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Ashlesha Patil, Dipankar Saha, Swaroop Ganguly
We propose a technologically feasible one-dimensional double barrier resonant tunneling diode (RTD) as electronic nose, inspired by the vibration theory of biological olfaction. The working principle is phonon-assisted inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS), modeled here using the Non-Equilibrium Green Function formalism for quantum transport. While standard IETS requires low-temperature operation to obviate the thermal broadening of spectroscopic peaks, we show that quantum confinement in the well of the RTD provides electron energy filtering in this case and could thereby allow room-temperature operation...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Justin B Schaal, Thorsten Maretzky, Dat Q Tran, Patti A Tran, Prasad Tongaonkar, Carl P Blobel, André J Ouellette, Michael E Selsted
Theta-defensins (θ-defensins) are macrocyclic peptides expressed exclusively in granulocytes and selected epithelia of Old World monkeys.  They contribute to anti-pathogen host defense responses by directly killing a diverse range of microbes.  Of note, θ-defensins also modulate microbe-induced inflammation by affecting the production of soluble tumor necrosis factor (sTNF) and other proinflammatory cytokines.  Here, we report that natural rhesus macaque θ-defensin (RTD) isoforms regulate sTNF cellular release by inhibiting TNF alpha converting enzyme (TACE; also known as a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17; ADAM17), the primary pro-TNF sheddase...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Shaun C Galbraith, Huolong Liu, Bumjoon Cha, Seo-Young Park, Zhuangrong Huang, Seongkyu Yoon
Continuous manufacturing techniques are increasingly being adopted in the pharmaceutical industry and powder blending is a key operation for solid-dosage tablets. A modeling methodology involving axial and radial tanks-in-series flowsheet models is developed to describe the residence time distribution (RTD) and blend uniformity of a commercial powder blending system. Process data for a six-component formulation processed in a continuous direct compression line (GEA Pharma Systems) is used to test the methodology...
January 5, 2018: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Matthew J Payea, Michael F Sloma, Yoshiko Kon, David L Young, Michael P Guy, Xiaoju Zhang, Thareendra De Zoysa, Stanley Fields, David H Mathews, Eric M Phizicky
Microorganisms have universally adapted their RNAs and proteins to survive at a broad range of temperatures and growth conditions. However, for RNAs, there is little quantitative understanding of the effects of mutations on function at high temperatures. To understand how variant tRNA function is affected by temperature change, we used the nonsense suppressor SUP4oc, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to perform a high-throughput quantitative screen of tRNA function at two different growth temperatures. This screen yielded comparative values for 9,243 single and double variants...
December 19, 2017: RNA
Sidney Grosprêtre, Thomas Jacquet, Florent Lebon, Charalambos Papaxanthis, Alain Martin
The neural mechanisms explaining strength increase following mental training by motor imagery (MI) are not clearly understood. While gains are mostly attributed to cortical reorganization, the sub-cortical adaptations have never been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of MI training on muscle force capacity and the related spinal and supraspinal mechanisms. Eighteen young healthy participants (mean age: 22.5 ± 2.6) took part in the experiment. They were distributed into two groups: a control group (n = 9) and an MI training group (n = 9)...
December 17, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
Philip A Cook, Thomas M Johnson, Suzanne G Martin, Philip R Gerhman, Seema Bhatnagar, James C Gee
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), has been described as the "signature injury" of the Global War on Terror. Explosive blast TBI has become a leading cause of injury as a result of the widespread use of improvised explosive devices in Iraq and Afghanistan. We present a retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with blast-related mild TBI (N=303) seen at the Intrepid Spirit Concussion Recovery Center at Naval Medical Center Camp Lejeune. The objective was to predict outcomes of return to duty (RTD) vs. medical retirement via medical evaluation board (MEB), based on brain imaging, neuropsychological data and history of mTBI...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
Anna E Wright, Ruth Wragg, Joana Lopes, Andrew Robb, Liam McCarthy
AIM: Renal tubular dysfunction (RTD) causing obligate production of hypoosmolar urine in boys with posterior urethral valves (PUVs) has been described. It is not known how clinically significant this is. We hypothesize that a feedback loop is present in many PUV boys who suffer deterioration of their lower urinary tract (LUT). RTD results in hypoosmolar urine, obligate polyuria, and bladder stretch-injury. The increasing back-pressure worsens RTD, thus exacerbating the injury. Coexisting renal dysplasia and acquired renal scarring exacerbate this...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Bruno Monteiro de Moura, Raphael Luiz Sakugawa, Lucas Bet da Rosa Orssatto, Luis Antonio Pereira de Lima, Ronei Silveira Pinto, Simon Walker, Fernando Diefenthaeler
BACKGROUND: While it is accepted that resistance training can improve functional capacity in older individuals, the neuromuscular source of this improvement has yet to be identified. AIM: This study investigated the link between improved neuromuscular performance and functional capacity after a 12-week resistance training period in untrained healthy older individuals. METHODS: Fifteen older men and women (60-71 years) adhered to a 4-week control period, followed by 12 weeks of non-linear resistance training for the lower limbs...
