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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913627/aberrant-interhemispheric-homotopic-functional-and-structural-connectivity-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#1
Jiuquan Zhang, Bing Ji, Jun Hu, Chaoyang Zhou, Longchuan Li, Zhihao Li, Xuequan Huang, Xiaoping Hu
OBJECTIVE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an idiopathic and fatal neurodegenerative disease of the human motor system. While microstructural alterations in corpus callosum (CC) have been identified as a consistent feature of ALS, studies directly examining interhemispheric neural connectivity are still lacking. To shed more light on the pathophysiology of ALS, the present study aims to examine alterations of interhemispheric structural and functional connectivity in individuals with ALS...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913252/sex-and-gender-differences-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#2
Marco Canevelli, Federica Quarata, Francesca Remiddi, Flaminia Lucchini, Eleonora Lacorte, Nicola Vanacore, Giuseppe Bruno, Matteo Cesari
In recent years, epidemiological, clinical, and biological evidence has drawn the attention on the influence of sex and gender on Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nevertheless, not enough attention has been paid to their impact on treatment outcomes. The present study is aimed at systematically retrieve, review and discuss data coming from available randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) on currently marketed treatments for AD (i.e., cholinesterase inhibitors [ChEIs] and memantine) in order to describe possible sex and gender differences in their efficacy, safety and tolerability...
November 29, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913121/loss-of-control-eating-after-sleeve-gastrectomy-surgery
#3
Valentina Ivezaj, Erin E Kessler, Janet A Lydecker, Rachel D Barnes, Marney A White, Carlos M Grilo
BACKGROUND: Postoperative loss-of-control (LOC) eating is related to poorer weight loss outcomes after bariatric surgery, but little is known about LOC eating after sleeve gastrectomy surgery. OBJECTIVES: To examine LOC eating severity and weight loss after sleeve gastrectomy SETTING: University School of Medicine, United States METHODS: Participants were 71 individuals (84.5% female; n = 60) who underwent sleeve gastrectomy surgery within the previous 4 to 9 months and reported LOC eating at least once weekly during the previous 28 days...
October 1, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911792/transcriptomics-and-neuroanatomy-of-the-clonal-raider-ant-implicate-an-expanded-clade-of-odorant-receptors-in-chemical-communication
#4
Sean K McKenzie, Ingrid Fetter-Pruneda, Vanessa Ruta, Daniel J C Kronauer
A major aim of sociogenomic research is to uncover common principles in the molecular evolution of sociality. This endeavor has been hampered by the small number of specific genes currently known to function in social behavior. Here we provide several lines of evidence suggesting that ants have evolved a large and novel clade of odorant receptor (OR) genes to perceive hydrocarbon-based pheromones, arguably the most important signals in ant communication. This genomic expansion is also mirrored in the ant brain via a corresponding expansion of a specific cluster of glomeruli in the antennal lobe...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911298/a-24-week-multi-modality-exercise-program-improves-executive-control-in%C3%A2-older-adults-with-a-self-reported-cognitive-complaint-evidence-from%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-antisaccade-task
#5
Matthew Heath, Erin Shellington, Sam Titheridge, Dawn P Gill, Robert J Petrella
Exercise programs involving aerobic and resistance training (i.e., multiple-modality) have shown promise in improving cognition and executive control in older adults at risk, or experiencing, cognitive decline. It is, however, unclear whether cognitive training within a multiple-modality program elicits an additive benefit to executive/cognitive processes. This is an important question to resolve in order to identify optimal training programs that delay, or ameliorate, executive deficits in persons at risk for further cognitive decline...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911095/epigenetic-alterations-in-blood-mirror-age-associated-dna-methylation-and-gene-expression-changes-in-human-liver
#6
Madhusudhan Bysani, Alexander Perfilyev, Vanessa D de Mello, Tina Rönn, Emma Nilsson, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Charlotte Ling
AIM: To study the impact of aging on DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human liver. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES: We analysed genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in human liver samples using Illumina 450K and HumanHT12 expression BeadChip arrays. RESULTS: DNA methylation analysis of ∼455,000 CpG sites in human liver revealed that age was significantly associated with altered DNA methylation of 20,396 CpG sites. Comparison of liver methylation data with published methylation data in other tissues showed that vast majority of the age-associated significant CpG sites overlapped between liver and blood, whereas a smaller overlap was found between liver and pancreatic islets or adipose tissue, respectively...
