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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817704/analysis-of-multidrug-resistant-group-b-streptococci-with-reduced-penicillin-susceptibility-forming-small-less-hemolytic-colonies
#1
Hirotsugu Banno, Kouji Kimura, Yosuke Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Makoto Kuroda, Wanchun Jin, Jun-Ichi Wachino, Keiko Yamada, Keigo Shibayama, Yoshichika Arakawa
Group B streptococci (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) are the leading cause of neonatal invasive diseases and are also important pathogens for elderly adults. Until now, nearly all GBS with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS) have shown β-hemolytic activity and grow on sheep blood agar. However, we have previously reported three PRGBS clinical isolates harboring a CylK deletion that form small less hemolytic colonies. In this study, we examined the causes of small, less hemolytic colony formation in these clinical isolates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816290/-treatment-outcome-evaluation-of-different-mandibular-advancements-using-oral-appliance-to-treat-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-hyponea-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#2
Y Y Ma, J J Zhang, X M Gao
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the polysomnology results along with mandibular titrated advancement using oral appliance to treat obstructive sleep apnea and hyponea syndrome (OSAHS). METHODS: Several electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang) were systematically searched up to September 2015. There was no restriction of language or source of information. All randomized clinical trials (RCT) and before-after trials (BAT) comparing at least two different mandibular advancements were included...
August 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816102/hydrodenticity-to-enhance-relaxivity-of-gadolinium-dtpa-within-crosslinked-hyaluronic-acid-nanoparticles
#3
Maria Russo, Alfonso Maria Ponsiglione, Ernesto Forte, Paolo Antonio Netti, Enza Torino
AIM: The efficacy of gadolinium (Gd) chelates as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging remains limited owing to poor relaxivity and toxic effects. Here, the effect of the hydration of the hydrogel structure on the relaxometric properties of Gd-DTPA is explained for the first time and called Hydrodenticity. RESULTS: The ability to tune the hydrogel structure is proved through a microfluidic flow-focusing approach able to produce crosslinked hyaluronic acid nanoparticles, analyzed regarding the crosslink density and mesh size, and connected to the characteristic correlation times of the Gd-DTPA...
August 17, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815912/assembly-and-rna-free-annotation-of-highly-heterozygous-genomes-the-case-of-the-thick-billed-murre-uria-lomvia
#4
Anna Tigano, Timothy B Sackton, Vicki L Friesen
Thanks to a dramatic reduction in sequencing costs followed by a rapid development of bioinformatics tools, genome assembly and annotation have become accessible to many researchers in recent years. Among tetrapods, birds have genomes that display many features that facilitate their assembly and annotation, such as small genome size, low number of repeats, and highly conserved genomic structure. However, we found that high genomic heterozygosity could have a great impact on the quality of the genome assembly of the thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), an arctic colonial seabird...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815876/a-treatment-development-study-of-a-cognitive-and-mindfulness-based-therapy-for-adolescents-with-co-occurring-post-traumatic-stress-and-substance-use-disorder
#5
Lisa R Fortuna, Michelle V Porche, Auralyd Padilla
OBJECTIVE: Substance use is common among adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We aimed to develop and study an integrated treatment for adolescents with co-occurring disorders. DESIGN: This is a therapy development and open pilot trial study of a manualized therapy for adolescents with post-traumatic stress, depression, and substance use that uses a combination of cognitive therapy (CT) and mindfulness. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and paired sample t-tests were calculated to assess for changes in PTSD symptoms, depression, and substance use frequency from baseline to end of treatment using standardized measures and validated by urine drug screens...
