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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166592/hiv-envelope-glycoform-heterogeneity-and-localized-diversity-govern-the-initiation-and-maturation-of-a-v2-apex-broadly-neutralizing-antibody-lineage
#1
Elise Landais, Ben Murrell, Bryan Briney, Sasha Murrell, Kimmo Rantalainen, Zachary T Berndsen, Alejandra Ramos, Lalinda Wickramasinghe, Melissa Laird Smith, Kemal Eren, Natalia de Val, Mengyu Wu, Audrey Cappelletti, Jeffrey Umotoy, Yolanda Lie, Terri Wrin, Paul Algate, Po-Ying Chan-Hui, Etienne Karita, Andrew B Ward, Ian A Wilson, Dennis R Burton, Davey Smith, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Pascal Poignard
Understanding how broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) to HIV envelope (Env) develop during natural infection can help guide the rational design of an HIV vaccine. Here, we described a bnAb lineage targeting the Env V2 apex and the Ab-Env co-evolution that led to development of neutralization breadth. The lineage Abs bore an anionic heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDRH3) of 25 amino acids, among the shortest known for this class of Abs, and achieved breadth with only 10% nucleotide somatic hypermutation and no insertions or deletions...
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166552/vortioxetine-versus-placebo-in-major-depressive-disorder-comorbid-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#2
Michael R Liebowitz, Jason Careri, Kyra Blatt, Ann Draine, Junko Morita, Melissa Moran, Rita Hanover
BACKGROUND: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) are highly comorbid, yet the combined condition has not been subject to any placebo-controlled treatment trials. This study reports a trial of vortioxetine, an antidepressant that has also shown benefit in Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), in patients meeting DSM-5 criteria for both MDD and SAD. METHODS: The study was a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of vortioxetine 10-20 mg/day or placebo administered on a 1:1 ratio...
November 22, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165783/after-action-review-of-the-2009-10-h1n1-influenza-outbreak-response-ohio-s-public-health-system-s-performance
#3
William A Mase, Beth Bickford, Casey L Thomas, Shamika D Jones, Michael Bisesi
OBJECTIVE: In early 2009, H1N1 influenza was identified within the human population. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) officials responded with focused assessment, policy development, and assurances. The response was mobilized through efforts including procurement of adequate vaccine supply, local area span of control, materials acquisition, and facilities and resource identification. METHODS: Qualitative evaluation of the assurance functions specific to the system's ability to assure safe and healthy conditions are reported...
September 2017: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165551/evolution-and-ecology-of-plant-architecture-integrating-insights-from-the-fossil-record-extant-morphology-developmental-genetics-and-phylogenies
#4
Guillaume Chomicki, Mario Coiro, Susanne S Renner
Background: In contrast to most animals, plants have an indeterminate body plan, which allows them to add new body parts during their lifetime. A plant's realized modular construction is the result of exogenous constraints and endogenous processes. This review focuses on endogenous processes that shape plant architectures and their evolution. Scope: The phylogenetic distribution of plant growth forms across the phylogeny implies that body architectures have originated and been lost repeatedly, being shaped by a limited set of genetic pathways...
November 19, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165351/an-optical-interferometric-triaxial-displacement-sensor-for-structural-health-monitoring-characterization-of-sliding-and-debonding-for-a-delamination-process
#5
Chen Zhu, Yizheng Chen, Yiyang Zhuang, Yang Du, Rex E Gerald, Yan Tang, Jie Huang
This paper presents an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer-based optical fiber sensor (EFPI) for measuring three-dimensional (3D) displacements, including interfacial sliding and debonding during delamination. The idea employs three spatially arranged EFPIs as the sensing elements. In our sensor, the three EFPIs are formed by three endfaces of three optical fibers and their corresponding inclined mirrors. Two coincident roof-like metallic structures are used to support the three fibers and the three mirrors, respectively...
November 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165325/collapse-in-two-good-solvents-swelling-in-two-poor-solvents-defying-the-laws-of-polymer-solubility
#6
Debashish Mukherji, Carlos M Marques, Kurt Kremer
In this work we discuss two mirror but distinct phenomena of polymer paradoxical properties in mixed solvents: co-non-solvency and co-solvency. When a polymer collapses in a mixture of two miscible good solvents the phenomenon is known as co-non-solvency, while co-solvency is a phenomenon that is associated with the swelling of a polymer in poor solvent mixtures. A typical example of co-non-solvency is provided by poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) in aqueous alcohol, while poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in aqueous alcohol shows co-solvency...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164372/hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-the-c57bl-6j-mice-at-early-adulthood-following-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#7
Oladiran I Olateju, Muhammad A Spocter, Nina Patzke, Amadi O Ihunwo, Paul R Manger
We examined the effect of chronic prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on the process of adult neurogenesis in C57BL/6J mice at early adulthood (PND 56). Pregnant mice, and their in utero litters, were exposed to alcohol, through oral gavage, on gestational days 7-16, with recorded blood alcohol concentrations averaging 184 mg/dL (CA group). Two control groups, sucrose (CAc) and non-treated (NTc) control groups were also examined. The brains of pups at PND 56 from each experimental group were sectioned in a sagittal plane, and stained for Nissl substance with cresyl violet, and immunostained for Ki-67 which labels proliferative cells and doublecortin (DCX) for immature neurons...
