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gap junctions

Vladimir Rancic, Bijal Rawal, Bogdan Panaitescu, Araya Ruangkittisakul, Klaus Ballanyi
The brainstem locus coeruleus (LC) controling behaviors like arousal, sleep, breathing, pain or opioid withdrawal is an established model for spontaneous action potential synchronization. Such synchronous 'spiking' might produce an extracellular field potential (FP) which is a crucial tool for neural network analyses. We found using ≥10 μm tip diameter suction electrodes in newborn rat brainstem slices that the LC generates at ∼1 Hz a robust rhythmic FP (rFP). During distinct rFP phases, LC neurons discharge with a jitter of ±33 ms single spikes that summate to a ∼200 ms-lasting population burst...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Zehe Ge, Haipeng Diao, Xiaoli Ji, Qingping Liu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Qing Wu
Cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, is known to induce renal toxicity by primarily targeting at renal proximal tubule. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) regulate many pathophysiological processes. Yet, how ER stress and GJIC regulate Cd-induced nephrotoxicity remain elusive. In this study, we treated human proximal tubule (HK-2) cells with 1 μM CdCl2every other day for 12 days and found that Cd significantly increased cell apoptosis at 10 and 12 days. This cytotoxicity correlated with activation of ER stress and apoptotic signaling evidenced by upregulation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1α), splice X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1s), and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) proteins...
February 11, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Jingjing Yu, Kashif Javaid, Lingyan Liang, Weihua Wu, Yu Liang, Anran Song, Hongliang Zhang, Wen Shi, Ting-Chang Chang, Hongtao Cao
A visible-blind ultraviolet (UV) photodetector was designed based on three-terminal electronic device of thin-film transistor (TFT) coupled with two-terminal p-n junction optoelectronic device, in hope of combining the beauties of the both devices together. Upon the uncovered back channel surface of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) TFT, we fabricated PEDOT:PSS/SnOx/IGZO heterojunction structure, through which the formation of p-n junction and directional carrier transfer of photo-generated carriers were experimentally validated...
February 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yongxian Xu, Luxin Peng, Sicong Wang, Anqi Wang, Ruirui Ma, Ying Zhou, Jiahe Yang, De-En Sun, Wei Lin, Xing Chen, Peng Zou
Membrane voltage is an important biophysical signal that underlies intercellular electrical communications. In this study, we present a novel fluorescent voltage indicator that enables the investigation of electrical signaling at high spatial resolution. Our method is built upon the site-specific modification of microbial rhodopsin proteins with organic fluorophores, resulting in a hybrid indicator scaffold that represents one of the most sensitive and fastest orange-colored voltage indicators developed to date...
February 13, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Pamela Uribe, Lena Larsson, Anna Westerlund, Maria Ransjö
Animal studies suggest that the dental follicle (DF) plays a major role in tooth eruption. However, the role of the DF during tooth impaction and related root resorptions in adjacent teeth is not clear. The hypothesis for the present study is that expression of regulatory factors involved in the bone remodelling process necessary for tooth eruption may differ between dental follicles from teeth with different clinical situations. We have analysed the gene expression profiles in the DF obtained from impacted canines, with (N = 3) or without (N = 5) signs of root resorption, and from control teeth (normal erupting teeth, mesiodens) (N = 3)...
