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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625601/role-of-social-interaction-exercise-diet-and-age-on-developing-and-untreated-diabetes-in-cynomolgus-monkeys
#1
Feng Yue, Guodong Zhang, Jorge E Quintero, Don M Gash, Zhiming Zhang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common form of diabetes that occurs in both human and nonhuman primates. Although spontaneously diabetic nonhuman primates are used extensively in diabetic related research and are a proven valuable tool for the study of the natural history of diabetes, little is known about the key factors that can cause this metabolic disorder and the preventative measures that could be employed to minimize the consequences of diabetes. Using a model of developing and untreated diabetes, this study describes the effects of housing arrangement (socially group- versus individually single-housed), exercise, diet, age, and sex on fasting plasma glucose, key lipids associated with diabetes, and bodyweight in two large cohorts of nonhuman primates...
June 15, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557854/short-term-effects-of-resistance-training-modalities-on-performance-measures-in-male-adolescents
#2
P W Winwood, J J Buckley
This study compared the effects of seven weeks of bodyweight, mobility and resistance training programs on strength, power, and sprint times. Thirty-nine male adolescents (aged 14-15 years) were randomly assigned to one of two groups; bodyweight and mobility training (BMT) (n=25) or combined bodyweight, mobility and free weights training (CBT) (n=14). A physical education class (n=23) of similar age constituted a control group (CON). Both training groups performed two bodyweight and mobility training sessions per week and the CBT group performed two additional free-weight resistance exercise training sessions...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502112/sglt2-inhibitor-luseogliflozin-added-to-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-liraglutide-improves-glycemic-control-with-bodyweight-and-fat-mass-reductions-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-52-week-open-label-single-arm-study
#3
Yutaka Seino, Daisuke Yabe, Takashi Sasaki, Atsushi Fukatsu, Hisae Imazeki, Hidekazu Ochiai, Soichi Sakai
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of luseogliflozin added to liraglutide monotherapy in Japanese individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This 52-week, multicenter, open-label, single-arm clinical study enrolled Japanese patients who had inadequate glycemic control with diet/exercise and liraglutide monotherapy. Major efficacy endpoints included the changes from baseline in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and bodyweight...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500415/mind-muscle-connection-training-principle-influence-of-muscle-strength-and-training-experience-during-a-pushing-movement
#4
Joaquin Calatayud, Jonas Vinstrup, Markus D Jakobsen, Emil Sundstrup, Juan Carlos Colado, Lars L Andersen
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of different attentional focus conditions on muscle activity during the push-up exercise and to assess the possible influence of muscle strength and training experience. METHODS: Eighteen resistance-trained men performed 1RM bench press testing and were familiarized with the procedure during the first session. In the second session, three different conditions were randomly performed: regular push-up and push-up focusing on using the pectoralis major and triceps brachii muscles, respectively...
May 12, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469750/the-effect-of-previous-wingate-performance-using-one-body-region-on-subsequent-wingate-performance-using-a-different-body-region
#5
Leonie Harvey, Matthew Bousson, Chris McLellan, Dale Lovell
The 30 second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) is the gold standard measure of anaerobic performance. The present investigation aimed to determine if a previous WAnT using one body region significantly affected a subsequent WAnT using a different body region. Twelve male university students (n = 12, 23 ± 2 years, 84 ± 16.1 kg, 178.5 ± 7.4 cm) volunteered to complete two repeated WAnT protocols (either lower body WAnT followed by an upper body WAnT or vice versa) on two separate testing occasions. The upper body WAnT was conducted on a modified electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer using a flywheel braking force corresponding to 5% bodyweight...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426512/technology-in-s-c-assessing-bodyweight-squat-technique-with-wearable-sensors
#6
Martin A O'Reilly, Darragh F Whelan, Tomas E Ward, Eamonn Delahunt, Brian M Caulfield
Strength and conditioning (S&C) coaches offer expert guidance to help those they work with achieve their personal fitness goals. However it is not always practical to operate under the direct supervision of an S&C coach and consequently individuals are often left training without expert oversight. Recent developments in inertial measurement units (IMUs) and mobile computing platforms have allowed for the possibility of unobtrusive motion tracking systems and the provision of real-time individualised feedback regarding exercise performance...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393680/wheeled-assistive-device-for-load-carriage-the-effects-on-human-gait-and-biomechanics
#7
Itay Ketko, Meir Plotnik, Ran Yanovich, Amit Gefen, Yuval Heled
Soldiers are often required to carry loads which impose biomechanical strain on the human body. This can adversely affect physical performances. Recently, wheel-based devices (WBD) were designed to reduce the load on the soldier. In the present study, a prototype of this newly developed WBD was evaluated. Thirteen volunteers performed three exercise protocols on a treadmill as follows: (1) no load; (2) carrying 40% of their bodyweight with a backpack or; (3) with the WBD. Data acquisition included: gait parameters, vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF) and contact pressure acting on the shoulder...
