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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150933/design-of-a-novel-continuous-flow-reactor-for-low-ph-viral-inactivation
#1
Stephanie A Parker, Linus Amarikwa, Kevin Vehar, Raquel Orozco, Scott Godfrey, Jon Coffman, Parviz Shamlou, Cameron L Bardliving
Insufficient mixing in laminar flow reactors due to diffusion-dominated flow limits their use in applications where narrow residence time distribution (RTD) is required. The aim of this study was to design and characterize a laminar flow (Re 187.7-375.5) tubular reactor for low pH viral inactivation with enhanced radial mixing via the incorporation of curvature and flow inversions. Towards this aim, the reactor described here, Jig in a Box (JIB), was designed with a flow path consisting of alternating 270° degree turns...
November 18, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145473/suppression-and-resolution-of-autoimmune-arthritis-by-rhesus-%C3%AE-defensin-1-an-immunomodulatory-macrocyclic-peptide
#2
Justin B Schaal, Dat Q Tran, Akshay Subramanian, Reshma Patel, Teresina Laragione, Kevin D Roberts, Katie Trinh, Prasad Tongaonkar, Patti A Tran, Dmitriy Minond, Gregg B Fields, Paul Beringer, André J Ouellette, Percio S Gulko, Michael E Selsted
θ-defensins constitute a family of macrocyclic peptides expressed exclusively in Old World monkeys. The peptides are pleiotropic effectors of innate immunity, possessing broad spectrum antimicrobial activities and immunoregulatory properties. Here we report that rhesus θ-defensin 1 (RTD-1) is highly effective in arresting and reversing joint disease in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Parenteral RTD-1 treatment of DA/OlaHsd rats with established pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) rapidly suppressed joint disease progression, restored limb mobility, and preserved normal joint architecture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100147/modelling-hydrodynamics-of-horizontal-flow-steel-slag-filters-designed-to-upgrade-phosphorus-removal-in-small-wastewater-treatment-plants
#3
Cristian Barca, Nicolas Roche, Stéphane Troesch, Yves Andrès, Florent Chazarenc
Steel slag filters, if well designed and operated, may upgrade phosphorus removal in small wastewater treatment plants such as stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands. The main objective of this study was to develop a systemic modelling approach to describe changes in the hydraulic performances and internal hydrodynamics of steel slag filters under real dynamic operating conditions. The experimental retention time distribution curves (RTD curves) determined from tracer experiments performed at different times during the first year of operation of two field-scale steel slag filters were analyzed through a three stage process...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084091/muscle-twitch-torque-during-two-different-in-volume-isometric-exercise-protocols-fatigue-effects-on-post-activation-potentiation
#4
A Xenofondos, E Bassa, I S Vrabas, C Kotzamanidis, D A Patikas
The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of the contraction duration of two isometric exercise protocols on the post-activation potentiation of 14 well-trained males (age: 22.6±2.8 yrs., height: 180.3±5.9 cm, body mass: 72.3± 37.9 kg). The protocols consisted of 4x6 maximal plantar flexions, of 3 s (P3) or 6 s (P6) duration, performed in random order, with a 2 minute and 15 s intervals between the sets and repetitions, respectively. The torque during maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC), the peak twitch torque (TT), and the rate of torque development (RTD) after each MIVC were analyzed, for the first and the last trial of each set, the average of all trials of each set, and the trials within each set that had the highest peak TT...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073775/comparison-of-hallux-rigidus-surgical-treatment-outcomes-between-active-duty-and-non-active-duty-populations-a-retrospective-review
#5
Marc D Jones, Kerry J Sweet
Background - Our aim of this study was to compare the long term outcomes of three different surgical procedures for the treatment of hallux rigidus (cheilectomy, decompressional osteotomy and arthrodesis) between active duty military and non-active duty patients. Methods - A retrospective review of 80 patients (95 feet) undergoing surgical treatment for hallux rigidus was performed. Telephonic survey was used to obtain postoperative outcome measures and subjective satisfaction. Additional data recorded and analyzed included age, sex, status of patient active duty or non-active duty, grade of hallux rigidus, surgical procedure performed, date of surgery, time to return to full activity, ability to return to full duty, and follow up time post-operatively...
