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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454147/layout-of-nalm-fiber-laser-with-adjustable-peak-power-of-generated-pulses
#1
Sergey Smirnov, Sergey Kobtsev, Alexey Ivanenko, Alexey Kokhanovskiy, Anna Kemmer, Mikhail Gervaziev
The Letter proposes a new layout of a passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM) with two stretches of active fiber and two independently controlled pump modules. In contrast with conventional NALM configurations using a single piece of active fiber that yields virtually constant peak power, the proposed novel laser features larger than a factor of 2 adjustment range of peak power of generated pulses. The proposed layout also provides independent adjustment of duration and peak power of generated pulses as well as power-independent control of generated pulse spectral width impossible in NALM lasers with a single piece of active fiber...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454133/aperture-scalable-high-average-power-capable-hybrid-electrode-pockels-cell
#2
Jun Zhang, Xiongjun Zhang, Jiangang Zheng, Jiao Long, Xiaolin Tian, Kuixing Zheng, Qihua Zhu, Xiaofeng Wei
We demonstrate a hybrid-electrode Pockels cell (HEPC) using a thin z-cut deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystal. The device is a reflective, longitudinally driven, longitudinally cooled Pockels cell, constructed with a plasma chamber providing the incident-side electrode and a silicon-substrate mirror serving the three purposes of a mirror, a back-side electrode, and a heat sink. The mirror and the DKDP are thermally coupled through a sub-millimeter, inert gas-filled gap. A time-multiplex pass-by driving method is proposed to favor low-voltage and fast-response operation...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453914/the-shape-of-things-to-come-the-formation-of-modulated-nematic-mesophases-at-various-length-scales
#3
Richard J Mandle
The twist-bend nematic phase is a recently discovered liquid-crystalline phase that exhibits macroscopic chirality even when formed from achiral materials, and as such presents a unique testbed for studies concerning the spontaneous breaking of mirror symmetry in soft matter. It is primarily exhibited by materials whose molecular structure is composed of two rigid aromatic units (such as biphenyl connected by a flexible spacer). The local structure of the NTB phase is nematic-like - with molecules having an average orientational order but no positional order - with a nanoscale helix where the pitch is of the order of several nanometres...
April 28, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453666/inequalities-in-rural-communities-adapting-national-deprivation-indices-for-rural-settings
#4
D Fecht, A Jones, T Hill, T Lindfield, R Thomson, A L Hansell, R Shukla
Background: Deprivation indices have been widely used in healthcare research and planning in the United Kingdom. Existing indices, however, are dominated by characteristics of urban populations that may be less relevant in capturing the nature of rural deprivation. We explore if deprivation indices can be modified to make them more sensitive to displaying rural disadvantage in England. Methods: The analysis focussed on the 2011 Carstairs Index (Carstairs2011) and the 2010 English Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD2010)...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453247/building-an-electronic-bridge-via-ag-decoration-to-enhance-kinetics-of-iron-fluoride-cathode-in-lithium-ion-batteries
#5
Yu Li, Xingzhen Zhou, Ying Bai, Guanghai Chen, Zhaohua Wang, Hui Li, Feng Wu, Chuan Wu
As a typical multi-electron cathode material for lithium ion batteries, iron fluoride (FeF3) and its analogues suffer from poor electronic conductivity and low actual specific capacity. Herein, we introduce Ag nanoparticles by silver mirror reaction into the FeF3·0.33H2O cathode to build the electronic bridge between the solid (active materials) and liquid (electrolyte) interface. The crystal structures of as-prepared samples are characterized by XRD and Rietveld refinement. Moreover, the density of states (DOS) of FeF3·0...
April 28, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448128/total-chemical-synthesis-and-folding-of-all-l-and-all-d-variants-of-oncogenic-kras-g12v
#6
Adam Marc Levinson, John H McGee, Andrew G Roberts, Gardner Creech, Ting Wang, Michael T Peterson, Ronald C Hendrickson, Gregory L Verdine, Samuel J Danishefsky
The Ras proteins are essential GTPases involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and survival. Mutated oncogenic forms of Ras alter effector binding and innate GTPase activity, leading to deregulation of downstream signal transduction. Mutated forms of Ras are involved in approximately 30% of human cancers. Despite decades of effort to develop direct Ras inhibitors, Ras has long been considered 'undruggable' due to its high affinity for GTP and its lack of hydrophobic binding pockets. Herein, we report a total chemical synthesis of all-L- and all-D-amino acid biotinylated variants of oncogenic mutant KRas(G12V)...