April 10, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346316/impact-of-direction-of-unloading-influence-on-template-rate-of-perceived-exertion
#8
Beau Kjerulf Greer, Patrick R Young, Brooke Thompson, Brendan J Rickert, Matthew F Moran
It is suggested that exercisers engage in a process of teleoanticipation and create an exercise template based upon previous experience with the exercise task which guides their perceptions of the amount of effort required for task completion. The present study examined how altering workload intensity during a positive-pressure treadmill task may impact ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). In a counter-balanced design, 15 collegiate cross country runners (7 males, 8 females) performed two 25-min runs at a constant velocity while bodyweight (BW) was either increased from 60% to 100% (INC) or decreased from 100% to 60% (DEC) in 5 min increments...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326352/aging-lifestyle-factors-hormones-and-bone-health-in-singaporean-men
#9
Victor Hng Hang Goh, William George Hart
PURPOSE: The present study examined how age, bodyweight, body fat, regular exercise and some endocrine factors are associated with osteoporosis, spine bone mineral density (Sbmd) and femoral neck bone mineral density (Fnbmd) in Singaporean men. METHODS: Body composition and bone scans of lumbar spine at L2-L4 and hip were carried out with duel-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Anthropometric parameters were measured and demographic data, medical history and exercise schedule were collected via a questionnaire...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287901/the-acute-effects-of-bodyweight-suspension-exercise-on-muscle-activation-and-muscular-fatigue
#10
Trent E Cayot, Jakob D Lauver, Barry W Scheuermann
This investigation examined effects of two exercise modes (barbell, BB; bodyweight suspension, BWS) on muscle activation, resistance load, and fatigue. During session one, nine resistance-trained males completed an elbow flexion one-repetition maximum (1RM). During sessions two and three, subjects completed standing biceps curls to fatigue at 70% 1RM utilizing a randomized exercise mode. Surface electromyography (sEMG) recorded muscle activation of the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, anterior deltoid, posterior deltoid, rectus abdominis, and erector spinae...
July 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208581/macronutrient-intakes-in-553-dutch-elite-and-sub-elite-endurance-team-and-strength-athletes-does-intake-differ-between-sport-disciplines
#11
Floris Wardenaar, Naomi Brinkmans, Ingrid Ceelen, Bo Van Rooij, Marco Mensink, Renger Witkamp, Jeanne De Vries
Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566-2985 kcal and 1997-2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively...
February 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110911/efficacy-and-safety-of-once-weekly-semaglutide-monotherapy-versus-placebo-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-sustain-1-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-parallel-group-multinational-multicentre-phase-3a-trial
#12
Christopher Sorli, Shin-Ichi Harashima, George M Tsoukas, Jeffrey Unger, Julie Derving Karsbøl, Thomas Hansen, Stephen C Bain
BACKGROUND: Despite a broad range of pharmacological options for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, optimum glycaemic control remains challenging for many patients and new therapies are necessary. Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue in phase 3 development for type 2 diabetes. We assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of semaglutide monotherapy, compared with placebo, in treatment-naive patients with type 2 diabetes who had insufficient glycaemic control with diet and exercise alone...
April 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056670/electromyographic-comparison-of-conventional-machine-strength-training-versus-bodyweight-exercises-in-patients-with-chronic-stroke
#13
Jonas Vinstrup, Joaquin Calatayud, Markus D Jakobsen, Emil Sundstrup, Kenneth Jay, Mikkel Brandt, Peter Zeeman, Jørgen R Jørgensen, Lars L Andersen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether bodyweight exercises can induce comparable levels of muscle activity as conventional machine exercises in chronic stroke patients. METHODS: Eighteen patients performed three repetitions of bilateral- and unilateral machine leg press and the bodyweight exercises chair rise and hip thrust. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from 10 lower extremity muscles and normalized to maximal EMG (nEMG) of the non-paretic leg. RESULTS: For the paretic leg, the bodyweight exercises showed comparable levels of nEMG in 6 out of 10 muscles compared with the bilateral leg press...
January 6, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941060/effects-of-a-structured-exercise-programme-in-sedentary-dogs-with-chronic-diarrhoea
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
H-P Huang, Y-H Lien
The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of a structured exercise programme in sedentary dogs with chronic diarrhoea. Twenty-two dogs were enrolled in the study. All dogs received oral prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day for 14 days, followed by a tapering dosage) for 10 weeks. After four weeks of prednisolone treatment, dogs were assigned to either the exercise or control group (n=11 each). Owners of dogs in the exercise group were instructed to guide their dogs in structured exercise training (low-intensity to moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise three to five days per week)...
