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gap junctions

Yuejiao Shu, Xianli Su, Hongyao Xie, Gang Zheng, Wei Liu, Yonggao Yan, Tingting Luo, Xiao Yang, Dongwang Yang, Ctirad Uher, Xinfeng Tang
SnSe2 is a wide band gap semiconductor (Eg = 1.05 eV) with a typical two-dimensional hexagonal crystal structure of the prototype CdI2 phase, resulting in an intrinsically low thermal conductivity, which is favorable for thermoelectrics. Herein, we reported the remarkable role of Cl doping in SnSe2/SnSe nanocomposites. Doping with Cl in the system not only increased the carrier concentration by an order of magnitude but it also modified the heterojunction from that of the Schottky junction type (p-n junction) in undoped samples to junctions having an Ohmic contact (n-n junction) when the samples were doped with Cl, increasing their carrier mobility in the process...
April 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Joachim Greiner, Aparna C Sankarankutty, Gunnar Seemann, Thomas Seidel, Frank B Sachse
Computational modeling is an important tool to advance our knowledge on cardiac diseases and their underlying mechanisms. Computational models of conduction in cardiac tissues require identification of parameters. Our knowledge on these parameters is limited, especially for diseased tissues. Here, we assessed and quantified parameters for computational modeling of conduction in cardiac tissues. We used a rabbit model of myocardial infarction (MI) and an imaging-based approach to derive the parameters. Left ventricular tissue samples were obtained from fixed control hearts (animals: 5) and infarcted hearts (animals: 6) within 200 μm (region 1), 250-750 μm (region 2) and 1,000-1,250 μm (region 3) of the MI border...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yvona Ward, Ross Lake, Farhoud Faraji, Jamie Sperger, Philip Martin, Cameron Gilliard, Kimberly P Ku, Tamara Rodems, David Niles, Heather Tillman, JuanJuan Yin, Kent Hunter, Adam G Sowalsky, Joshua Lang, Kathleen Kelly
Tumor cells initiate platelet activation leading to the secretion of bioactive molecules, which promote metastasis. Platelet receptors on tumors have not been well-characterized, resulting in a critical gap in knowledge concerning platelet-promoted metastasis. We identify a direct interaction between platelets and tumor CD97 that stimulates rapid bidirectional signaling. CD97, an adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is an overexpressed tumor antigen in several cancer types. Purified CD97 extracellular domain or tumor cell-associated CD97 stimulated platelet activation...
April 17, 2018: Cell Reports
Richard D Veenstra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Haijiao Mao, Linger Wang, Wenwei Dong, Zhenxin Liu, Weigang Yin, Dachuan Xu, Keith L Wapner
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of anatomical variations of the musculotendinous junction of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) muscle, the relationship between FHL tendon or muscle and the tibial neurovascular bundle at the level of the posterior ankle joint in human cadavers. METHODS: Seventy embalmed feet from 20 male and 15 female cadavers, the cadavers' mean age was 65.4 (range from 14 to 82) years, were dissected and anatomically classified to observe FHL muscle morphology define the relationship between FHL tendon or muscle and the tibial neurovascular bundle...
April 16, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Valeria C Labra, Cristian A Santibáñez, Rosario Gajardo-Gómez, Esteban F Díaz, Gonzalo I Gómez, Juan A Orellana
The formation of gap junctions was initially thought to be the central role of connexins, however, recent evidence had brought to light the high relevance of unopposed hemichannels as an independent mechanism for the selective release of biomolecules during physiological and pathological conditions. In the healthy brain, the physiological opening of astrocyte hemichannels modulates basal excitatory synaptic transmission. At the other end, the release of potentially neurotoxic compounds through astroglial hemichannels and pannexons has been insinuated as one of the functional alterations that negatively affect the progression of multiple brain diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Taoyan Liu, Chengwu Huang, Hongxia Li, Fujian Wu, Jianwen Luo, Wenjing Lu, Feng Lan
The use of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) is limited in drug discovery and cardiac disease mechanism studies due to cell immaturity. Although many approaches have been reported to improve the maturation of hiPSC-CMs, the elucidation of the process of maturation is crucial. We applied a small-molecule-based differentiation method to generate cardiomyocytes (CMs) with multiple aggregation forms. The motion analysis revealed significant physical differences in the differently shaped CMs, and the net-shaped CMs had larger motion amplitudes and faster velocities than the sheet-shaped CMs...