February 12, 2018: Odontology
Zhe Li, Sha Zhang, Liang Cao, Wei Li, Yu-Chen Ye, Zi-Xuan Shi, Zong-Ren Wang, Lian-Xu Sun, Jia-Wei Wang, Lin-Tao Jia, Wen Wang
Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) and Astragaloside IV (AGS-IV) were used as therapeutic treatments for coronary heart diseases (CHDs) in ancient China. However, the underlying mechanisms mediating the effects of Tan IIA and AGS-IV in angiogenesis remain unknown. In the present study, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were induced to differentiate into endothelial cell (EC)-like cells in vitro and the effects of Tan IIA and/or AGS-IV on the functions of these cells, including cell proliferation and tube formation, were assessed...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Lusi Zhang, Youling Liang, Yedi Zhou, Huilan Zeng, Songbai Jia, Jingming Shi
Congenital cataract is leading cause of visual impairment and blindness in children worldwide. Approximately one-third of congenital cataract cases are familial, whose genetic etiology can be distinguished by targeted exome sequencing. Here, a three-generation congenital cataract pedigree was recruited, and physical and ophthalmologic examinations were taken. Targeted exome sequencing of 139 cataract-related genes was performed on the proband III:1. Sanger sequencing was used to validate the presence of variation identified via exome sequencing in family members and 200 controls...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Jaime L Hook, Mohammad N Islam, Dane Parker, Alice S Prince, Sunita Bhattacharya, Jahar Bhattacharya
Infection by Staphylococcus aureus strain USA300 causes tissue injury, multiorgan failure, and high mortality. However, the mechanisms by which the bacteria adhere to, then stabilize on, mucosal surfaces before causing injury remain unclear. We addressed these issues through the first real-time determinations of USA300-alveolar interactions in live lungs. We found that within minutes, inhaled USA300 established stable, self-associated microaggregates in niches at curved, but not at flat, regions of the alveolar wall...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Zhengxu Cai, Na Zhang, Mohammad Awais, Alexander Filatov, Luping Yu
This paper describes the syntheses, optical and charge transport properties of a series of donor-acceptor (D-A) ladder-type heteroacenes. These molecules are stable, soluble, and contain up to 24-fused rings. The structural analyses indicate that the backbones of S10r and Se10r are bent in single-crystals. The three 10-ring heteroacenes were functionalized with thiol anchoring groups and used for single-molecular conductance measurements. The highest conductance was observed for molecular wires containing benzoselenadiazole (BSD) moiety that exhibits narrowest bandgap...
February 11, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Dominik Steppan, Lisa Geis, Lin Pan, Kenneth Gross, Charlotte Wagner, Armin Kurtz
The so-called calcium paradoxon of renin describes the phenomenon that exocytosis of renin from juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney is stimulated by lowering of the extracellular calcium concentration. The yet poorly understood effect of extracellular calcium on renin secretion appears to depend on the function of the gap junction protein connexin 40 (Cx40) in renin-producing cells. This study aimed to elucidate the role of Cx40 for the calcium dependency of renin secretion in more detail by investigating if Cx40 function is really essential for the influence of extracellular calcium on renin secretion, if and how Cx40 affects intracellular calcium dynamics in renin-secreting cells and if Cx40-mediated gap junctional coupling of renin-secreting cells with the mesangial cell area is relevant for the influence of extracellular calcium on renin secretion...
February 9, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Luigi F Agnati, Manuela Marcoli, Guido Maura, Amina Woods, Diego Guidolin
Investigations of brain complex integrative actions should consider beside neural networks, glial, extracellular molecular, and fluid channels networks. The present paper proposes that all these networks are assembled into the brain hyper-network that has as fundamental components, the tetra-partite synapses, formed by neural, glial, and extracellular molecular networks. Furthermore, peri-synaptic astrocytic processes by modulating the perviousness of extracellular fluid channels control the signals impinging on the tetra-partite synapses...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
T Dvir, F Massee, L Attias, M Khodas, M Aprili, C H L Quay, H Steinberg
Tunnel junctions, an established platform for high resolution spectroscopy of superconductors, require defect-free insulating barriers; however, oxides, the most common barrier, can only grow on a limited selection of materials. We show that van der Waals tunnel barriers, fabricated by exfoliation and transfer of layered semiconductors, sustain stable currents with strong suppression of sub-gap tunneling. This allows us to measure the spectra of bulk (20 nm) and ultrathin (3- and 4-layer) NbSe2 devices at 70 mK...
February 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Elisabeth Rosner, Kevin N Rohmann, Andrew H Bass, Boris P Chagnaud
Vocalization is a behavioral feature that is shared among multiple vertebrate lineages, including fish. The temporal patterning of vocal communication signals is set, in part, by central pattern generators (CPGs). Toadfishes are well-established models for CPG coding of vocalization at the hindbrain level. The vocal CPG comprises three topographically separate nuclei: pre-pacemaker, pacemaker, motor. While the connectivity between these nuclei is well understood, their neurochemical profile remains largely unexplored...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Zenghui Wu, Guoan Tai, Xufeng Wang, Tingsong Hu, Rui Wang, Wanlin Guo
Compared with MoS2 and WS2, selenide analogs have narrower band gaps and higher electron mobilities, which make them more applicable to real electrical devices. In addition, few-layer metal selenides have higher electrical conductivity, carrier mobility and light absorption than the corresponding monolayers. However, the large-scale and high-quality growth of few-layer metal selenides remains a significant challenge. Here, we develop a facile method to grow large-area and highly crystalline few-layer MoSe2 by directly selenizing the Mo foil surface at 550 °C within 60 min under ambient pressure...