March 4, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874965/somatostatin-agonist-pasireotide-inhibits-exercise-stimulated-growth-in-the-male-siberian-hamster-phodopus-sungorus
#15
R Dumbell, I Petri, F Scherbarth, V Diedrich, H A Schmid, S Steinlechner, P Barrett
The Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) is a seasonal mammal, exhibiting a suite of physiologically and behaviourally distinct traits dependent on the time of year and governed by changes in perceived day length (photoperiod). These attributes include significant weight loss, reduced food intake, gonadal atrophy and pelage change with short-day photoperiod as in winter. The central mechanisms driving seasonal phenotype change during winter are mediated by a reduced availability of hypothalamic triiodothyronine (T3), although the downstream mechanisms responsible for physiological and behavioural changes are yet to be fully clarified...
January 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857961/physiologic-and-performance-effects-of-sago-supplementation-before-and-during-cycling-in-a-warm-humid-environment
#16
Mohd Rahimi Che Jusoh, Stephen R Stannard, Toby Mündel
The present study determined whether 0.8g/kg bodyweight sago ingested before (Pre-Sago) or during (Dur-Sago) exercise under warm-humid conditions (30 ± 2°C, 78 ± 3 % RH; 20 km·h(-1) frontal airflow) conferred a performance and/or physiological benefit compared to a control (Control) condition. Eight trained, male cyclists/triathletes (45 ± 4 y, VO2peak: 65 ± 10 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), peak aerobic power: 397 ± 71 W) completed 3 15-min time-trials (∼75% VO2peak) pre-loaded with 45 min of steady-state (∼55% VO2peak) cycling following > 24 h standardization of training and diet...
April 2016: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806006/using-the-split-squat-to-potentiate-bilateral-and-unilateral-jump-performance
#17
Chris Bishop, Joe Tarrant, Paul Jarvis, Anthony Turner
The purpose of this study was to examine if a split squat conditioning exercise with no or light loads could potentiate unilateral and bilateral jump performance. Twelve semi-professional rugby players (age: 22.3 ± 1.4 years; height: 1.84 ± 0.05 m, mass: 92.4 ± 9.6 kg) from the English National League 1 performed a series of unilateral and bilateral countermovement jumps (CMJ) and broad jumps (BJ) over the course of two testing days. Both testing days involved performing baseline jumps before completing two sets of ten repetitions of a split squat, this completed with either bodyweight (testing session 1) or a 30kg weighted vest (testing session 2)...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676973/sustainable-reduction-in-the-occurrence-of-falls-in-a-parkinson-s-patient-who-followed-an-intensive-and-specific-rehabilitation-program-to-recalibrate-verticality-perception
#18
Laure Mathevon, Nicolas Leroux, Céline Piscicelli, Emmanuelle Clarac, Shenhao Dai, Patrice Davoine, Paul Krack, Dominic Perennou
OBJECTIVE: To take care of postural disorders is a major issue in Parkinson's disease (PD). We present a documented observation suggesting the existence of a biased representation of verticality in PD, resulting in a severe retropulsion and recurrent falls. A rehabilitation program aimed to modulate verticality perception dramatically improved the postural perception of the vertical, trunk posture and balance abilities, and reduced retropulsion as well as lastingly fall frequency. OBSERVATIONS: A 68 year-old patient with Parkinson's disease fall backward 3 times a day...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635122/cognitive-fatigue-influences-time-on-task-during-bodyweight-resistance-training-exercise
#19
James R Head, Matthew S Tenan, Andrew J Tweedell, Thomas F Price, Michael E LaFiandra, William S Helton
Prior investigations have shown measurable performance impairments on continuous physical performance tasks when preceded by a cognitively fatiguing task. However, the effect of cognitive fatigue on bodyweight resistance training exercise task performance is unknown. In the current investigation 18 amateur athletes completed a full body exercise task preceded by either a cognitive fatiguing or control intervention. In a randomized repeated measure design, each participant completed the same exercise task preceded by a 52 min cognitively fatiguing intervention (vigilance) or control intervention (video)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550386/dapagliflozin-once-daily-and-exenatide-once-weekly-dual-therapy-a-24-week-randomized-placebo-controlled-phase-ii-study-examining-effects-on-body-weight-and-prediabetes-in-obese-adults-without-diabetes
#20
Per Lundkvist, C David Sjöström, Sam Amini, Maria J Pereira, Eva Johnsson, Jan W Eriksson
AIMS: To explore the effects of dual therapy with dapagliflozin and exenatide on body weight, body composition, glycaemic variables and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in obese adults without diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-centre, double-blind trial, we randomized 50 obese adults without diabetes (aged 18-70 years; body mass index 30-45 kg/m(2) ) to oral dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily plus subcutaneous long-acting exenatide 2 mg once weekly or placebo...
January 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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