August 16, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815777/a-deficiency-of-the-link-protein-bral2-affects-the-size-of-the-extracellular-space-in-the-thalamus-of-aged-mice
#6
Michal Cicanic, Midori Edamatsu, Yoko Bekku, Ivan Vorisek, Toshitaka Oohashi, Lydia Vargova
Bral2 is a link protein stabilizing the binding between lecticans and hyaluronan in perineuronal nets and axonal coats (ACs) in specific brain regions. Using the real-time iontophoretic method and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance, we determined the extracellular space (ECS) volume fraction (α), tortuosity (λ), and apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADCW ) in the thalamic ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) and sensorimotor cortex of young adult (3-6 months) and aged (14-20 months) Bral2-deficient (Bral2(-/-) ) mice and age-matched wild-type (wt) controls...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815766/preparation-of-robust-metal-free-magnetic-nanoemulsions-encapsulating-low-molecular-weight-nitroxide-radicals-and-hydrophobic-drugs-directed-toward-mri-visible-targeted-delivery
#7
Rui Tamura, Kota Nagura, Yusa Takemoto, Satori Moronaga, Yoshiaki Uchida, Satoshi Shimono, Akihiko Shiino, Kenji Tanigaki, Tsukuru Amano, Fumi Yoshino, Yohei Noda, Satoshi Koizumi, Naoki Komatsu, Tatsuhisa Kato, Jun Yamauchi
With a view to developing a theranostic nanomedicine for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-visible targeted drug delivery system, robust metal-free magnetic nanoemulsions (mean particle sizes of less than 20 nm) consisting of the biocompatible surfactant 1 and the incorporated hydrophobic low-molecular-weight 2,2,5-trimethyl-5-(4-alkoxy)phenylpyrrolidine-N-oxyl radicals [(±)-2] have been prepared in pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered saline. The structure of the nanoemulsions has been characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering and small angle neutron scattering measurements...
August 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815604/chronic-morphine-reduces-the-readily-releasable-pool-of-gaba-a-presynaptic-mechanism-of-opioid-tolerance
#8
Adrianne R Wilson-Poe, Hyo-Jin Jeong, Christopher W Vaughan
The midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) plays a critical role in tolerance to the analgesic actions of opioids such as morphine. While numerous studies have identified the postsynaptic adaptations induced by chronic morphine treatment in this and other brain regions, the presence of presynaptic adaptations remains uncertain. We examined GABAergic synaptic transmission within rat PAG brain slices from animals which underwent a low dose morphine treatment protocol which produces tolerance, but not withdrawal. Evoked GABAergic IPSCs (inhibitory postsynaptic currents) were less in morphine compared to control saline treated animals...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815331/meta-analysis-of-the-long-term-treatment-effects-of-psychological-interventions-in-youth-with-ptsd-symptoms
#9
REVIEW
Jana Gutermann, Laura Schwartzkopff, Regina Steil
To date, the long-term effectiveness of psychological treatments in reducing post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in children and adolescents has not been investigated extensively. This meta-analysis quantifies the long-term effects of psychological interventions in children and adolescents with PTSD symptoms and examines the period-dependent follow-up (FU) effects based on 47 studies. The mean FU effect sizes (ESs) for PTSD symptoms ranged from medium (between treatment ESs for controlled studies) to large (within treatment ESs for uncontrolled studies; pooled analysis including all studies)...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814985/activation-of-endocannabinoid-receptor-2-as-a-mechanism-of-propofol-pretreatment-induced-cardioprotection-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#10
Hai-Jing Sun, Yan Lu, Hao-Wei Wang, Hao Zhang, Shuang-Ran Wang, Wen-Yun Xu, Hai-Long Fu, Xue-Ya Yao, Feng Yang, Hong-Bin Yuan
Propofol pretreatment before reperfusion, or propofol conditioning, has been shown to be cardioprotective, while its mechanism is unclear. The current study investigated the roles of endocannabinoid signaling in propofol cardioprotection in an in vivo model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and in in vitro primary cardiomyocyte hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury. The results showed that propofol conditioning increased both serum and cell culture media concentrations of endocannabinoids including anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) detected by LC-MS/MS...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814968/asp-based-method-for-the-enumeration-of-attractors-in-non-deterministic-synchronous-and-asynchronous-multi-valued-networks
#11
Emna Ben Abdallah, Maxime Folschette, Olivier Roux, Morgan Magnin
BACKGROUND: This paper addresses the problem of finding attractors in biological regulatory networks. We focus here on non-deterministic synchronous and asynchronous multi-valued networks, modeled using automata networks (AN). AN is a general and well-suited formalism to study complex interactions between different components (genes, proteins,...). An attractor is a minimal trap domain, that is, a part of the state-transition graph that cannot be escaped. Such structures are terminal components of the dynamics and take the form of steady states (singleton) or complex compositions of cycles (non-singleton)...