April 14, 2018: Aging
Rachel Aldred, Anna Goodman, John Gulliver, James Woodcock
Cycling injury risk is an important topic, but few studies explore cycling risk in relation to exposure. This is largely because of a lack of exposure data, in other words how much cycling is done at different locations. This paper helps to fill this gap. It reports a case-control study of cycling injuries in London in 2013-2014, using modelled cyclist flow data alongside datasets covering some characteristics of the London route network. A multilevel binary logistic regression model is used to investigate factors associated with injury risk, comparing injury sites with control sites selected using the modelled flow data...
April 13, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Mark L Schultz, Luis Tecedor, Elena Lysenko, Shyam Ramachandran, Colleen S Stein, Beverly L Davidson
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses are a class of inherited neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the accumulation of autofluorescent storage material. The most common neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis has juvenile onset with rapid onset blindness and progressive degeneration of cognitive processes. The juvenile form is caused by mutations in the CLN3 gene, which encodes the protein CLN3. While mouse models of Cln3 deficiency show mild disease phenotypes, it is apparent from patient tissue- and cell-based studies that its loss impacts many cellular processes...
April 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Michelle Mikesh, Cameron L Ghergherehchi, Sina Rahesh, Karthik Jagannath, Amir Ali, Dale R Sengelaub, Richard C Trevino, David M Jackson, Haley O Tucker, George D Bittner
Many publications report that ablations of segments of peripheral nerves produce the following unfortunate results: (1) Immediate loss of sensory signaling and motor control; (2) rapid Wallerian degeneration of severed distal axons within days; (3) muscle atrophy within weeks; (4) poor behavioral (functional) recovery after many months, if ever, by slowly-regenerating (∼1mm/d) axon outgrowths from surviving proximal nerve stumps; and (5) Nerve allografts to repair gap injuries are rejected, often even if tissue matched and immunosuppressed...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Feng Li, Zhixing Lu, Yann-Wen Lan, Liying Jiao, Minxuan Xu, Xiaoyang Zhu, Xiankun Zhang, Hualin Wu, Junjie Qi
In this work, the vertical electrical transport behavior of bilayer MoS2 under coupling of light and force was explored by the use of conductive atomic force microscopy. We found that the current-voltage behavior across the tip-MoS2-Pt junction is a tunneling current which can be well fitted by a Simmons approximation. The transport behavior is direct tunneling at low bias and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling at high bias, the transition voltage and the tunnel barrier height were extracted. The band gap of the junction was estimated which is present liner with corresponding transition voltage...
April 13, 2018: Nanotechnology
Júlia Borges Paes Lemes, Tais de Campos Lima, Débora Oliveira Santos, Amanda Ferreira Neves, Fernando Silva de Oliveira, Carlos Almicar Parada, Celina Monteiro da Cruz Lotufo
At dorsal root ganglia, neurons and satellite glial cells (SGC) can communicate through ATP release and P2X7 receptor activation. SGCs are also interconnected by gap junctions and have been previously implicated in modulating inflammatory and chronic pain.We now present evidence that SGCs are also involved in processing acute nociception in rat dorsal root ganglia. Using primary dorsal root ganglia cultures we observed that calcium transients induced in neurons by capsaicin administration were followed by satellite glial cells activation...
April 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Alexis Pietak, Michael Levin
Positional information describes pre-patterns of morphogenetic substances that alter spatio-temporal gene expression to instruct development of growth and form. A wealth of recent data indicate bioelectrical properties, such as the transmembrane potential (Vmem ), are involved as instructive signals in the spatiotemporal regulation of morphogenesis. However, the mechanistic relationships between Vmem and molecular positional information are only beginning to be understood. Recent advances in computational modeling are assisting in the development of comprehensive frameworks for mechanistically understanding how endogenous bioelectricity can guide anatomy in a broad range of systems...