November 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163061/cyclodextrins-and-iatrogenic-hearing-loss-new-drugs-with-significant-risk
#8
REVIEW
Mark A Crumling, Kelly A King, R Keith Duncan
Cyclodextrins are a family of cyclic oligosaccharides with widespread usage in medicine, industry and basic sciences owing to their ability to solubilize and stabilize guest compounds. In medicine, cyclodextrins primarily act as a complexing vehicle and consequently serve as powerful drug delivery agents. Recently, uncomplexed cyclodextrins have emerged as potent therapeutic compounds in their own right, based on their ability to sequester and mobilize cellular lipids. In particular, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) has garnered attention because of its cholesterol chelating properties, which appear to treat a rare neurodegenerative disorder and to promote atherosclerosis regression related to stroke and heart disease...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163004/cardiac-concomitants-of-feedback-and-prediction-error-processing-in-reinforcement-learning
#9
Lucas Kastner, Jana Kube, Arno Villringer, Jane Neumann
Successful learning hinges on the evaluation of positive and negative feedback. We assessed differential learning from reward and punishment in a monetary reinforcement learning paradigm, together with cardiac concomitants of positive and negative feedback processing. On the behavioral level, learning from reward resulted in more advantageous behavior than learning from punishment, suggesting a differential impact of reward and punishment on successful feedback-based learning. On the autonomic level, learning and feedback processing were closely mirrored by phasic cardiac responses on a trial-by-trial basis: (1) Negative feedback was accompanied by faster and prolonged heart rate deceleration compared to positive feedback...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162978/exploring-the-interaction-of-drosophila-tdp-43-and-the-type-ii-voltage-gated-calcium-channel-cacophony-in-regulating-motor-function-and-behavior
#10
Kayly M Lembke, David B Morton
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult onset motor neurodegenerative disease. The cause of the disease remains obscure, and as such there is no effective treatment or cure. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases are frequently characterized by dysfunction of the RNA-binding protein, TDP-43. Using model systems to understand the mechanisms underlying TDP-43 dysfunction should accelerate identification of therapeutic targets. A recent report has shown that motor defects caused by the deletion of the Drosophila TDP-43 ortholog, tbph, are not driven by changes in the physiology at the neuromuscular junction...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162785/relevance-of-surface-characteristics-in-the-adhesiveness-of-polymicrobial-biofilms-to-crown-restoration-materials
#11
Ayako Teranaka, Kiyoshi Tomiyama, Katsura Ohashi, Kaori Miyake, Tota Shimizu, Nobushiro Hamada, Yoshiharu Mukai, Satoshi Hirayama, Tomotaro Nihei
We used a polymicrobial (PM) biofilm model to examine associations of bacterial adhesiveness with surface characteristics of various dental materials. Four types of dental materials (apatite pellet, zirconia, ceramic, and composite resin) with rough and mirror surfaces were used. Surface roughness, surface free energy, zeta potential, and colony-forming units (CFUs) of the biofilm formations were measured. Biofilms were cultured for 24 h under anaerobic conditions, plated onto blood agar medium, and anaerobically cultured for 4 days...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161965/i-am-there-%C3%A2-but-not-quite-an-unfaithful-mirror-that-reduces-feelings-of-ownership-and-agency
#12
Noreen O'Sullivan, Christophe de Bezenac, Andrea Piovesan, Hannah Cutler, Rhiannon Corcoran, David Fenyvesi, Marco Bertamini
The experience of seeing one's own face in a mirror is a common experience in daily life. Visual feedback from a mirror is linked to a sense of identity. We developed a procedure that allowed individuals to watch their own face, as in a normal mirror, or with specific distortions (lag) for active movement or passive touch. By distorting visual feedback while the face is being observed on a screen, we document an illusion of reduced embodiment. Participants made mouth movements, while their forehead was touched with a pen...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160094/novel-approach-to-constructing-laser-ionization-elemental-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometer
#13
Alexander A Sysoev, Alexander V Karpov, Violetta V Milyaeva, Alexey A Sysoev
The main advantages of laser sampling are associated with following features: sample preparations as well as consumables are not needed, low risk of sample contamination, good spatial resolution. In mass spectrometry, high laser irradiance can be used for both ablation and ionization processes. The method is especially profitable in time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A new principle of constructing laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer based on wedge-shaped ion mirrors and the absence of electrostatic ion acceleration before mass analysis is discussed...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159760/body-mass-index-age-at-breast-cancer-diagnosis-and-breast-cancer-subtype-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
O Brouckaert, K Van Asten, A Laenen, A Soubry, A Smeets, I Nevelstreen, I Vergote, H Wildiers, R Paridaens, E Van Limbergen, C Weltens, P Moerman, G Floris, P Neven
PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that premenopausal obesity decreases and postmenopausal obesity increases breast cancer risk. Because it is not well known whether this is subtype dependent, we studied the association between body mass index (BMI) and age at breast cancer diagnosis, or the probability of being diagnosed with a specific breast cancer phenotype, by menopausal status. METHODS: All patients with non-metastatic operable breast cancer from the University Hospital Leuven diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2013 were included (n = 7020) in this cross-sectional study...
