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Hoda Fathali, Johan Dunevall, Soodabeh Majdi, Ann-Sofie Cans
Amperometry recording of cells subjected to osmotic shock show that secretory cells respond to this physical stress by reducing the exocytosis activity and the amount of neurotransmitter released from vesicles in single exocytosis events. It has been suggested that the reduction in neurotransmitters expelled is due to alterations in membrane biophysical properties when cells shrink in response to osmotic stress and with assumptions made that secretory vesicles in the cell cytoplasm are not affected by extracellular osmotic stress...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Xiuxiu Wang, Ru Cheng, Liang Cheng, Zhiyuan Zhong
PLGA, a copolymer of lactide and glycolide, is one of the most used biodegradable polymers that find a wide range of biomedical applications including drug delivery and tissue engineering. However, in spite of remarkable advancement, nanotherapeutics based on PLGA might have drawbacks of inadequate stability, drug leakage, and slow drug release at the tumor site, which reduces its targeting ability and therapeutic efficacy. Here, we report that direct modification of star PLGA ends with lipoic acid, a natural antioxidant present in our human body, affords a smart material (sPLGA-LA) that forms reversibly crosslinked and bioresponsive multifunctional nanoparticles (sPLGA XNPs)...
March 19, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Sakornrat Khongkhunthian, Thanapat Sastraruji, Srikanjana Klayraung, Siriporn Okonogi
The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of two local anesthetic rice nanogels (RNG) on pain reduction from needle insertion in oral cavity. Nanogel base was prepared using modified rice as gelling agent. The average particle size of RNG determined by photon correlation spectrophotometer was 485 ± 70 nm. Lidocaine hydrochloride (LH) and prilocaine hydrochloride (PH) were incorporated into RNG to obtain anesthetic RNG containing 5% and 20% LH or PH. Clinical efficacy test of each gel was performed in oral cavity of 100 healthy volunteers (25-60 years old)...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Alexander E Kossak, Benjamin O Stephens, Yuan Tian, Pan Liu, Mingwei Chen, Thomas J Kempa
We propose and validate herein a solution-phase synthetic strategy relying on in situ photo-stimulation and reduction of metal-halide intermediates to yield complex anisotropic and multi-component nanostructures. Exposure of AgBr nanoparticles to ultraviolet light and L-Arginine forms dimers composed of crystalline Ag and AgBr nanophases. The Ag nanoparticle nucleates at and grows from a single point on the surface of the AgBr phase, and the interface connecting these phases is atomically sharp. The complex nanostructures are generated at greater than 80% yield and are highly monodisperse in morphology and in size...
March 19, 2018: Nano Letters
J S Gomes, A P Trevizol, D V Ducos, A Gadelha, B B Ortiz, A O Fonseca, H T Akiba, C C Azevedo, L S P Guimaraes, P Shiozawa, Q Cordeiro, A Lacerda, A M Dias
Background: The lack of efficacy of pharmacological treatments for cognitive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia highlights the need for new interventions. We investigated the effects of tDCS on working memory and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Method: Double-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial, investigating the effects of 10 sessions of tDCS in schizophrenia subjects. Stimulation used 2 mA, for 20 min, with electrodes of 25 cm2 wrapped in cotton material soaked in saline solution...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
William Wong, Mohammed F Loya, Alexander Martynov, Salman S Shah, Dean Berman
Benign parotid lesions can grow to be a cosmetic deformation with psychological sequelae for a patient. Although surgical resection is the treatment of choice, cyst aspiration has also been attempted. This, however, has been shown to recur, requiring repeat intervention. An alternative therapeutic method not as widely recognized, but which has been reported to be both effective and less invasive than surgery for treating parotid cyst lesions, is sclerotherapy. Here we describe a report of a patient with a benign, localized, cystic neck mass refractory to 2 trials of fine needle aspiration...
