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Yuki Hatayama, Yuki Hashimoto, Ayako Hara, Toru Motokura
BACKGROUND: For patients with reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV), a highly sensitive and accurate CMV quantification system is essential to monitor viral load. METHODS: We constructed a real-time detection PCR (RTD-PCR) system for CMV DNA and evaluated its linearity, lower detection limit, dynamic range and accuracy using two CMV standards. We used 219 clinical samples derived from 101 patients to compare the system with the pp65 antigen test. RESULTS: The 95% detection limit was determined to be 556 IU/mL (95% CI, 440-797 IU/mL), and the quantification range was between 10(2) and 10(6) copies or IU/mL (r = 0...
September 2016: Yonago Acta Medica
Zeina Baalbaki, Tamanna Sultana, Thomas Maere, Peter A Vanrolleghem, Chris D Metcalfe, Viviane Yargeau
Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are often poorly removed from wastewater using conventional treatment technologies and there is limited understanding of their fate during treatment. Inappropriate sampling strategies lead to inaccuracies in estimating removals of CECs. In this study, we used the "fractionated approach" that accounts for the residence time distribution (RTD) in treatment units to investigate the fate of 26 target CECs in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) that includes primary, secondary and tertiary treatment steps...
October 2, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Marcin Zadworny, M Luke McCormack, Roma Żytkowiak, Piotr Karolewski, Joanna Mucha, Jacek Oleksyn
Plant functional traits may be altered as plants adapt to various environmental constraints. Cold, low fertility growing conditions are often associated with root adjustments to increase acquisition of limiting nutrient resources, but they may also result in construction of roots with reduced uptake potential but higher tissue persistence. It is ultimately unclear whether plants produce fine roots of different structure in response to decreasing temperatures and whether these changes represent a trade-off between root function or potential root persistence...
September 27, 2016: Global Change Biology
John W S Brown, Cristiane P G Calixto, Runxuan Zhang
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: Re-programming of the transcriptome involves both transcription and alternative splicing (AS). Some genes are regulated only at the AS level with no change in expression at the gene level. AS data must be incorporated as an essential aspect of the regulation of gene expression. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) can deliver both transcriptional and AS information, but accurate methods to analyse the added complexity in RNA-seq data are needed. The construction of a comprehensive reference transcript dataset (RTD) for a specific plant species, variety or accession, from all available sequence data, will immediately allow more robust analysis of RNA-seq data...
September 23, 2016: New Phytologist
Raffy Dotan, Glenn Jenkins, Thomas D O'Brien, Steve Hansen, Bareket Falk
BACKGROUND: Compared with visual torque-onset-detection (TOD), threshold-based TOD produces onset bias, which increases with lower torques or rates of torque development (RTD). PURPOSE: To compare the effects of differential TOD-bias on common contractile parameters in two torque-disparate groups. METHODS: Fifteen boys and 12 men performed maximal, explosive, isometric knee-extensions. Torque and EMG were recorded for each contraction. Best contractions were selected by peak torque (MVC) and peak RTD...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Matt S Stock, Jacob A Mota, Jennah M Hernandez, Brennan J Thompson
INTRODUCTION: We examined correlations among echo intensity and muscle thickness versus measures of athleticism and isometric strength in healthy children. METHODS: B-mode ultrasonography was used to examine the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) in 28 boys (mean age = 12 years). Tests of athleticism included jump height and peak velocity, sprint speed, and agility. Peak torque and the rate of torque development (RTD) at 100 and 200 milliseconds from torque onset were assessed...
September 4, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Nattawin Chawaloesphonsiya, Chayanin Prommajun, Kritchart Wongwailikhit, Pisut Painmanakul
Separation of nanoscale oil droplets in the cutting-oil emulsion by electrocoagulation-flotation (ECF) was carried out in a bubble column reactor (BCR) and an external-loop airlift reactor (ALR). Under the batch operation, aluminium electrode provided the highest efficiency of 99% and required the shortest separating time compared to iron and graphite electrodes. The separation performance was also affected by the electrode gap and current density due to the amount of produced aluminium ions and turbulence by bubble motions...
September 1, 2016: Environmental Technology
H J Pant, V K Sharma
A radiotracer investigation was carried out to measure residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase in a trickle bed reactor (TBR). The main objectives of the investigation were to investigate radial and axial mixing of the liquid phase, and evaluate performance of the liquid distributor/redistributor at different operating conditions. Mean residence times (MRTs), holdups (H) and fraction of flow flowing along different quadrants were estimated. The analysis of the measured RTD curves indicated radial non-uniform distribution of liquid phase across the beds...
October 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Andrew Cleveland, Josh Herzog, Pedro Caram
This article evaluates the techniques, results, and complications of hybrid cervical disc arthroplasty in a high-demand military population. Emphasis is on the occupational impact and return to duty outcomes. This article is a case series with prospective follow-up of 30 hybrid cervical disc arthroplasty patients from the authors' institution. Average follow-up was 16.1 months. Average patient age was 39.7 years. Noncommissioned officer was the most common military rank. Cervical disc arthroplasty at C5/6 with fusion at C6/7 was the most common procedure (21/30)...
2016: Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances
Dean L Mayfield, Andrew G Cresswell, Glen A Lichtwark
Compliant tendons permit mechanically unfavourable fascicle dynamics during fixed-end contractions. The purpose of this study was to reduce the effective compliance of tendon and investigate how small reductions in active shortening affect twitch kinetics and contractile performance in response to a second stimulus. The series elastic element (SEE) of the human triceps surae (N=15) was effectively stiffened by applying a 55 ms rotation to the ankle, through a range of 5°, at the onset of twitch and doublet [interstimulus interval (ISI) of 80 ms] stimulation...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Fabio Abeni, Andrea Galli
The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16...