2017: Algorithms for Molecular Biology: AMB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814865/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-sn-38-nanocrystals-with-different-particle-sizes
#12
Min Chen, Wanqing Li, Xun Zhang, Ye Dong, Yabing Hua, Hui Zhang, Jing Gao, Liang Zhao, Ying Li, Aiping Zheng
7-Ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38) is a potent broad-spectrum antitumor drug derived from irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11). Due to its poor solubility and instability of the active lactone ring, its clinical use is significantly limited. As one of the most promising formulations for poorly water-soluble drugs, nanocrystals have attracted increasing attention. In order to solve these problems and evaluate the antitumor effect of SN-38 in vitro and in vivo, two nanocrystals with markedly different particle sizes were prepared...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814320/intrathecal-morphine-versus-femoral-nerve-block-for-pain-control-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-meta-analysis
#13
Yi Tang, Xu Tang, Qinghua Wei, Hui Zhang
BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis aims to illustrate the efficacy and safety of intrathecal morphine (ITM) versus femoral nerve block (FNB) for pain control after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: In April 2017, a systematic computer-based search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cami Info. Inc., Casalini databases, EBSCO databases, Verlag database and Google database. Data on patients prepared for TKA surgery in studies that compared ITM versus FNB for pain control after TKA were collected...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813593/ptni-nanocrystals-supported-on-hollow-carbon-spheres-enhancing-the-electrocatalytic-performance-through-high-temperature-annealing-and-electrochemical-co-stripping-treatments
#14
Chunmei Zhang, Ruizhong Zhang, Xiaokun Li, Wei Chen
PtNi nanoparticles have been proved to be a type of highly efficient electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) among the Pt-based nanomaterials. However, how to improve the surface catalytic activity and stability of polymer-stabilized Pt-based nanocrystals is still a critical issue for their application in fuel cells. In this work, a one-step solvothermal process was used to synthesize PVP-stabilized PtNi nanocubes supported on hollow carbon spheres. With optimized metal precursor ratio (Pt/Ni=1:1) and solvothermal temperature (130 oC), PtNi nanocrystals with uniform size and cubic shape can be synthesized and highly dispersed on hollow carbon spheres...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813491/climate-change-and-body-size-trends-in-aquatic-and-terrestrial-endotherms-does-habitat-matter
#15
Daniel E Naya, Hugo Naya, Joseph Cook
Several studies have claimed that reduction in body size comprises a nearly universal response to global warming; however, doubts about the validity of this pattern for endothermic species have been raised recently. Accordingly, we assessed temporal changes in body mass for 27 bird and 17 mammal species, to evaluate if a reduction in body size during the 20th century is a widespread phenomenon among endothermic vertebrates. In addition, we tested if there are differences in the temporal change in size between birds and mammals, aquatic and terrestrial species, and the first and second half of the 20th century...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813154/on-the-roles-of-free-electrons-and-h2o2-in-the-optical-breakdown-induced-photochemical-reduction-of-aqueous-aucl4
#16
Victoria Kathryn Meader, Mallory G John, Collin J Rodrigues, Katharine Moore Tibbetts