December 6, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Magdline Sia Henry Sum, Siew Fung Yee, Lily Eng, Evenni Poili, Julia Lamdin
Rice tungro disease (RTD) is one of the most destructive diseases of rice in South and Southeast Asia. RTD is routinely detected based on visual observation of the plant. However, it is not always easy to identify the disease in the field as it is often confused with other diseases or physiological disorders. Here we report the development of two serological based assays for ease of detection of RTD. In this study we had developed and optimized an indirect ELISA and dot-blot assay for detection of RTD. The efficiency of both assays was evaluated by comparing the specificity and sensitivity of the assays to PCR assay using established primer sets...
2017: BioMed Research International
Yan Zhang, Meiwu Zhang, Xiaoxiang Fan, Dafeng Mao
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were compared in evaluating the short-term effects of microwave ablation (MWA) on uterine fibroids. A total of 60 patients with uterine fibroids treated by MWA were enrolled in the experimental group during their two-year follow-up period according to the inclusion criteria. Conventional two-dimensional US, MRI and CEUS were performed to determine the volume reduction and the fibroid residue by displaying the size, echo and signal intensity of fibroids prior to and after MWA treatment...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
James MacDonald, Neha Patel, Julie Young, Emily Stuart
OBJECTIVE: To determine which data collected on an initial patient clinic visit for a sports-related concussion (SRC) might influence physicians to clear an adolescent to return to drive (RTD) after injury. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of 189 adolescents with a SRC referred to a hospital-based concussion clinic between June 1, 2015, and May 31, 2016. Subjects were ≥16 years with a valid driver's license (median age = 16, IQR [16, 17]). Concussion evaluations included Post-Concussion Symptom Scale, modified Balance Error Scoring System, and postinjury computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT)...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
Gwendolyn Quinn, Rebecca D Pentz, Teresita Muñoz-Antonia, Theresa A Boyle, Matthew B Schabath, Christie Pratt, Andrea Shaffer, Luisa Duarte, Meghan Bowman-Curci, Scott Antonia, Alberto Chiappori, Benjamin Creelan, Jhanelle E Gray, Charles Williams, Eric Haura
OBJECTIVE: The collection of posthumous tissue from advanced stage lung cancer patients is beneficial to medical science. Recruiting living patients to a Rapid Tissue Donation Program (RTD) poses several psychosocial challenges and little is known about perceptions of joining this type of program. This study qualitatively examined perceptions of advanced stage lung cancer patients (n=14) participating in a lung cancer RTD program, their NoK (n=11), and physicians (n=6) at the Thoracic Oncology Clinic at H...
November 28, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
Wojciech Korneta, Iacyel Gomes
Traditional bistable sensors use external bias signal to drive its response between states and their detection strategy is based on the output power spectral density or the residence time difference (RTD) in two sensor states. Recently, the noise activated nonlinear dynamic sensors driven only by noise based on RTD technique have been proposed. Here, we present experimental results of dc voltage measurements by noise-driven bistable sensor based on electronic Chua's circuit operating in a chaotic regime where two single scroll attractors coexist...