October 26, 2017: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055256/radiotracer-investigation-and-modeling-of-an-activated-sludge-system-in-a-pulp-and-paper-industry
#6
Metali Sarkar, Vikas Kumar Sangal, Vijay Kumar Sharma, Jitendra Samantray, Haripada Bhunia, Pramod Kumar Bajpai, Anil Kumar, Anil K Naithani, Harish Jagat Pant
A radiotracer investigation was carried out in an activated sludge process (ASP) system of an effluent treatment plant in a pulp and paper industry. The system consists of an aeration tank and a secondary clarifier connected in series. The primary objective of the investigation was to measure mean hydraulic retention times (MHRTs) of wastewater and investigate the hydraulic performance of the ASP. Residence time distributions (RTD) of the wastewater were measured in an aeration tank and a secondary clarifier of the system using Iodine-131 as a radiotracer...
October 10, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052166/is-human-classification-by-experienced-untrained-observers-a-gold-standard-in-fixation-detection
#7
Ignace T C Hooge, Diederick C Niehorster, Marcus Nyström, Richard Andersson, Roy S Hessels
Manual classification is still a common method to evaluate event detection algorithms. The procedure is often as follows: Two or three human coders and the algorithm classify a significant quantity of data. In the gold standard approach, deviations from the human classifications are considered to be due to mistakes of the algorithm. However, little is known about human classification in eye tracking. To what extent do the classifications from a larger group of human coders agree? Twelve experienced but untrained human coders classified fixations in 6 min of adult and infant eye-tracking data...
October 19, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035783/radiotracer-investigation-on-the-measurement-of-residence-time-distribution-in-an-ethyl-acetate-reactor-system-with-a-large-recycle-ratio
#8
Arghya Datta, Raj Kumar Gupta, Sunil Goswami, Vijay Kumar Sharma, Haripada Bhunia, Damandeep Singh, Harish Jagat Pant
A radiotracer investigation was carried out on the measurement of residence time distribution (RTD) of process fluid in an industrial-scale ethyl acetate reactor system, which consists of two independent reactors with recirculation and connected in series with each other. Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as the radiotracer for the RTD experiments at different operating conditions. The individual reactors and the overall reactor system were modelled using physically representative phenomenological models comprising of continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs)...
September 25, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029566/associations-among-quadriceps-strength-and-rate-of-torque-development-6-weeks-post-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-and-future-hop-and-vertical-jump-performance-a-prospective-cohort-study
#9
Yong-Hao Pua, Benjamin F Mentiplay, Ross A Clark, Jia-Ying Ho
Study Design Prospective cohort. Background Quadriceps strength is associated with hop distance and jump height in persons who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, it is unknown whether the ability to rapidly generate quadriceps torque in the early phase of recovery is associated with future hopping and jumping performance in this population. Objective To evaluate the prospective associations among quadriceps strength and rate of torque development (RTD) and single-leg hop for distance, vertical jump height, vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), and vertical force loading rate during a landing task in persons who have undergone ACL reconstruction...
November 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023409/a-high-stability-time-difference-readout-technique-of-rtd-fluxgate-sensors
#10
Na Pang, Defu Cheng, Yanzhang Wang
The performance of Residence Times Difference (RTD)-fluxgate sensors is closely related to the time difference readout technique. The noise of the induction signal affects the quality of the output signal of the following circuit and the time difference detection, so the stability of the sensor is limited. Based on the analysis of the uncertainty of the RTD-fluxgate using the Bidirectional Magnetic Saturation Time Difference (BMSTD) readout scheme, the relationship between the saturation state of the magnetic core and the target (DC) magnetic field is studied in this article...
