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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545922/diseases-of-connexins-expressed-in-myelinating-glia
#1
REVIEW
Charles K Abrams
Connexins are a family of integral membrane proteins most of which form gap junctions and many of which form hemichannels as well. Mutations in at least 9 of the 21 genes encoding human connexin proteins cause human diseases. Mutations in GJB1 (Cx32), expressed in both Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes, cause both a form of inherited peripheral neuropathy and a variety of CNS symptoms. Mutations in GJC2 (Cx47), expressed only in oligodendrocytes within the nervous system, cause a severe early onset dysmyelinating disorder, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-Like disease (PMLD1 or HLD2), hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG44), which has a milder phenotype and later onset, and a subclinical leukodystrophy...
May 22, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542195/differential-excitatory-control-of-2-parallel-basket-cell-networks-in-amygdala-microcircuits
#2
Tibor Andrási, Judit M Veres, Laura Rovira-Esteban, Richárd Kozma, Attila Vikór, Erzsébet Gregori, Norbert Hájos
Information processing in neural networks depends on the connectivity among excitatory and inhibitory neurons. The presence of parallel, distinctly controlled local circuits within a cortical network may ensure an effective and dynamic regulation of microcircuit function. By applying a combination of optogenetics, electrophysiological recordings, and high resolution microscopic techniques, we uncovered the organizing principles of synaptic communication between principal neurons and basket cells in the basal nucleus of the amygdala...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535336/transport-of-the-glucosamine-derived-browning-product-fructosazine-polyhydroxyalkylpyrazine-across-the-human-intestinal-caco-2-cell-monolayer-role-of-the-hexose-transporters
#3
Abhishek Bhattacherjee, Yuliya Hrynets, Mirko Betti
The transport mechanism of fructosazine, a glucosamine self-condensation product, was investigated using a Caco-2 cell model. Fructosazine transport was assessed by measuring the bidirectional permeability coefficient across Caco-2 cells. The mechanism of transport was evaluated using phlorizin, an inhibitor of sodium-dependent glucose cotransporters (SGLT) 1 and 2, phloretin and quercetin, an inhibitors of glucose transporters (GLUT) 1 and 2, transcytosis inhibitor wortmannin, and gap junction disruptor cytochalasin D...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533325/physiologic-regulation-of-heart-rate-and-blood-pressure-involves-connexin-36-containing-gap-junctions
#4
Varinder K Lall, Gareth Bruce, Larysa Voytenko, Mark Drinkhill, Kerstin Wellershaus, Klaus Willecke, Jim Deuchars, Susan A Deuchars
Chronically elevated sympathetic nervous activity underlies many cardiovascular diseases. Elucidating the mechanisms contributing to sympathetic nervous system output may reveal new avenues of treatment. The contribution of the gap junctional protein connexin 36 (Cx36) to the regulation of sympathetic activity and thus blood pressure and heart rate was determined using a mouse with specific genetic deletion of Cx36. Ablation of the Cx36 protein was confirmed in sympathetic preganglionic neurons of Cx36 knockout (KO) mice...
May 22, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530763/surface-oxygen-vacancy-induced-solar-light-activity-enhancement-of-a-cdwo4-bi2o2co3-core-shell-heterostructure-photocatalyst
#5
Chunming Yang, Guimei Gao, Junjun Zhang, Ruiping Liu, Ruicheng Fan, Ming Zhao, Yongwang Wang, Shucai Gan
A CdWO4/Bi2O2CO3 core-shell heterostructure photocatalyst was fabricated via a facile two-step hydrothermal process. Flower-like Bi2O2CO3 was synthesized and functioned as the cores on which CdWO4 nanorods were coated as the shells. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) demonstrate that the CdWO4/Bi2O2CO3 core-shell heterostructure photocatalyst possesses a large amount of oxygen vacancies, which induce defect levels in the band gap and help to broaden light absorption. The photocatalyst exhibits enhanced photocatalytic activity for Rhodamine B (RhB), methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), and colorless contaminant phenol degradation under solar light irradiation...
May 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530632/anisotropic-transport-of-normal-metal-barrier-normal-metal-junctions-in-monolayer-phosphorene
#6
Sangita de Sarkar, Amit Agarwal, Krishnendu Sengupta
We study transport properties of a phosphorene monolayer in the presence of single and multiple potential barriers of height $U_0$ and width $d$, using both continuum and microscopic lattice models, and show that the nature of electron transport along its armchair edge ($x$ direction) is qualitatively different from its counterpart in both conventional two-dimensional electron gas with Schr\"odinger-like quasiparticles and graphene or surfaces of topological insulators hosting massless Dirac quasiparticles...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530549/a-genetic-basis-for-molecular-asymmetry-at-vertebrate-electrical-synapses
#7
Adam C Miller, Alex C Whitebirch, Arish N Shah, Kurt C Marsden, Michael Granato, John O'Brien, Cecilia B Moens
Neural network function is based upon the patterns and types of connections made between neurons. Neuronal synapses are adhesions specialized for communication and they come in two types, chemical and electrical. Communication at chemical synapses occurs via neurotransmitter release whereas electrical synapses utilize gap junctions for direct ionic and metabolic coupling. Electrical synapses are often viewed as symmetrical structures, with the same components making both sides of the gap junction. By contrast, we show that a broad set of electrical synapses in zebrafish, Danio rerio, require two gap-junction-forming Connexins for formation and function...