April 4, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Jian Sun, Qianwen Hu, Hong Peng, Cheng Peng, Liheng Zhou, Jinsong Lu, Chuanxin Huang
Connexin 43 (Cx43, also known as GJA1), is the most ubiquitously expressed connexin isoform in mammalian tissues. It forms intercellular gap junction (GJ) channels, enabling adjacent cells to communicate both electrically and metabolically. Cx43 is a short-lived protein which can be quickly degraded by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal, endolysosomal and autophagosomal pathways. Here, we report that the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 8 (USP8) interacts with and deubiquitinates Cx43. USP8 reduces both multiple monoubiquitination and polyubiquitination of Cx43 to prevent autophagy-mediated degradation...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Eva K F Chan, Daniel L Cameron, Desiree C Petersen, Ruth J Lyons, Benedetta F Baldi, Anthony T Papenfuss, David M Thomas, Vanessa M Hayes
Genomic rearrangements are common in cancer, with demonstrated links to disease progression and treatment response. These rearrangements can be complex, resulting in fusions of multiple chromosomal fragments and generation of derivative chromosomes. While methods exist for detecting individual fusions, they are generally unable to reconstruct complex chained events. To overcome these limitations, we adopted a new optical mapping approach, allowing megabase length genome maps to be reconstructed and rearranged genomes to be visualized without loss of integrity...
April 4, 2018: Genome Research
Tiantian Wang, Xijie Yu, Chengqi He
Glucocorticoids are widely used to treat varieties of allergic and autoimmune diseases, however, long-term application results in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP). Inflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) play important regulatory roles in bone metabolism, but their roles in GIOP remain largely unknown. Osteocytes can modulate the formation and function of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, directly via gap junctions, or indirectly by transferring molecule signaling...
April 4, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Dalton Conley, Rebecca Johnson, Ben Domingue, Christopher Dawes, Jason Boardman, Mark Siegal
The propensity of a trait to vary within a population may have evolutionary, ecological, or clinical significance. In the present study we deploy sibling models to offer a novel and unbiased way to ascertain loci associated with the extent to which phenotypes vary (variance-controlling quantitative trait loci, or vQTLs). Previous methods for vQTL-mapping either exclude genetically related individuals or treat genetic relatedness among individuals as a complicating factor addressed by adjusting estimates for non-independence in phenotypes...
2018: PloS One
Ioannis Spanopoulos, Weijun Ke, Constantinos C Stoumpos, Emily C Schueller, Oleg Y Kontsevoi, Ram Seshadri, Mercouri G Kanatzidis
The newly introduced class of 3D halide perovskites, termed "hollow" perovskites, has been recently demonstrated as light absorbing semiconductor materials for fabricating lead-free perovskite solar cells with enhanced efficiency and superior stability. Hollow perovskites derive from three-dimensional (3D) AMX3 perovskites (A = methylammonium (MA), formamidinium (FA); M = Sn, Pb; X = Cl, Br, I) where small molecules such as ethylenediammonium cations (en) can be incorporated as the dication without altering the structure dimensionality...
April 4, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Maria J Capitán, Jesús Álvarez, Cristina Navio
In this article, we perform systematic research on the electronic structure of two closely related organic electron acceptor molecules (TCNQ and TCNE), which are of technological interest due to their outstanding electronic properties. These studies have been performed from the experimental point of view by the use electron spectroscopies (XPS and UPS) and supported theoretically by the use of ab-initio DFT calculations. The cross-check between both molecules allows us to identify the characteristic electronic features of each part of the molecules and their contribution to the final electronic structure...
April 4, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Mehmet Sahin
In this study, effects of the shell material and confinement type on the conversion efficiency of the core/shell quantum dot nanocrystal (QDNC) solar cells have been investigated in a detail manner. For this purpose, the conventional, i.e original, detailed balance model, developed by Shockley and Queisser to calculate an upper limit for conversion efficiency of silicon p-n junction solar cells, is modified in a simple and an effective way and calculated the conversion efficiency of core/shell QDNC solar cells...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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