December 2, 2016: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910695/understanding-reconstructed-dante-spectra-using-high-resolution-spectroscopy
#7
M J May, J Weaver, K Widmann, G E Kemp, D Thorn, J D Colvin, M B Schneider, A Moore, B E Blue
The Dante is an 18 channel filtered diode array used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux between 50 eV and 20 keV from various targets. The absolute flux is determined from the radiometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters, and mirrors and a reconstruction algorithm applied to the recorded voltages from each channel. The reconstructed spectra are very low resolution with features consistent with the instrument response and are not necessarily consistent with the spectral emission features from the plasma...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910691/compact-ecei-system-with-in-vessel-reflective-optics-for-west
#8
Y B Nam, H K Park, W Lee, G S Yun, M Kim, R Sabot, D Elbeze, P Lotte, J Shen
An electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) diagnostic system for WEST (W Environment for Steady state Tokamak) is under development to study the MHD instabilities affected by tungsten impurities. The system will provide 2-D Te fluctuation images (width × height = ∼18 cm × ∼ 34 cm at low field side and ∼13 cm × ∼ 39 cm at high field side) from a poloidal cross section with high spatial (≤1.7 cm) and temporal (≤2 μs) resolutions. While the key concept and electronic structure are similar to that of prior ECEI systems on other tokamak devices such as KSTAR, DIII-D, or ASDEX-U, part of the imaging optics have to be placed inside the vacuum vessel in order to resolve issues on limited installation space and longer beam path to the detector position...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910671/a-high-speed-compact-microwave-interferometer-for-density-fluctuation-measurements-in-sino-united-spherical-tokamak
#9
H Zhong, Y Tan, Y Q Liu, H Q Xie, Z Gao
A single-channel 3 mm interferometer has been developed for plasma density diagnostics in the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak (SUNIST). The extremely compact microwave interferometer utilizes one corrugated feed horn antenna for both emitting and receiving the microwave. The beam path lies on the equatorial plane so the system would not suffer from beam path deflection problems due to the symmetry of the cross section. A focusing lens group and an oblique vacuum window are carefully designed to boost the signal to noise ratio, which allows this system to show good performance even with the small-diameter central column itself as a reflector, without a concave mirror...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910595/cleaning-of-first-mirrors-in-iter-by-means-of-radio-frequency-discharges
#10
F Leipold, R Reichle, C Vorpahl, E E Mukhin, A M Dmitriev, A G Razdobarin, D S Samsonov, L Marot, L Moser, R Steiner, E Meyer
First mirrors of optical diagnostics in ITER are subject to charge exchange fluxes of Be, W, and potentially other elements. This may degrade the optical performance significantly via erosion or deposition. In order to restore reflectivity, cleaning by applying radio frequency (RF) power to the mirror itself and thus creating a discharge in front of the mirror will be used. The plasma generated in front of the mirror surface sputters off deposition, restoring its reflectivity. Although the functionality of such a mirror cleaning technique is proven in laboratory experiments, the technical implementation in ITER revealed obstacles which needs to be overcome: Since the discharge as an RF load in general is not very well matched to the power generator and transmission line, power reflections will occur leading to a thermal load of the cable...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910576/measurement-of-local-internal-magnetic-fluctuations-via-cross-polarization-scattering-in-the-diii-d-tokamak-invited
#11
K Barada, T L Rhodes, N A Crocker, W A Peebles
We present new measurements of internal magnetic fluctuations obtained with a novel eight channel cross polarization scattering (CPS) system installed on the DIII-D tokamak. Measurements of internal, localized magnetic fluctuations provide a window on an important physics quantity that we heretofore have had little information on. Importantly, these measurements provide a new ability to challenge and test linear and nonlinear simulations and basic theory. The CPS method, based upon the scattering of an incident microwave beam into the opposite polarization by magnetic fluctuations, has been significantly extended and improved over the method as originally developed on the Tore Supra tokamak...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910550/measurement-of-neutral-gas-pressure-in-the-d-module-of-gamma-10-pdx-by-using-asdex-type-fast-ionization-gauge
#12
K Ichimura, M Fukumoto, M M Islam, M S Islam, K Shimizu, K Fukui, M Ohuchi, K Nojiri, A Terakado, M Yoshikawa, N Ezumi, M Sakamoto, Y Nakashima
In the divertor simulation experiments in the GAMMA 10/PDX tandem mirror, pressure of the neutral gas was investigated by using a fast ionization gauge. The gauge was absolutely calibrated for hydrogen gas by using a capacitance manometer. Change of the gauge sensitivity due to the magnetic field of GAMMA 10/PDX was also evaluated. The typical gas pressure measured in detached plasma experiments was 0.1-10 Pa. The degree of plasma detachment determined from the reduction of heat flux was enhanced as the gas pressure increases...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910498/using-visar-to-assess-the-m-band-isotropy-in-hohlraums
#13
N E Lanier, J L Kline, J Morton
In laser based radiation flow experiments, drive variability can often overwhelm the physics sensitivity that one seeks to quantify. Hohlraums can help by providing a more symmetrized, Planckian-like source. However, at higher temperatures, the hohlraum's actual emission can deviate significantly from a truly blackbody, Lambertian source. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF), Dante provides the best quantification of hohlraum output. Unfortunately, limited diagnostic access coupled with NIF's natural symmetry does not allow for Dante measurements at more than two angles...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910482/upgraded-divertor-thomson-scattering-system-on-diii-d