August 8, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
H J Pant, Sunil Goswami, Jayashree Biswal, J S Samantaray, V K Sharma, Sorabh Singhal
A radiotracer investigation was carried out in a glass production unit in a glass industry. Lanthanum-140 as lanthanium oxide mixed with silica was used as a radiotracer to trace the molten glass in various sections of the unit. Residence time distributions of molten glass were measured and analyzed to identify the flow abnormities. The flow parameters such as breakthrough time, mean residence time, homogenization time, dead volume and flow patterns in different sections of the unit were obtained from the measured RTD data...
October 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Erika J MacIntyre, Leyla Asadi, Doug A Mckim, Sean M Bagshaw
Background. The prevalence of patients supported with home mechanical ventilation (HMV) for chronic respiratory failure has increased. However, the clinical outcomes associated with HMV are largely unknown. Methods. We performed a systematic review of studies evaluating patients receiving HMV for indications other than obstructive lung disease, reporting at least one clinically relevant outcome including health-related quality of life (HRQL) measured by validated tools; hospitalization requirements; caregiver burden; and health service utilization...
2016: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
Yan-ping Wang, Tan Xu, Wan-rui Zhu, Qi-tong Wang, Meng-ling Liu, Hua-tian Wang, Chuan-rong Li, Yu-feng Dong
Based on the fine root samples of the first and second generations of poplar (Populus x euramericana ' Neva'), this study examined the response of quantitative and morphological traits of fine roots of different orders and the difference between generations. The results showed that, the quantitative traits of fine roots, such as root length, root surface area and root biomass, presented obvious seasonal variation, and the fine root traits had obvious difference among root orders. The quantitative traits of lower-order fine roots showed significant seasonal difference, and the fine root biomass increased in the growing season and then decreased significantly...
February 2016: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yoichiro Otaki, Tetsu Watanabe, Hiroki Takahashi, Gensai Yamaura, Satoshi Nishiyama, Takanori Arimoto, Tetsuro Shishido, Takuya Miyamoto, Isao Kubota
BACKGROUND: Kidney dysfunction is associated with adverse outcome in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Renal tubulointerstitial damage (RTD) is another type of kidney dysfunction from glomerular damage. RTD is reported to be a risk for future cardiac event in patients with heart disease. However, it remains to be determined whether RTD is predictive of poor clinical outcome in patients with PAD. METHODS AND RESULTS: RTD markers (urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamidase; NAG and urinary β-2 microglobulin to creatinine ratio) and Glomerular damage markers (cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, and microalbuminuria) were measured in 265 consecutive PAD patients who underwent endovascular therapy...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Thomas H Miller, Jose A Baz-Lomba, Christopher Harman, Malcolm J Reid, Stewart F Owen, Nicolas R Bury, Kevin V Thomas, Leon P Barron
Modeling and prediction of polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) sampling rates (Rs) for 73 compounds using artificial neural networks (ANNs) is presented for the first time. Two models were constructed: the first was developed ab initio using a genetic algorithm (GSD-model) to shortlist 24 descriptors covering constitutional, topological, geometrical and physicochemical properties and the second model was adapted for Rs prediction from a previous chromatographic retention model (RTD-model). Mechanistic evaluation of descriptors showed that models did not require comprehensive a priori information to predict Rs...
August 2, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Ivana Knyght, Luke Clifton, Yussif Saaka, M Jayne Lawrence, David J Barlow
A combination of Langmuir isotherm, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), and neutron reflectivity studies have been performed to gain insight into the effects on model bacterial cell membranes of the antimicrobial peptides, Rhesus θ-defensin 1 (RTD-1), and porcine protegrin 1 (PG-1). The peptides were interacted with monolayers spread at the air-water interface and prepared from a 3:1 molar mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol used to approximate the cell membranes of Gram positive bacteria...
July 26, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ty B Palmer, Brennan J Thompson
INTRODUCTION: We examined the effects of aging on passive stiffness, size, quality, and strength characteristics of the posterior hip and thigh muscles. METHODS: Fifteen young (25±3years) and 15 old (72±5years) men participated in this study. Echo intensity (EI) and cross-sectional area (CSA) were determined from ultrasound scans of the hamstrings. Straight-leg raises were used to assess passive stiffness, which was calculated from the slopes of the initial (phase 1) and final (phase 2) portions of the angle-torque curve...
June 27, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Kevin R Patel, Lenny E Ramsey, Nicholas V Metcalf, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices of white matter integrity would offer early markers of retrograde transsynaptic degeneration (RTD) in the visual system after stroke. METHODS: We performed a prospective longitudinal analysis of the sensitivity of DTI markers of optic tract health in 12 patients with postsynaptic visual pathway stroke, 12 stroke controls, and 28 healthy controls. We examined group differences in (1) optic tract fractional anisotropy (FA-asymmetry), (2) perimetric measures of visual impairment, and (3) the relationship between FA-asymmetry and perimetric assessment...
July 12, 2016: Neurology
Haïfa Ben Abdelouahed, Nafaa Reguigui, Nour Eddine Abbes
To determine residence time distribution (RTD) in the phosphate treatment reactor we apply radiotracer method. However this method becomes effective and profitable only if the radiotracer is the suitable one. The problem to resolve in our study is "which phase of the phosphate slurry our injected radiotracer is following?". For that we add radiotracer to the phosphate slurry and we proceed to phase separation using a filtration system. We follow simultaneously -using appropriate detectors- the behavior and the quantity of the radiotracer in both phases during the separation stage...
September 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
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