April 27, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448029/gain-compensation-methodology-for-a-sinusoidal-scan-of-a-galvanometer-mirror-in-proportional-integral-differential-control-using-pre-emphasis-techniques
#7
Tomohiko Hayakawa, Takanoshin Watanabe, Taku Senoo, Masatoshi Ishikawa
Galvanometer mirrors are used for optical applications such as target tracking, drawing, and scanning control because of their high speed and accuracy. However, the responsiveness of a galvanometer mirror is limited by its inertia; hence, the gain of a galvanometer mirror is reduced when the control path is steep. In this research, we propose a method to extend the corresponding frequency using a pre-emphasis technique to compensate for the gain reduction of galvanometer mirrors in sine-wave path tracking using proportional-integral-differential (PID) control...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447071/the-effects-of-reduced-rpd3-levels-on-fly-physiology
#8
Jared K Woods, Tahereh Ziafazeli, Blanka Rogina
BACKGROUND: Rpd3 is a conserved histone deacetylase that removes acetyl groups from lysine residues within histones and other proteins. Reduction or inhibition of Rpd3 extends longevity in yeast, worms, and flies. Previous studies in flies suggest an overlap with the mechanism of lifespan extension by dietary restriction. However, the mechanism of rpd3's effects on longevity remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: In this study we investigated how rpd3 reduction affects fly spontaneous physical activity, fecundity, and stress resistance...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446700/rapid-polygenic-response-to-secondary-contact-in-a-hybrid-species
#9
Glenn-Peter Sætre, Angélica Cuevas, Jo S Hermansen, Tore O Elgvin, Laura Piñeiro Fernández, Stein A Sæther, Camilla Lo Cascio Sætre, Fabrice Eroukhmanoff
Secondary contact between closely related species can have genetic consequences. Competition for essential resources may lead to divergence in heritable traits that reduces interspecific competition leading to increased rate of genetic divergence. Conversely, hybridization and backcrossing can lead to genetic convergence. Here, we study a population of a hybrid species, the Italian sparrow (Passer italiae), before and after it came into secondary contact with one of its parent species, the Spanish sparrow (P...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445714/the-toll-like-receptor-2-agonist-pam3csk4-is-neuroprotective-after-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Nicole S Stivers, Nicolas Pelisch, Ben C Orem, Joshua Williams, Jacqueline M Nally, David P Stirling
Microglia/macrophage activation and recruitment following spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with both detrimental and reparative functions. Stimulation of the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) has shown to be beneficial following SCI, and it increases axonal regeneration following optic nerve crush. However, the mechanism(s) remain unclear. As microglia express high levels of TLR2, we hypothesized that modulating the microglial response to injury using a specific TLR2 agonist, Pam3CSK4, would prevent secondary-mediated white matter degeneration following SCI...
April 23, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445551/pattern-classification-of-eeg-signals-reveals-perceptual-and-attentional-states
#11
Alexandra List, Monica D Rosenberg, Aleksandra Sherman, Michael Esterman
Pattern classification techniques have been widely used to differentiate neural activity associated with different perceptual, attentional, or other cognitive states, often using fMRI, but more recently with EEG as well. Although these methods have identified EEG patterns (i.e., scalp topographies of EEG signals occurring at certain latencies) that decode perceptual and attentional states on a trial-by-trial basis, they have yet to be applied to the spatial scope of attention toward global or local features of the display...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445367/adipose-tissue-drives-response-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-a-murine-pressure-sore-model
#12
Madeleine J Gust, Seok Jong Hong, Robert C Fang, Steven T Lanier, Donald W Buck, Jennifer M Nuñez, Shengxian Jia, Eugene D Park, Robert D Galiano, Thomas A Mustoe
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injury contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of chronic wounds such as pressure sores and diabetic foot ulcers. The authors' laboratory has previously developed a cyclical murine ischemia-reperfusion injury model. The authors here use this model to determine factors underlying tissue response to ischemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were subjected to cycles of ischemia-reperfusion that varied in number (one to four cycles) and duration of ischemia (1 to 2 hours)...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443751/a-prospective-cohort-study-assessing-differences-in-cosmetic-appreciation-of-lateralization-while-smiling-in-patients-with-a-peripheral-facial-palsy
#13
Robin E Luijmes, Carien H G Beurskens, Sjaak Pouwels, Koen J A O Ingels
We investigated the differences in cosmetic appreciation of patients with a left and a right peripheral facial palsy (PFP) while smiling. Smiling pictures of patients with a facial palsy with House-Brackmann II-VI were reversed as a mirror image and offered as a pair of pictures, together with the true image. Twenty-six patients with a PFP and 24 medical professionals familiar with facial palsy were asked to choose the most attractive photograph. Patients rated their own pictures. Medical professionals preferred pictures of patients with a right and left PFP in, respectively, a mean of 43...