February 9, 2018: Nanotechnology
Praveena S Thiagarajan, Maksim Sinyuk, Soumya M Turaga, Erin E Mulkearns-Hubert, James S Hale, Vinay Rao, Abeba Demelash, Caner Saygin, Arnab China, Tyler J Alban, Masahiro Hitomi, Luke A Torre-Healy, Alvaro G Alvarado, Awad Jarrar, Andrew Wiechert, Valery Adorno-Cruz, Paul L Fox, Benjamin C Calhoun, Jun-Lin Guan, Huiping Liu, Ofer Reizes, Justin D Lathia
Tumors adapt their phenotypes during growth and in response to therapies through dynamic changes in cellular processes. Connexin proteins enable such dynamic changes during development, and their dysregulation leads to disease states. The gap junction communication channels formed by connexins have been reported to exhibit tumor-suppressive functions, including in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, we find that connexin 26 (Cx26) is elevated in self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs) and is necessary and sufficient for their maintenance...
February 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Emily I Bartle, Tejeshwar C Rao, Tara M Urner, Alexa L Mattheyses
Cell junctions are critical for cell adhesion and communication in epithelial tissues. It is evident that the cellular distribution, size, and architecture of cell junctions play a vital role in regulating function. These details of junction architecture have been challenging to elucidate in part due to the complexity and size of cell junctions. A major challenge in understanding these features is attaining high resolution spatial information with molecular specificity. Fluorescence microscopy allows localization of specific proteins to junctions, but with a resolution on the same scale as junction size, rendering internal protein organization unobtainable...
November 28, 2017: Tissue Barriers
Dean Korošak, Marjan Slak Rupnik
Major part of a pancreatic islet is composed of β-cells that secrete insulin, a key hormone regulating influx of nutrients into all cells in a vertebrate organism to support nutrition, housekeeping or energy storage. β-cells constantly communicate with each other using both direct, short-range interactions through gap junctions, and paracrine long-range signaling. However, how these cell interactions shape collective sensing and cell behavior in islets that leads to insulin release is unknown. When stimulated by specific ligands, primarily glucose, β-cells collectively respond with expression of a series of transient Ca2+ changes on several temporal scales...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Riccardo Paracampo, Martina Pirruccio, Marco Costa, Sara Borgomaneri, Alessio Avenanti
Functional imaging studies suggest that accurate understanding of others' emotional feelings (i.e., empathic accuracy, EA) recruits high-order visual, sensorimotor and mentalizing brain networks. However, the behavioral relevance of these findings is unclear. To fill in this gap, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to interfere with the right superior temporal sulcus (STS), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and temporoparietal junction (TPJ) during an EA task requiring participants to infer the enjoyment felt by a social target while smiling/laughing...
February 1, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Yasunari Fukuda, Takami Akagi, Tadafumi Asaoka, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Kazuki Sasaki, Yoshifumi Iwagami, Daisaku Yamada, Takehiro Noda, Koichi Kawamoto, Kunihito Gotoh, Shogo Kobayashi, Masaki Mori, Yuichiro Doki, Mitsuru Akashi
Tissue engineering of insulin-secreting cells using alternatives to islet transplantation has been fueled by the development of available materials and fabrication techniques. We have established a cell coating technique that enables the cell surface to be coated with extracellular matrix based on the concept of a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. The present study evaluated whether this technique is beneficial for fabricating pancreatic β-cell spheroids using a mouse β-cell line. The well-structured and dense spheroids could immediately be constructed by the LbL-coated cells...
January 16, 2018: Biomaterials
Jiaqi Liao, Tao Hong, Jinxian Xu, Erming Zeng, Bin Tang, Wentao Lai
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Moyamoya disease has a high incidence of cerebral vascular accident in children and adolescents, which can endanger the physical and mental health of children and adults seriously. However, the etiology and the pathogenesis of moyamoya disease remain unclear. Connexin43 (Cx43) is a predominant intercellular gap junction protein that plays an important role in the normal function of arteries and the development of several cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to preliminarily investigate pathological changes and the expression of Cx43 in cerebral arteries of patients with moyamoya disease...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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