, epileptic seizures lead to massive changes in brain connectivity, and in ability to undergo long term changes in reactivity to afferent stimulation. In the present study we analyzed possible long lasting interactions between a stressful experience and reactivity to pilocarpine, on the ability to produce long term potentiation (LTP) in a mouse hippocampus. Pilocarpine lowers paired pulse potentiation (PPP) as well as LTP in CA1 region of the mouse hippocampal slice...
April 27, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396398/selective-entrainment-of-gamma-subbands-by-different-slow-network-oscillations
#12
Weiwei Zhong, Mareva Ciatipis, Thérèse Wolfenstetter, Jakob Jessberger, Carola Müller, Simon Ponsel, Yevgenij Yanovsky, Jurij Brankačk, Adriano B L Tort, Andreas Draguhn
Theta oscillations (4-12 Hz) are thought to provide a common temporal reference for the exchange of information among distant brain networks. On the other hand, faster gamma-frequency oscillations (30-160 Hz) nested within theta cycles are believed to underlie local information processing. Whether oscillatory coupling between global and local oscillations, as showcased by theta-gamma coupling, is a general coding mechanism remains unknown. Here, we investigated two different patterns of oscillatory network activity, theta and respiration-induced network rhythms, in four brain regions of freely moving mice: olfactory bulb (OB), prelimbic cortex (PLC), parietal cortex (PAC), and dorsal hippocampus [cornu ammonis 1 (CA1)]...
April 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392296/anxious-behavior-induces-elevated-hippocampal-cb2-receptor-gene-expression
#13
James M Robertson, Justin K Achua, Justin P Smith, Melissa A Prince, Clarissa D Staton, Patrick J Ronan, Tangi R Summers, Cliff H Summers
Anxiety is differentially expressed across a continuum of stressful/fearful intensity, influenced by endocannabinoid systems and receptors. The hippocampus plays important roles in the regulation of affective behavior, emotion, and anxiety, as well as memory. Location of Cb1/Cb2 receptor action could be important in determining emotional valence, because while the dorsal hippocampus is involved in spatial memory and cognition, the ventral hippocampus has projections to the PFC, BNST, amygdala, and HPA axis, and is important for emotional responses to stress...
June 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390894/methylene-blue-inhibits-gabaa-receptors-by-interaction-with-gaba-binding-site
#14
Zhenglan Chen, Ran Liu, Shao-Hua Yang, Glenn H Dillon, Renqi Huang
Methylene blue (MB) is commonly used in diagnostic procedures and is also used to treat various medical conditions. Neurological effects of MB have been reported in clinical observations and experimental studies. Thus the modulation of GABAA receptor function by MB was investigated. Whole-cell GABA-activated currents were recorded from HEK293 cells expressing various GABAA receptor subunit configurations. MB inhibition of GABA currents was apparent at 3 μM, and it had an IC50 of 31 μM in human α1β2γ2 receptors...
June 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384498/interaction-between-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampal-ca1-area-is-essential-for-episodic-like-memory-in-rats
#15
Owen Y Chao, Susanne Nikolaus, Marcus Lira Brandão, Joseph P Huston, Maria A de Souza Silva
The interplay between medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus, particularly the hippocampal CA3 area, is critical for episodic memory. To what extent the mPFC also interacts with the hippocampus CA1 subregion still requires elucidation. To investigate this issue, male rats received unilateral N-methyl-D-aspartate lesions of the mPFC together with unilateral lesions of the hippocampal CA1 area, either in the same (control) or in the opposite hemispheres (disconnection). They underwent an episodic-like memory test, combining what-where-when information, and separate tests for novel object preference (what), object place preference (where) and temporal order memory (when)...
April 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380327/interaction-between-harmane-a-class-of-%C3%AE-carboline-alkaloids-and-the-ca1-serotonergic-system-in-modulation-of-memory-acquisition
#16
Mohammad Nasehi, Fatemeh Ghadimi, Fatemeh Khakpai, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
This study set to assess the involvement of dorsal hippocampus (CA1) serotonergic system on harmane induced memory acquisition deficit. We used one trial step-down inhibitory avoidancetask to evaluate memory retention and then, open field test to evaluate locomotor activity in adult male NMRI mice. The results showed that pre-training intra-peritoneal (i.p.) administration of harmane (12mg/kg) induced impairment of memory acquisition. Pre-training intra-CA1 administration of 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist (CP94253; 0...
April 2, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334103/neuronal-and-peripheral-pentraxins-modify-glutamate-release-and-may-interact-in-blood-brain-barrier-failure
#17
Damian M Cummings, Tiffanie A Benway, Hinze Ho, Angelo Tedoldi, Monica M Fernandes Freitas, Lion Shahab, Christina E Murray, Angela Richard-Loendt, Sebastian Brandner, Tammaryn Lashley, Dervis A Salih, Frances A Edwards
Neuronal pentraxin 1 (NPTX1) has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease, being present in and around dystrophic neurons in plaques, affecting glutamatergic transmission postsynaptically and mediating effects of amyloidβ. Here, we confirm the presence of NPTX1 around plaques in postmortem Alzheimer's disease brain and report that acutely applied human NPTX1 increases paired-pulse ratio at mouse CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses, indicating a decrease in glutamate release. In contrast, chronic exposure to NPTX1, NPTX2, or NPTX receptor decreases paired-pulse ratio, mimicking some of the earliest changes in mice expressing familial Alzheimer's disease genes...
June 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292834/functional-connectivity-of-multiple-brain-regions-required-for-the-consolidation-of-social-recognition-memory
#18
Toshiyuki Tanimizu, Justin W Kenney, Emiko Okano, Kazune Kadoma, Paul W Frankland, Satoshi Kida
Social recognition memory is an essential and basic component of social behavior that is used to discriminate familiar and novel animals/humans. Previous studies have shown the importance of several brain regions for social recognition memories; however, the mechanisms underlying the consolidation of social recognition memory at the molecular and anatomic levels remain unknown. Here, we show a brain network necessary for the generation of social recognition memory in mice. A mouse genetic study showed that cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcription is required for the formation of social recognition memory...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279355/entorhinal-ca3-dual-input-control-of-spike-timing-in-the-hippocampus-by-theta-gamma-coupling
#19
Antonio Fernández-Ruiz, Azahara Oliva, Gergő A Nagy, Andrew P Maurer, Antal Berényi, György Buzsáki
Theta-gamma phase coupling and spike timing within theta oscillations are prominent features of the hippocampus and are often related to navigation and memory. However, the mechanisms that give rise to these relationships are not well understood. Using high spatial resolution electrophysiology, we investigated the influence of CA3 and entorhinal inputs on the timing of CA1 neurons. The theta-phase preference and excitatory strength of the afferent CA3 and entorhinal inputs effectively timed the principal neuron activity, as well as regulated distinct CA1 interneuron populations in multiple tasks and behavioral states...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261055/increased-calcium-sensing-receptor-immunoreactivity-in-the-hippocampus-of-a-triple-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Emanuela Gardenal, Anna Chiarini, Ubaldo Armato, Ilaria Dal Prà, Alexei Verkhratsky, José J Rodríguez
The Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR) is a G-protein coupled, 7-transmembrane domain receptor ubiquitously expressed throughout the body, brain including. The role of CaSR in the CNS is not well understood; its expression is increasing during development, which has been implicated in memory formation and consolidation, and CaSR localization in nerve terminals has been related to synaptic plasticity and neurotransmission. There is an emerging evidence of CaSR involvement in neurodegenerative disorders and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in particular, where the over-production of β-amyloid peptides was reported to activate CaSR...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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