May 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529713/gap-junction-structure-unraveled-but-not-fully-revealed
#8
REVIEW
Eric C Beyer, Viviana M Berthoud
Gap junction channels facilitate the intercellular exchange of ions and small molecules, a process that is critical for the function of many different kinds of cells and tissues. Recent crystal structures of channels formed by one connexin isoform (connexin26) have been determined, and they have been subjected to molecular modeling. These studies have provided high-resolution models to gain insights into the mechanisms of channel conductance, molecular permeability, and gating. The models share similarities, but there are some differences in the conclusions reached by these studies...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529477/prox1-is-a-marker-for-aii-amacrine-cells-in-the-mouse-retina
#9
Luis Pérez de Sevilla Müller, Shaghauyegh S Azar, Janira de Los Santos, Nicholas C Brecha
The transcription factor Prox1 is expressed in multiple cells in the retina during eye development. This study has focused on neuronal Prox1 expression in the inner nuclear layer (INL) of the adult mouse retina. Prox1 immunostaining was evaluated in vertical retinal sections and whole mount preparations using a specific antibody directed to the C-terminus of Prox1. Strong immunostaining was observed in numerous amacrine cell bodies and in all horizontal cell bodies in the proximal and distal INL, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528728/spontaneous-calcium-waves-in-the-developing-enteric-nervous-system
#10
Marlene M Hao, Annette J Bergner, Caroline S Hirst, Lincon A Stamp, Franca Casagranda, Joel C Bornstein, Werend Boesmans, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Heather M Young
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is an extensive network of neurons in the gut wall that arises from neural crest-derived cells. Like other populations of neural crest cells, it is known that enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs) influence the behaviour of each other and therefore must communicate. However, little is known about how ENCCs communicate with each other. In this study, we used Ca(2+) imaging to examine communication between ENCCs in the embryonic gut, using mice where ENCCs express a genetically-encoded calcium indicator...
May 18, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526583/the-connexin-43-c-terminus-a-tail-of-many-tales
#11
REVIEW
Edward Leithe, Marc Mesnil, Trond Aasen
Connexins are chordate gap junction channel proteins that, by enabling direct communication between the cytosols of adjacent cells, create a unique cell signalling network. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has important roles in controlling cell growth and differentiation and in tissue development and homeostasis. Moreover, several non-canonical connexin functions unrelated to GJIC have been discovered. Of the 21 members of the human connexin family, connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most widely expressed and studied...
May 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520458/anchored-transosseous-equivalent-versus-anchorless-transosseous-rotator-cuff-repair-a-biomechanical-analysis-in-a-cadaveric-model
#12
Kelly G Kilcoyne, Stanley G Guillaume, Catherine V Hannan, Evan R Langdale, Stephen M Belkoff, Uma Srikumaran
BACKGROUND: The original approach for the repair of torn rotator cuffs involved an open technique with sutures passing through the greater tuberosity and tendon. The development of suture anchors allowed for an all-arthroscopic approach with anchor configurations attempting to re-create a transosseous fixation pattern. Presently, an arthroscopic approach can be combined with a transosseous suture configuration without using anchors. PURPOSE: To evaluate cyclic loading, ultimate load to failure, and the failure mechanisms of transosseous-equivalent (TOE) repair with anchors and anchorless transosseous (AT) repair of rotator cuff tears...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518143/calcium-sensing-receptor-protects-high-glucose-induced-energy-metabolism-disorder-via-blocking-gp78-ubiquitin-proteasome-pathway
#13
Yuehong Wang, Ping Gao, Can Wei, Hongzhu Li, Li Zhang, Yajun Zhao, Bo Wu, Ye Tian, Weihua Zhang, Lingyun Wu, Rui Wang, Changqing Xu
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major complication and fatal cause of the patients with diabetes. The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is involved in maintaining calcium homeostasis, regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis, and so on. In our previous study, we found that CaSR expression, intracellular calcium levels and cardiac function were all significantly decreased in DCM rats; however, the exact mechanism are not clear yet. The present study revealed the protective role of CaSR in myocardial energy metabolism disorder induced by high glucose (HG) as well as the underlying mechanism...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513246/molecular-composition-and-distribution-of-gap-junctions-in-the-sensory-epithelium-of-the-human-cochlea-a-super-resolution-structured-illumination-microscopy-sr-sim-study
#14
Wei Liu, Hao Li, Fredrik Edin, Johan Brännström, Rudolf Glueckert, Annelies Schrott-Fischer, Matyas Molnar, Dirk Pacholsky, Kristian Pfaller, Helge Rask-Andersen
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the GJB2 gene, which encodes the Connexin26 (Cx26) protein, are the most common cause of childhood hearing loss in American and European populations. The cochlea contains a gap junction (GJ) network in the sensory epithelium and two connective tissue networks in the lateral wall and spiral limbus. The syncytia contain the GJ proteins beta 2 (GJB2/Cx26) and beta 6 (GJB6/Cx30). Our knowledge of their expression in humans is insufficient due to the limited availability of tissue...