October 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985154/rate-of-torque-development-and-feedforward-control-of-the-hip-and-knee-extensors-gender-differences
#11
Kristen M Stearns-Reider, Christopher M Powers
The purpose of this study was to determine whether women demonstrate decreased rate of torque development (RTD) of the hip and knee extensors and altered onset timing of the vastus lateralis and gluteus maximus during a drop-jump task when compared with men. On average, women demonstrated significantly lower normalized RTD of the hip extensors (women: 11.6 ± 1.3 MVT.s(-1), men: 13.1 ± 0.9 MVT.s(-1); p ≤ .01); however, there was no significant difference in knee extensor RTD. Women also demonstrated significantly earlier activation of their vastus lateralis (women: 206...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977366/muscle-and-tendon-contributions-to-reduced-rate-of-torque-development-in-healthy-older-males
#12
Jonathan I Quinlan, Constantinos N Maganaris, Martino V Franchi, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton, Nathaniel J Szewczyk, Paul L Greenhaff, Bethan E Phillips, James I Blackwell, Catherine Boereboom, John P Williams, John Lund, Marco V Narici
Background: The ability to rapidly generate and transfer muscle force is essential for effective corrective movements in order to prevent a fall. The aim of this study was to establish the muscle and tendon contributions to differences in rate of torque development (RTD) between younger (YM) and older males (OM). Method: Twenty-eight young males (23.9 years ± 1.1) and 22 old males (68.5 years ± 0.5) were recruited for assessment of Quadriceps Anatomical CSA (ACSA), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), rate of torque development (RTD), and tendon biomechanical properties...
August 2, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958069/the-influence-of-age-joint-angle-and-muscle-group-on-strength-production-characteristics-at-the-knee-joint
#13
Brennan J Thompson, Morgan Whitson, Eric J Sobolewski, Matt S Stock
The current understanding of age-related declines in muscle strength capacities is largely based upon strength testing at joint angles of optimal performance, but many activities of daily living involve force generation at muscle lengths/angles outside of optimal force. This study investigated the influence of age, joint angle, and muscle group (knee extensors and flexors) on maximal and rapid strength characteristics. Young (n=21;age=22.1 yrs) and older (23; 72.6 yrs) adults performed maximal voluntary contractions for the knee extensors and flexors at 20°, 60°, and 90° joint angles...
August 14, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954201/rhesus-theta-%C3%AE-defensin-1-attenuates-endotoxin-induced-acute-lung-injury-by-inhibiting-proinflammatory-cytokines-and-neutrophil-recruitment
#14
Jordanna G Jayne, Timothy J Bensman, Justin B Schaal, A Young J Park, Elza Kimura, Dat Tran, Michael E Selsted, Paul M Beringer
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a clinical syndrome characterized by acute respiratory failure and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Rhesus theta defensin-1 (RTD-1) is an antimicrobial peptide with immunomodulatory activity. As airway inflammation and neutrophil recruitment and activation are hallmarks of ALI, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of RTD-1 in pre-clinical models of the disease. We investigated the effect of RTD-1 on neutrophil chemotaxis and macrophage-driven pulmonary inflammation with human peripheral neutrophils and LPS-stimulated murine alveolar macrophage (MH-S) cells...
September 27, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937803/hip-arthroscopy-for-femoroacetabular-impingement-in-a-military-population
#15
Darren D Thomas, Andrew S Bernhardson, Ethan Bernstein, Christopher B Dewing
BACKGROUND: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) can lead to hip pain and early joint degeneration. There have been few reports to date on the outcomes of hip arthroscopy for the treatment of FAI in the military population. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare patient demographics with postoperative outcomes after hip arthroscopy for symptomatic FAI and to identify preoperative risk factors for poor outcomes. The hypothesis was that certain preoperative patient characteristics will be predictive of poorer outcomes and that lower outcomes scores will be associated with a higher likelihood of medical separation from the military...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937742/inorganic-nanoparticles-metal-organic-framework-hybrid-membrane-reactors-for-efficient-photocatalytic-conversion-of-co2
#16
James W Maina, Jürg A Schütz, Luke Grundy, Elise Des Ligneris, Zhifeng Yi, Lingxue Kong, Cristina Pozo-Gonzalo, Mihail Ionescu, Ludovic F Dumée
Photocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to useful products has potential to address the adverse environmental impact of global warming. However, most photocatalysts used to date exhibit limited catalytic performance, due to poor CO2 adsorption capacity, inability to efficiently generate photoexcited electrons, and/or poor transfer of the photogenerated electrons to CO2 molecules adsorbed on the catalyst surface. The integration of inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles across metal organic framework (MOF) materials has potential to yield new hybrid materials, combining the high CO2 adsorption capacity of MOF and the ability of the semiconductor nanoparticles to generate photoexcited electrons...
