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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777475/effects-of-resistance-training-detraining-and-retraining-on-strength-and-functional-capacity-in-elderly
#1
Raphael Luiz Sakugawa, Bruno Monteiro Moura, Lucas Bet da Rosa Orssatto, Ewertton de Souza Bezerra, Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Fernando Diefenthaeler
BACKGROUND: The interruption of training (detraining) results in loss of the gains acquired. Partial retention could occur after detraining, and variation in training stimuli may optimize retraining adaptations. AIM: To evaluate the effect of a resistance-retraining program on strength and functional capacity performance after a detraining period. METHODS: Ten elderly men and women (63-68 years) completed 12 weeks of training, 16 weeks of detraining, and 8 weeks of retraining...
May 17, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767548/disruption-of-chloroplast-function-through-downregulation-of-phytoene-desaturase-enhances-the-systemic-accumulation-of-an-aphid-borne-phloem-restricted-virus
#2
Stacy L DeBlasio, Ana Rita Rebelo, Katherine Parks, Stewart Gray, Michelle Cilia
Chloroplasts play a central role in pathogen defense in plants. However, the majority of studies explaining the relationship between pathogens and chloroplasts have focused on pathogens that infect mesophyll cells. In contrast, the family Luteoviridae comprises RNA viruses that replicate and traffic exclusively in the phloem. Recently, our lab has shown that Potato leafroll virus (PLRV), the type species in the genus Polerovirus, forms an extensive interaction network with chloroplast-localized proteins, which is partially dependent on the PLRV capsid readthrough domain (RTD)...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761311/comparison-of-fatigue-responses-and-rapid-force-characteristics-between-explosive-and-traditional-resistance-trained-males
#3
Cameron S Mackey, Ryan M Thiele, Eric C Conchola, Jason M DeFreitas
PURPOSE: To compare maximal and rapid force characteristics, as well as fatigability, between traditional (TRT) and explosive (ERT) resistance-trained men. METHODS: Fourteen TRT (mean age = 25 years) and twelve ERT (mean age = 22 years) men performed rapid maximal contractions followed by an isokinetic fatigue protocol consisting of 50 maximal knee extension (KE) and flexions (KF) at a moderate speed (180° s- ¹). Baseline measures included: isokinetic peak torque (PT), isometric rate of torque development (RTD0-50 ), peak acceleration (ACCmax ), and peak velocity (Vmax )...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748934/legacy-effects-of-land-use-modulate-tree-growth-responses-to-climate-extremes
#4
Katharina Mausolf, Werner Härdtle, Kirstin Jansen, Benjamin M Delory, Dietrich Hertel, Christoph Leuschner, Vicky M Temperton, Goddert von Oheimb, Andreas Fichtner
Climate change can impact forest ecosystem processes via individual tree and community responses. While the importance of land-use legacies in modulating these processes have been increasingly recognised, evidence of former land-use mediated climate-growth relationships remain rare. We analysed how differences in former land-use (i.e. forest continuity) affect the growth response of European beech to climate extremes. Here, using dendrochronological and fine root data, we show that ancient forests (forests with a long forest continuity) and recent forests (forests afforested on former farmland) clearly differ with regard to climate-growth relationships...
May 10, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741590/rate-of-muscle-contraction-is-associated-with-cognition-in-women-not-in-men
#5
Qu Tian, Yusuke Osawa, Susan M Resnick, Luigi Ferrucci, Stephanie A Studenski
Background: In older persons, lower hand grip strength is associated with poorer cognition. Little is known about how the rate of muscle contraction relates to cognition and upper extremity motor function, and sex differences are understudied. Methods: Linear regression, adjusting for age, race, education, body mass index, appendicular lean mass, and knee pain assessed sex-specific cross-sectional associations of peak torque, rate of torque development (RTD) and rate of velocity development (RVD) with cognition and upper extremity motor function...