May 17, 2017: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513236/enhanced-gap-junctional-channel-activity-between-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-cerebral-artery-of-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#15
Li-Jie Wang, Ke-Tao Ma, Wen-Yan Shi, Ying-Zi Wang, Lei Zhao, Xin-Yan Chen, Xin-Zhi Li, Xue-Wei Jiang, Zhong-Shuang Zhang, Li Li, Jun-Qiang Si
The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of hypertension on the gap junctions between vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the cerebral arteries (CAs) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The functions of gap junctions in the CAs of VSMCs in SHRs and control normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were studied using whole-cell patch clamp recordings and pressure myography, and the expression levels of connexins were analyzed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses...
May 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510614/connexin-dependent-intercellular-stress-signaling-in-tissue-homeostasis-and-tumor-development
#16
Jarosław Czyż, Katarzyna Piwowarczyk, Milena Paw, Marcin Luty, Tomasz Wróbel, Jessica Catapano, Zbigniew Madeja, Damian Ryszawy
Cellular stress responses determine tissue development, homeostasis and pathogenesis. Paracrine signaling, exchange of mechanical stimuli and intercellular transfer of small metabolites via connexin-built gap junctional channels are involved in the cellular stress detection and propagation of stress stimuli in multicellular networks. Cellular stress responses are also regulated through the activity of unpaired connexons (hemichannels) and via the intracellular interference of connexins with the cell cycle and pro-apoptotic machinery...
May 17, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500173/tgf-%C3%AE-1-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-plays-a-pivotal-role-in-cardiac-myofibroblast-arrhythmogenicity
#17
Nicolò Salvarani, Ange Maguy, Stefano A De Simone, Michele Miragoli, Florian Jousset, Stephan Rohr
BACKGROUND: TGF-β1 (transforming growth factor-β1) importantly contributes to cardiac fibrosis by controlling differentiation, migration, and collagen secretion of cardiac myofibroblasts. It is still elusive, however, to which extent TGF-β1 alters the electrophysiological phenotype of myofibroblasts and cardiomyocytes and whether it affects proarrhythmic myofibroblast-cardiomyocyte crosstalk observed in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patch-clamp recordings of cultured neonatal rat ventricular myofibroblasts revealed that TGF-β1, applied for 24 to 48 hours at clinically relevant concentrations (≤2...
May 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498652/mechanically-controlled-reversible-spin-crossover-of-single-fe-porphyrin-molecules
#18
Guowen Kuang, Qiushi Zhang, Tao Lin, Rui Pang, Xingqiang Shi, Hu Xu, Nian Lin
Spin-crossover (SCO) molecules are thought to be ideal systems for molecular spintronics when SCO can be precisely controlled at the single-molecule level. This is demonstrated here in the single-molecule junctions of Fe-porphyrin formed in a scanning tunneling microscope. Experimentally, we find that the junctions feature a zero-bias resonance in molecular conductance associated with the Fe spin center. When mechanically stretching or squeezing the junctions by adjusting the tip height, the lineshape of the zero-bias resonance varies reversibly...
May 12, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498436/exposure-to-a-chronic-high-fat-diet-promotes-atrial-structure-and-gap-junction-remodeling-in-rats
#19
Tianyu Meng, Gong Cheng, Yuejiao Wei, Shuting Ma, Yongrong Jiang, Jine Wu, Xin Zhou, Chaofeng Sun
Obesity has been demonstrated to be linked to atrial fibrillation (AF) with atrial enlargement and tissue fibrosis. Long-term high calorie intake is the main reason for the prevalence of obesity. To investigate the possible causes of AF, such as chronic high-fat diet (HFD), and to identify the underlying mechanisms, the present study analyzed a variety of structural and gap junctional electrophysiological alterations in the atria of female rats fed an HFD. After consistent HFD feeding of female rats for 12 weeks, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson's staining, RT-qPCR, western blotting, immunofluorescence and TUNEL staining were performed...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496120/band-gap-engineering-of-multi-junction-solar-cells-effects-of-series-resistances-and-solar-concentration
#20
Joya Zeitouny, Eugene A Katz, Alain Dollet, Alexis Vossier
Multi-junction (MJ) solar cells are one of the most promising technologies achieving high sunlight to electricity conversion efficiency. Resistive losses constitute one of the main underlying mechanisms limiting their efficiency under high illumination. In this paper, we study, by numerical modeling, the extent to which a fine-tuning of the different electronic gaps involved in MJ stacks may mitigate the detrimental effects of series resistance losses for concentration-dependent and independent series resistances...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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