October 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927803/in-cell-production-of-a-genetically-encoded-library-based-on-the-%C3%AE-defensin-rtd-1-using-a-bacterial-expression-system
#17
Tao Bi, Yilong Li, Alexander Shekhtman, Julio A Camarero
We report the high-yield heterologous expression of bioactive θ-defensin RTD-1 inside Escherichia coli cells by making use of intracellular protein trans-splicing in combination with a high efficient split-intein. RTD-1 is a small backbone-cyclized polypeptide with three disulfide bridges and a natural inhibitor of anthrax lethal factor protease. Recombinant RTD-1 was natively folded and able to inhibit anthrax lethal factor protease. In-cell expression of RTD-1 was very efficient and yielded ≈0.7mg of folded RTD-1 per gram of wet E...
September 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891268/pediatric-respiratory-tract-diseases-chronological-trends-and-perspectives
#18
Houda Ben Ayed, Sourour Yaïch, Maïssa Ben Jmaa, Jihene Jedidi, Mariem Ben Hmida, Maroua Trigui, Mondher Kassis, Raouf Karray, Yosra Mejdoub, Habib Feki, Jamel Damak
BACKGROUND: We aimed to draw the epidemiological profile of respiratory tract diseases (RTD) among children in the region of Sfax and to evaluate their current trends over a 13-year period. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study including all children hospitalized with RTD aged under 14 years. We collected data from the regional morbidity register of the university hospital of Sfax from 2003 to 2015. RESULTS: We included 10797 cases with RTD among 49880 pediatric hospitalizations (21...
September 10, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836089/risk-factors-for-sodium-valproate-induced-renal-tubular-dysfunction
#19
Satoko Koga, Takahisa Kimata, Sohsaku Yamanouchi, Shoji Tsuji, Ken Yoshimura, Atsushi Araki, Kazunari Kaneko
OBJECTIVE: To explore the risk factors for the development of sodium valproate (VPA)-induced renal tubular dysfunction for early diagnosis and treatment. STUDY DESIGN: The subjects were selected from patients who were diagnosed with epilepsy and administered VPA. Blood and spot urine samples were collected and measured the concentration of VPA, the level of serum phosphorus, serum uric acid, serum free carnitine, serum cystatin-c, and urine β2-microglobulin (BMG)...
August 23, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827499/intrarater-reliability-of-muscle-strength-and-hamstring-to-quadriceps-strength-imbalance-ratios-during-concentric-isometric-and-eccentric-maximal-voluntary-contractions-using-the-isoforce-dynamometer
#20
Anett Mau-Moeller, Martin Gube, Sabine Felser, Frank Feldhege, Matthias Weippert, Florian Husmann, Thomas Tischer, Rainer Bader, Sven Bruhn, Martin Behrens
OBJECTIVE: To determine intrasession and intersession reliability of strength measurements and hamstrings to quadriceps strength imbalance ratios (H/Q ratios) using the new isoforce dynamometer. DESIGN: Repeated measures. SETTING: Exercise science laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty healthy subjects (15 females, 15 males, 27.8 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for (1) strength parameters, that is peak torque, mean work, and mean power for concentric and eccentric maximal voluntary contractions; isometric maximal voluntary torque (IMVT); rate of torque development (RTD), and (2) H/Q ratios, that is conventional concentric, eccentric, and isometric H/Q ratios (Hcon/Qcon at 60 deg/s, 120 deg/s, and 180 deg/s, Hecc/Qecc at -60 deg/s and Hiso/Qiso) and functional eccentric antagonist to concentric agonist H/Q ratios (Hecc/Qcon and Hcon/Qecc)...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
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