May 8, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730331/higher-muscle-power-training-volume-is-not-determinant-for-the-magnitude-of-neuromuscular-improvements-in-elderly-women
#6
Régis Radaelli, Clarissa M Brusco, Pedro Lopez, Anderson Rech, Carlos L Machado, Rafael Grazioli, Diana C Muller, Eduardo L Cadore, Ronei S Pinto
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 12 weeks of muscle power training using one- and three-sets on neuromuscular adaptations in elderly women. Twenty six healthy elderly women were randomly assigned into two groups: one-set (n = 13) and three-sets (n = 13). Maximal dynamic and isometric strength, rapid force assessed as absolute and normalized rate of force development (RTD) and contractile impulse during unilateral leg knee extension at 0-50 and 0-200 ms, overall quadriceps muscle thickness, muscle power during a countermovement jump (CMJ), and functional performance using time-up-and-go and the timed stair climb tests were evaluated before and after training...
May 3, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718968/acute-attenuation-of-fatigue-after-sodium-bicarbonate-supplementation-does-not-manifest-into-greater-training-adaptations-after-10-weeks-of-resistance-training-exercise
#7
Jason C Siegler, Paul W M Marshall, Harrison Finn, Rebecca Cross, Kurt Mudie
PURPOSE: In two concurrent studies, we aimed to a) confirm the acute effect of 0.3 g·kg-1 body weight (BW) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation on central and peripheral mechanisms associated with explosive power (Study 1) and b) determine whether chronic NaHCO3 supplementation would improve the adaptive response of the neuromuscular system during a 10-week resistance training program (Study 2). METHODS: Eight resistance trained participants volunteered after providing written consent...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692087/-fine-root-morphology-and-chemistry-characteristics-in-different-branch-orders-of-castanopsis-platyacantha-and-their-responses-to-nitrogen-addition
#8
Guan Tao Chen, Jun Zheng, Tian Chi Peng, Shun Li, Xi Rong Qiu, Yu Qin Chen, Hao Yu Ma, Li Hua Tu
Fine root morphology and chemistry characteristics of dominant species Castanopsis platya-cantha in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in subtropical China and their response to nitrogen (N) addition were determined in order 1st to 5th. With the increase of root order, C. platyacantha root diameter, tissue density (RTD), and K content increased, and specific root length (SRL), speci-fic surface area (SRA) and contents of N, P and Mg decreased. Nitrogen addition significant increased N content and decreased Mg content and C/N of fine roots...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679247/neuromuscular-and-electromechanical-properties-of-ultra-power-athletes-the-traceurs
#9
Sidney Grosprêtre, Philippe Gimenez, Alain Martin
PURPOSE: Practising a power-type activity over years can shape the neuromuscular profile of athletes. This study aimed at comparing the neuromuscular profile of a non-trained group (NT, n = 10) to power athletes practising Parkour (= traceurs, group PK, n = 11), an activity consisting of jumping obstacles mostly in an urban landscape. METHODS: Maximal isometric plantar flexion force (MVC) and rate of torque development (RTD) were evaluated, and neuromuscular function of triceps surae muscles was assessed and compared between groups through the analysis of evoked potentials from posterior tibial nerve stimulation...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674663/gunn-hilsum-effect-in-mechanically-strained-silicon-nanowires-tunable-negative-differential-resistance
#10
Daryoush Shiri, Amit Verma, Reza Nekovei, Andreas Isacsson, C R Selvakumar, M P Anantram
Gunn (or Gunn-Hilsum) Effect and its associated negative differential resistivity (NDR) emanates from transfer of electrons between two different energy subbands. This effect was observed in semiconductors like GaAs which has a direct bandgap of very low effective mass and an indirect subband of high effective mass which lies ~300 meV above the former. In contrast to GaAs, bulk silicon has a very high energy spacing (~1 eV) which renders the initiation of transfer-induced NDR unobservable. Using Density Functional Theory (DFT), semi-empirical 10 orbital (sp3 d5 s* ) Tight Binding and Ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) methods we show for the first time that (a) Gunn Effect can be induced in silicon nanowires (SiNW) with diameters of 3...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662034/inline-determination-of-residence-time-distribution-in-hot-melt-extrusion
#11
Jens Wesholowski, Andreas Berghaus, Markus Thommes
In the framework of Quality-by-Design (QbD), the inline determination of process parameters or quality attributes of a product using sufficient process analytical technology (PAT) is a center piece for the establishment of continuous processes as a standard pharmaceutical technology. In this context, Twin-Screw-Extrusion (TSE) processes, such as Hot-Melt-Extrusion (HME), are one key aspect of current research. The main benefit of this process technology is the combination of different unit operations. Several of these sub-processes are linked to the Residence Time Distribution (RTD) of the material within the apparatus...