November 2017: Chaos
Brennan J Thompson, Morgan Whitson, Eric J Sobolewski, Matt S Stock
This study investigated the impact of age, knee joint angle, and strength testing modality on lower body maximal and rapid strength production and assessed the transferability of these characteristics to mobility-related function. Twenty young (age=21.9 yrs) and eighteen elderly (71.1 yrs) adults performed single-joint and multiple-joint isometric maximal voluntary contractions at three knee angles. Outcome measures included peak torque (PT), rate of torque development (RTD), jump height, power, 10 and 400 m walk, and timed chair stand...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Stephanie A Parker, Linus Amarikwa, Kevin Vehar, Raquel Orozco, Scott Godfrey, Jon Coffman, Parviz Shamlou, Cameron L Bardliving
Insufficient mixing in laminar flow reactors due to diffusion-dominated flow limits their use in applications where narrow residence time distribution (RTD) is required. The aim of this study was to design and characterize a laminar flow (Re 187.7-375.5) tubular reactor for low pH viral inactivation with enhanced radial mixing via the incorporation of curvature and flow inversions. Towards this aim, the reactor described here, Jig in a Box (JIB), was designed with a flow path consisting of alternating 270° degree turns...
November 18, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Justin B Schaal, Dat Q Tran, Akshay Subramanian, Reshma Patel, Teresina Laragione, Kevin D Roberts, Katie Trinh, Prasad Tongaonkar, Patti A Tran, Dmitriy Minond, Gregg B Fields, Paul Beringer, André J Ouellette, Percio S Gulko, Michael E Selsted
θ-defensins constitute a family of macrocyclic peptides expressed exclusively in Old World monkeys. The peptides are pleiotropic effectors of innate immunity, possessing broad spectrum antimicrobial activities and immunoregulatory properties. Here we report that rhesus θ-defensin 1 (RTD-1) is highly effective in arresting and reversing joint disease in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Parenteral RTD-1 treatment of DA/OlaHsd rats with established pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) rapidly suppressed joint disease progression, restored limb mobility, and preserved normal joint architecture...
2017: PloS One
Cristian Barca, Nicolas Roche, Stéphane Troesch, Yves Andrès, Florent Chazarenc
Steel slag filters, if well designed and operated, may upgrade phosphorus removal in small wastewater treatment plants such as stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands. The main objective of this study was to develop a systemic modelling approach to describe changes in the hydraulic performances and internal hydrodynamics of steel slag filters under real dynamic operating conditions. The experimental retention time distribution curves (RTD curves) determined from tracer experiments performed at different times during the first year of operation of two field-scale steel slag filters were analyzed through a three stage process...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
A Xenofondos, E Bassa, I S Vrabas, C Kotzamanidis, D A Patikas
The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of the contraction duration of two isometric exercise protocols on the post-activation potentiation of 14 well-trained males (age: 22.6±2.8 yrs., height: 180.3±5.9 cm, body mass: 72.3± 37.9 kg). The protocols consisted of 4x6 maximal plantar flexions, of 3 s (P3) or 6 s (P6) duration, performed in random order, with a 2 minute and 15 s intervals between the sets and repetitions, respectively. The torque during maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC), the peak twitch torque (TT), and the rate of torque development (RTD) after each MIVC were analyzed, for the first and the last trial of each set, the average of all trials of each set, and the trials within each set that had the highest peak TT...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Marc D Jones, Kerry J Sweet
Background - Our aim of this study was to compare the long term outcomes of three different surgical procedures for the treatment of hallux rigidus (cheilectomy, decompressional osteotomy and arthrodesis) between active duty military and non-active duty patients. Methods - A retrospective review of 80 patients (95 feet) undergoing surgical treatment for hallux rigidus was performed. Telephonic survey was used to obtain postoperative outcome measures and subjective satisfaction. Additional data recorded and analyzed included age, sex, status of patient active duty or non-active duty, grade of hallux rigidus, surgical procedure performed, date of surgery, time to return to full activity, ability to return to full duty, and follow up time post-operatively...
October 26, 2017: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Metali Sarkar, Vikas Kumar Sangal, Vijay Kumar Sharma, Jitendra Samantray, Haripada Bhunia, Pramod Kumar Bajpai, Anil Kumar, Anil K Naithani, Harish Jagat Pant
A radiotracer investigation was carried out in an activated sludge process (ASP) system of an effluent treatment plant in a pulp and paper industry. The system consists of an aeration tank and a secondary clarifier connected in series. The primary objective of the investigation was to measure mean hydraulic retention times (MHRTs) of wastewater and investigate the hydraulic performance of the ASP. Residence time distributions (RTD) of the wastewater were measured in an aeration tank and a secondary clarifier of the system using Iodine-131 as a radiotracer...
October 10, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
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