#14
F Glass, T N Carlstrom, D Du, A G McLean, D A Taussig, R L Boivin
A design to extend the unique divertor Thomson scattering system on DIII-D to allow measurements of electron temperature and density in high triangularity plasmas is presented. Access to this region is selectable on a shot-by-shot basis by redirecting the laser beam of the existing divertor Thomson system inboard - beneath the lower floor using a moveable, high-damage threshold, in-vacuum mirror - and then redirecting again vertically. The currently measured divertor region remains available with this mirror retracted...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910479/a-60-ghz-interferometer-with-a-local-oscillator-integrated-antenna-array-for-divertor-simulation-experiments-on-gamma-10-pdx
#15
J Kohagura, M Yoshikawa, X Wang, D Kuwahara, N Ito, Y Nagayama, Y Shima, K Nojiri, M Sakamoto, Y Nakashima, A Mase
In conventional multichannel/imaging microwave diagnostics of interferometry, reflectometry, and electron cyclotron emission measurements, a local oscillator (LO) signal is commonly supplied to a receiver array via irradiation using LO optics. In this work, we present a 60-GHz interferometer with a new eight-channel receiver array, called a local oscillator integrated antenna array (LIA). An outstanding feature of LIA is that it incorporates a frequency quadrupler integrated circuit for LO supply to each channel...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910471/the-national-ignition-facility-modular-kirkpatrick-baez-microscope
#16
L A Pickworth, J Ayers, P Bell, N F Brejnholt, J G Buscho, D Bradley, T Decker, S Hau-Riege, J Kilkenny, T McCarville, T Pardini, J Vogel, C Walton
Current two-dimensional X-ray imaging at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) uses time resolved pinhole cameras with ∼10-25 μm pinholes. This method has limitations in the smallest resolvable features that can be imaged with reasonable photon statistics for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications. ICF sources have a broadband self-emission spectrum that causes the pinhole images obtained, through thin foil filters, to contain a similarly broadband spectrum complicating the interpretation of structure in the source...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910456/two-color-spatial-and-temporal-temperature-measurements-using-a-streaked-soft-x-ray-imager
#17
A S Moore, J Benstead, M F Ahmed, J Morton, T M Guymer, R Soufli, T Pardini, R L Hibbard, C G Bailey, P M Bell, S Hau-Riege, M Bedzyk, M J Shoup, S P Regan, T Agliata, R Jungquist, D W Schmidt, L B Kot, W J Garbett, M S Rubery, J W Skidmore, E Gullikson, F Salmassi
A dual-channel streaked soft x-ray imager has been designed and used on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility. This streaked imager creates two images of the same x-ray source using two slit apertures and a single shallow angle reflection from a nickel mirror. Thin filters are used to create narrow band pass images at 510 eV and 360 eV. When measuring a Planckian spectrum, the brightness ratio of the two images can be translated into a color-temperature, provided that the spectral sensitivity of the two images is well known...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910402/towards-10-mev-resolution-the-design-of-an-ultrahigh-resolution-soft-x-ray-rixs-spectrometer
#18
Joseph Dvorak, Ignace Jarrige, Valentina Bisogni, Scott Coburn, William Leonhardt
We present the optical design of the Centurion soft X-ray resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectrometer to be located on the SIX beamline at NSLS-II. The spectrometer is designed to reach a resolving power of 100 000 at 1000 eV at its best resolution. It is also designed to have continuously variable 2θ motion over a range of 112° using a custom triple rotating flange. We have analyzed several possible spectrometer designs capable of reaching the target resolution. After careful analysis, we have adopted a Hettrick-Underwood spectrometer design, with an additional plane mirror to maintain a fixed direction for the outgoing beam...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910382/fast-imaging-diagnostics-on-the-c-2u-advanced-beam-driven-field-reversed-configuration-device
#19
E M Granstedt, P Petrov, K Knapp, M Cordero, V Patel
The C-2U device employed neutral beam injection, end-biasing, and various particle fueling techniques to sustain a Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma. As part of the diagnostic suite, two fast imaging instruments with radial and nearly axial plasma views were developed using a common camera platform. To achieve the necessary viewing geometry, imaging lenses were mounted behind re-entrant viewports attached to welded bellows. During gettering, the vacuum optics were retracted and isolated behind a gate valve permitting their removal if cleaning was necessary...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910356/control-and-automation-of-the-pegasus-multi-point-thomson-scattering-system
#20
G M Bodner, M W Bongard, R J Fonck, J A Reusch, C Rodriguez Sanchez, D J Schlossberg
A new control system for the Pegasus Thomson scattering diagnostic has recently been deployed to automate the laser operation, data collection process, and interface with the system-wide Pegasus control code. Automation has been extended to areas outside of data collection, such as manipulation of beamline cameras and remotely controlled turning mirror actuators to enable intra-shot beam alignment. Additionally, the system has been upgraded with a set of fast (∼1 ms) mechanical shutters to mitigate contamination from background light...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
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