April 15, 2018: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652169/contribution-of-neuromuscular-factors-to-quadriceps-asymmetry-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#12
Alexa K Johnson, Riann M Palmieri-Smith, Lindsey K Lepley
CONTEXT:   To quantify quadriceps weakness after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), researchers have often analyzed only peak torque. However, analyzing other characteristics of the waveform, such as the rate of torque development (RTD), time to peak torque (TTP), and central activation ratio (CAR), can lend insight into the underlying neuromuscular factors that regulate torque development. OBJECTIVE:   To determine if interlimb neuromuscular asymmetry was present in patients with ACLR at the time of clearance to return to activity...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610196/fungicidal-potency-and-mechanisms-of-%C3%AE-defensins-against-multi-drug-resistant-candida-species
#13
Virginia Basso, Angie Garcia, Dat Q Tran, Justin B Schaal, Patti Tran, Diana Ngole, Younus Aqeel, Prasad Tongaonkar, André J Ouellette, Michael E Selsted
Systemic candidiasis is a growing health care concern becoming even more challenging due to the growing frequency of infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) Candida spp Thus there is an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches to candidiasis, including strategies bioinspired by insights into natural host defense against fungal pathogens. The antifungal properties of θ-defensins, macrocyclic peptides expressed in tissues of Old World monkeys, were investigated against a panel of drug sensitive and drug resistant clinical isolates of C...
April 2, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606767/evaluation-and-application-of-prebiotic-and-probiotic-ingredients-for-development-of-ready-to-drink-tea-beverage
#14
Shweta Tewari, Kriti Kumari Dubey, Rekha S Singhal
Ready-to-drink (RTD) ice tea is a ready prepared tea, produced from green and black tea originating from same plant Camellia sinensis . The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prebiotics [galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS), fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), and inulin] or synbiotic ingredients (GOS, FOS, inulin, and Lactobacillus acidophilus ) on the sensory properties and consumer acceptability of RTD. The quality of green tea extract (GTE) and black tea extract (BTE) was improved with pretreatment of cellulase and pectinase enzymes...
April 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604159/novel-alleles-of-rice-eif4g-generated-by-crispr-cas9-targeted-mutagenesis-confer-resistance-to-rice-tungro-spherical-virus
#15
Anca Macovei, Neah Rosandra Sevilla, Christian Cantos, Gilda Jonson, Inez Slamet-Loedin, Tomáš Čermák, Dan Voytas, Il-Ryong Choi, Prabhjit Chadha-Mohanty
Rice tungro disease (RTD) is a serious constraint in rice production across tropical Asia. RTD is caused by the interaction between Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) and Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV). RTSV resistance found in traditional cultivars has contributed to a reduction in the incidence of RTD in the field. Natural RTSV resistance is a recessive trait controlled by the translation initiation factor 4 gamma gene (eIF4G). The Y1059 V1060 V1061 residues of eIF4G are known to be associated with the reactions to RTSV...