November 20, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159054/delayed-access-to-bilateral-input-alters-cortical-organization-in-children-with-asymmetric-hearing
#15
Melissa Jane Polonenko, Blake Croll Papsin, Karen Ann Gordon
Bilateral hearing in early development protects auditory cortices from reorganizing to prefer the better ear. Yet, such protection could be disrupted by mismatched bilateral input in children with asymmetric hearing who require electric stimulation of the auditory nerve from a cochlear implant in their deaf ear and amplified acoustic sound from a hearing aid in their better ear (bimodal hearing). Cortical responses to bimodal stimulation were measured by electroencephalography in 34 bimodal users and 16 age-matched peers with normal hearing, and compared with the same measures previously reported for 28 age-matched bilateral implant users...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158676/role-of-3-monthly-long-acting-injectable-paliperidone-in-the-maintenance-of-schizophrenia
#16
REVIEW
Claudio Brasso, Silvio Bellino, Paola Bozzatello, Cristiana Montemagni, Paola Rocca
Aims: Paliperidone palmitate 3-month (PP3M) represents a new long-acting injectable antipsychotic therapeutic option. This review aims: 1) to summarize available data relating to efficacy, safety, tolerability and costs of PP3M; 2) to describe hospitalization rate, occupational status, treatment preference, satisfaction, adherence and caregiver burden of patients with schizophrenia who participate in PP3M clinical trials; 3) to examine ethical implications, pros and cons of PP3M use and 4) to propose study designs to further assess PP3M...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158535/the-triglycerides-and-glucose-index-rather-than-homa-ir-is-more-associated-with-hypogonadism-in-chinese-men
#17
Kun Zhang, Yi Chen, Lijie Liu, Meng Lu, Jing Cheng, Fengbin Gao, Ningjian Wang, Zhoujun Shen, Yingli Lu
Previous studies have reported that insulin resistant and low testosterone are related. The triglyceride and glucose index (TyG) well mirrors insulin sensitivity. No study investigated the application of TyG in male hypogonadism. We aimed to explore whether TyG was associated with hypogonadism, and also evaluate the ability of TyG compared to HOMA-IR as a possible hypogonadism predictor. A total of 4299 male subjects were enrolled from 22 sites in East China. Hypogonadism was defined as total testosterone <11...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158477/sirolimus-induces-depletion-of-intracellular-calcium-stores-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-pancreatic-beta-cells
#18
Angela Lombardi, Jessica Gambardella, Xue-Liang Du, Daniela Sorriento, Maurizio Mauro, Guido Iaccarino, Bruno Trimarco, Gaetano Santulli
Sirolimus (rapamycin) is an immunosuppressive drug used in transplantation. One of its major side effects is the increased risk of diabetes mellitus; however, the exact mechanisms underlying such association have not been elucidated. Here we show that sirolimus impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion both in human and murine pancreatic islets and in clonal β cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Importantly, we demonstrate that sirolimus markedly depletes calcium (Ca(2+)) content in the endoplasmic reticulum and significantly decreases glucose-stimulated mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158343/amphitropical-disjunctions-in-new-world-menthinae-three-pliocene-dispersals-to-south-america-following-late-miocene-dispersal-to-north-america-from-the-old-world
#19
Bryan T Drew, Sitong Liu, Jose M Bonifacino, Kenneth J Sytsma
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The subtribe Menthinae (Lamiaceae), with 35 genera and 750 species, is among the largest and most economically important subtribes within the mint family. Most genera of Menthinae are found exclusively in the New World, where the group has a virtually continuous distribution ranging from temperate North America to southern South America. In this study, we explored the presence, timing, and origin of amphitropical disjuncts within Menthinae. METHODS: Our analyses were based on a data set consisting of 89 taxa and the nuclear ribosomal DNA markers ITS and ETS...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157404/anomalies-characteristic-of-central-nervous-system-demyelination-radiologically-isolated-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Christine Lebrun, Orhun H Kantarci, Aksel Siva, Daniel Pelletier, Darin T Okuda
Radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) was defined in 2009 for asymptomatic patients who presented incidentally identified white matter anomalies within the central nervous system suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). Approximately one-third of RIS subjects will have a seminal clinical demyelinating event within 5 years of the identification of their abnormal MRI. Clinical evolution mirrors relapsing remitting or progressive forms of MS. Pejorative factors for clinical conversion are male gender, age younger than 35 years, and spinal cord lesions...
February 2018: Neurologic Clinics
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