Free electrons and H2O2 formed in an optical breakdown plasma are found to di- rectly control the kinetics of [AuCl4]- reduction to form Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) during femtosecond laser-assisted synthesis of AuNPs. The formation rates of both free electrons and H2O2 strongly depend on the energy and duration of the 800 nm laser pulses over the ranges of 10 - 2400 μJ and 30 - 1500 fs. By monitoring the conversion of [AuCl4]- to AuNPs using in situ UV-vis spectroscopy during laser irradiation, the first- and second-order rate constants in the autocatalytic rate law, k1 and k2, were extracted and compared to the computed free electron densities and experimentally measured H2O2 formation rates...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813031/pt-co-alloys-loaded-cubic-sic-electrode-with-improved-photoelectrocatalysis-property
#17
Dan Liu, Tao Yang, Junhong Chen, Kuo-Chih Chou, Xinmei Hou
A novel composite photocatalyst was synthesized by loading 5 wt % of platinum cobalt alloy on 3C-SiC nanowires and powder (Pt-Co-SiC) respectively via a simple polyol reduction method. Pt-Co-SiC were comprehensively characterized by SEM, HRTEM, XRD, PL, and XPS. The results indicated that Pt-Co nanoparticles in the size of 2-5 nm were dispersed homogeneously in the SiC nanowires and powders. The photocurrent response of the Pt-Co-SiC increased remarkably with increasing Pt content and the best performance was observed with the sample of Pt₃Co-SiC...
August 16, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812875/one-pot-synthesis-of-size-and-composition-controlled-ni-rich-nipt-alloy-nanoparticles-in-a-reverse-micro-emulsion-system-and-their-application
#18
Gregory M Biausque, Paco Laveille, Dalaver H Anjum, Bei Zhang, Xixiang Zhang, Valérie Caps, Jean-Marie Basset
Bimetallic nanoparticles have been the subject of numerous research studies in the nanotechnology field, in particular for catalytic applications. Control of the size, morphology and composition has become a key challenge due to the relationship between these parameters and the catalytic behavior of the particles in terms of activity, selectivity and stability. Here, we present a one-pot air synthesis of 2 nm Ni9Pt1 nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution. Control of the size and composition of the alloy particles is achieved at ambient temperature, in the aqueous phase, by the simultaneous reduction of nickel and platinum precursor with hydrazine, using a reverse micro-emulsion system...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812868/light-and-strong-hierarchical-porous-sic-foam-for-efficient-electromagnetic-interference-shielding-and-thermal-insulation-at-elevated-temperatures
#19
Caiyun Liang, Zhenfeng Wang, Lina Wu, Xiaochen Zhang, Huan Wang, Zhijiang Wang
A novel light but strong SiC foam with hierarchical porous architecture are fabricated by using dough as raw material via carbonization and followed carbothermal reduction with silicon source. A significant synergistic effect is achieved by embedding meso and nano pores in micro-sized porous skeleton, which endows the SiC foam with high-performance electromagnetic interference shielding (EMI), thermal insulation and mechanical properties. The micro-sized skeleton withstands the high stress. The meso- and nano-sized pores enhance the multiple reflection of the incident electromagnetic waves and elongate the path of heat transfer...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812661/human-population-growth-offsets-climate-driven-increase-in-woody-vegetation-in-sub-saharan-africa
#20
Martin Brandt, Kjeld Rasmussen, Josep Peñuelas, Feng Tian, Guy Schurgers, Aleixandre Verger, Ole Mertz, John R B Palmer, Rasmus Fensholt
The rapidly growing human population in sub-Saharan Africa generates increasing demand for agricultural land and forest products, which presumably leads to deforestation. Conversely, a greening of African drylands has been reported, but this has been difficult to associate with changes in woody vegetation. There is thus an incomplete understanding of how woody vegetation responds to socio-economic and environmental change. Here we used a passive microwave Earth observation data set to document two different trends in land area with woody cover for 1992-2011: 36% of the land area (6,870,000 km(2)) had an increase in woody cover largely in drylands, and 11% had a decrease (2,150,000 km(2)), mostly in humid zones...
March 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
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