March 31, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577974/repetitions-to-failure-versus-not-to-failure-during-concurrent-training-in-healthy-elderly-men-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Larissa Xavier Neves da Silva, Juliana Lopes Teodoro, Erik Menger, Pedro Lopez, Rafael Grazioli, Juliano Farinha, Kelly Moraes, Martim Bottaro, Ronei Silveira Pinto, Mikel Izquierdo, Eduardo Lusa Cadore
This randomized clinical trial compared the neuromuscular adaptations induced by concurrent training (CT) performed with repetitions to concentric failure and not to failure in elderly men. Fifty-two individuals (66.2 ± 5.2 years) completed the pre- and post-measurements and were divided into three groups: repetitions to failure (RFG, n = 17); repetitions not to failure (NFG, n = 20); and repetitions not to failure with total volume equalized to RFG (ENFG, n = 15). Participants were assessed in isometric knee extension peak torque (PTiso ), maximal strength (1RM) in the leg press (LP) and knee extension (KE) exercises, quadriceps femoris muscle thickness (QF MT), specific tension, rate of torque development (RTD) at 50, 100 and 250 ms, countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) performance, as well as maximal neuromuscular activity (EMGmax ) of the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles...
March 22, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569834/knee-extension-rate-of-torque-development-and-peak-torque-associations-with-lower-extremity-function
#17
Yusuke Osawa, Stephanie A Studenski, Luigi Ferrucci
BACKGROUND: With aging, the ability to generate muscle force decreases, contributing to declines in physical functions such as walking. While most studies assess muscle force by peak torque, the rate of torque development (RTD) reflects a dynamic component of muscle performance that is important for physical function. Using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, we assessed whether RTD adds significantly to peak torque in associations with lower extremity performance. If so, RTD may help identify weak older adults for screening and intervention...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540305/influence-of-strength-training-intensity-on-subsequent-recovery-in-elderly
#18
L B R Orssatto, B M Moura, E S Bezerra, L L Andersen, S N Oliveira, F Diefenthaeler
Understanding the influence of strength training intensity on subsequent recovery in elderly is important to avoid reductions in physical function during the days following training. Twenty-two elderly were randomized in two groups: G70 (65.9 ± 4.8 years, n = 11) and G95 (66.9 ± 5.1, n = 11). Baseline tests included maximum voluntary isometric contraction (peak torque and rate of torque development - RTD), countermovement jump, and functional capacity (timed up and go, stairs ascent and descent)...
June 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412462/effects-of-processing-conditions-during-manufacture-on-retronasal-aroma-compounds-from-a-milk-coffee-drink
#19
Michio Ikeda, Masayuki Akiyama, Yuta Hirano, Kazuhiro Miyazi, Masaya Kono, Yuriko Imayoshi, Hisakatsu Iwabuchi, Takeshi Onodera, Kiyoshi Toko
To develop a ready-to-drink (RTD) milk coffee retaining the original coffee flavor, the effects of processing conditions during manufacture on retronasal-arma (RA) compounds from the milk coffee were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using an RA simulator (RAS). Thirteen of 46 detected compounds in the RAS effluent (RAS compounds) decreased significantly following pH adjustment of coffee (from pH 5.1 to 6.8) and 5 compounds increased. RAS compounds from coffee tended to decrease through the pH adjustment and subsequent sterilization...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401193/the-physical-activity-and-physiological-profiles-of-elite-international-female-field-hockey-players-across-the-quarters-of-competitive-match-play
#20
Aideen McGuinness, Shane Malone, Brian Hughes, Kieran Collins
The aim of the current investigation was to quantify the physical and physiological demands of elite international female field hockey across the quarters of match-play. Twenty-seven elite International female field hockey outfield players (23 ± 3 years; 162.6 ± 13.0 cm; 66.0 ± 6.0 kg) participated in the current observational study during the 2016-2017 season. Participants were monitored with GPS technology and HR monitors. Players were categorised based on three different playing positions. Activity was categorized into total distance (m), relative total distance (RTD), low, moderate and high intensity distance (m), max velocity (km⋅h), and percentage maximal velocity (%)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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