April 26, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443441/well-being-is-every-nurse-s-top-priority-unless-it-s-our-own
#14
Jane Bates
The recent survey by Nursing Standard and the Sunday Mirror painted a depressing picture of working in today's NHS.
April 26, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443082/inbred-mouse-populations-exhibit-intergenerational-changes-in-intestinal-microbiota-composition-and-function-following-introduction-to-a-facility
#15
Jocelyn M Choo, Paul J Trim, Lex E X Leong, Guy C J Abell, Carly Brune, Nicole Jeffries, Steve Wesselingh, T N Dear, Marten F Snel, Geraint B Rogers
Inbred mice are used to investigate many aspects of human physiology, including susceptibility to disease and response to therapies. Despite increasing evidence that the composition and function of the murine intestinal microbiota can substantially influence a broad range of experimental outcomes, relatively little is known about microbiome dynamics within experimental mouse populations. We investigated changes in the intestinal microbiome between C57BL/6J mice spanning six generations (assessed at generations 1, 2, 3, and 6), following their introduction to a stringently controlled facility...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443047/synchrony-in-joint-action-is-directed-by-each-participant-s-motor-control-system
#16
Lior Noy, Netta Weiser, Jason Friedman
In this work, we ask how the probability of achieving synchrony in joint action is affected by the choice of motion parameters of each individual. We use the mirror game paradigm to study how changes in leader's motion parameters, specifically frequency and peak velocity, affect the probability of entering the state of co-confidence (CC) motion: a dyadic state of synchronized, smooth and co-predictive motions. In order to systematically study this question, we used a one-person version of the mirror game, where the participant mirrored piece-wise rhythmic movements produced by a computer on a graphics tablet...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442243/abnormal-neural-precursor-cell-regulation-in-the-early-postnatal-fragile-x-mouse-hippocampus
#17
Mary Sourial, Laurie C Doering
The regulation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) is indispensable for a properly functioning brain. Abnormalities in NPC proliferation, differentiation, survival, or integration have been linked to various neurological diseases including Fragile X syndrome. Yet, no studies have examined NPCs from the early postnatal Fragile X mouse hippocampus despite the importance of this developmental time point, which marks the highest expression level of FMRP, the protein missing in Fragile X, in the rodent hippocampus and is when hippocampal NPCs have migrated to the dentate gyrus (DG) to give rise to lifelong neurogenesis...
April 22, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441673/gateways-to-the-laboratory-how-an-md-phd-program-increased-the-number-of-minority-physician-scientists
#18
Ruth Gotian, Jemella C Raymore, Shauna-Kay Rhooms, Laura Liberman, Olaf S Andersen
Traditional underrepresented minority (URM) groups (African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans) remain underrepresented among physician-scientists. To address the dearth of URM physician-scientists, in 1993 the Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan Kettering Tri-Institutional MD-PhD Program developed a pipeline program, Gateways to the Laboratory (Gateways), which focuses on increasing the breadth and depth of the URM physician-scientist pipeline by offering an all-encompassing summer research training program which mirrors the life of a physician-scientist...
May 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440826/realization-of-multiphoton-lasing-from-carbon-nanodot-microcavities
#19
Wenfei Zhang, Yiqun Ni, Xuhui Xu, Wei Lu, Pengpeng Ren, Peiguang Yan, Chun Kit Siu, Shuangchen Ruan, Siu Fung Yu
The use of organosilane chains to link carbon nanodots (CDs) through organosilane surface functional groups is proposed to improve the efficiency of multiphoton absorption. As a result, a large absorption coefficient of 1.16 × 10(-6) cm(5) per GW(3) is obtained and four-photon luminescence under 1900 nm excitation is observed from the CDs at room temperature. Furthermore, a CD laser, which demonstrates random lasing under three-photon (i.e. 1400 nm) excitation, can be realized by sandwiching a CD film between a quartz substrate and a dielectric mirror...
April 25, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440058/atypical-inter-hemispheric-communication-correlates-with-altered-motor-inhibition-during-learning-of-a-new-bimanual-coordination-pattern-in-developmental-coordination-disorder
#20
Mélody Blais, David Amarantini, Jean-Michel Albaret, Yves Chaix, Jessica Tallet
Impairment of motor learning skills in developmental coordination disorder (DCD) has been reported in several studies. Some hypotheses on neural mechanisms of motor learning deficits in DCD have emerged but, to date, brain-imaging investigations are scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess possible changes in communication between brain areas during practice of a new bimanual coordination task in teenagers with DCD (n = 10) compared to matched controls (n = 10). Accuracy, stability and number of mirror movements were computed as behavioural variables...
April 25, 2017: Developmental Science
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