February 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Loveth O Linus, Shi-Lei Wang, Ning Shi, Christian Hanson, Yi-Tong Lu, Raphael N Alolga, Qun Liu, Reginald C Njokuocha, Lian-Wen Qi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Parinari kerstingii Engl. extract is traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, bronchopneumonia, feverish pains, and breast cancer. However, there have not been any scientific reports regarding the medicinal properties of this plant, and no experiments have been done to ascertain the safety of the extract. AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of Parinari kerstingii Engl. extracts as an herbal remedy and to investigate its anti-inflammatory potential in vivo...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Carolien Zwiers, Mirjam Ea Scheffer-Rath, Enrico Lopriore, Masja de Haas, Helen G Liley
BACKGROUND: Exchange transfusion and phototherapy have traditionally been used to treat jaundice and avoid the associated neurological complications. Because of the risks and burdens of exchange transfusion, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been suggested as an alternative therapy for alloimmune hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) to reduce the need for exchange transfusion. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect and complications of IVIg in newborn infants with alloimmune HDN on the need for and number of exchange transfusions...
March 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Hongliang Zhang, Xiaoqin Zou, Qiuyan Huang, Xiaobin Zhong, Zhenguang Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The herbal medicine Kudingcha has a bitter taste and low bioavailability for lipid reduction. To improve the bioavailability and ameliorate the compliance, we prepared Kudingcha nanoparticles and investigated their effect in hyperlipidaemic rats. In addition, the safety and lipid-lowering mechanism of the Kudingcha nanoparticles were examined. METHODS: Kudingcha nanoparticles were prepared by ionotropic gelation and spray-drying. Seventy rats were randomly assigned into eight groups: a normal fat diet group (NF), a high-fat group (HF), a spontaneous recovery group (SR), a Kudingcha group (KDC), a blank nanoparticle group (B-N), and a Kudingcha nanoparticle groups (low, medium and high doses)...
March 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Enda King, Andrew Franklyn-Miller, Chris Richter, Eamon O'Reilly, Mark Doolan, Kieran Moran, Siobhan Strike, Éanna Falvey
BACKGROUND: Clinical assessments and rehabilitation in athletic groin pain (AGP) have focused on specific anatomical structures and uniplanar impairments rather than whole body movement. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of rehabilitation that targeted intersegmental control in patients with AGP and to investigate post rehabilitation changes in cutting biomechanics. METHODS: Two hundred and five patients with AGP were rehabilitated focusing on clinical assessment of intersegmental control, linear running and change of direction mechanics in this prospective case series...
March 17, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Ikponmwonsa Ogbonmwan, Bhavesh D Kumar, Bruce Paton
BACKGROUND: Variations in lower-limb biomechanics have recurrently been associated as aetiological factors for Achilles tendinopathy. OBJECTIVE: To update a previous systematic review examining lower-limb gait biomechanics in Achilles tendinopathy. DESIGN: Systematic Review. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL PLUS, SPORTDiscus and PUBMED databases searched from inception to May 2016. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Studies investigating adults with Achilles tendinopathy and lower-limb gait biomechanics including kinematics, kinetics, dynamic plantar-pressures, temporospatial parameters and muscle activity...
March 8, 2018: Gait & Posture
Michael R Deschenes, Shuhan Li, Matthew A Adan, Jane J Oh, Hailey C Ramsey
BACKGROUND: This project aimed to determine the adaptability of the neuromuscular system to the stimuli of exercise training, and aging. METHODS: Young adult, and aged male rats were randomly assigned to either exercise training, or sedentary control groups. Exercise training featured an 8 week program of treadmill running. At the end of the intervention period, neuromuscular function was quantified with ex vivo stimulation procedures on isolated soleus muscles...
March 14, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Qi Liu, Mengdie Xu, Jing Zhao, Zhen Yang, Chenze Qi, Minfeng Zeng, Rui Xia, Xingzhong Cao, Baoyi Wang
In this study, an efficient heterogeneous catalytic material including Pd0 nanoparticles and Cu2+ cations supported on montmorillonite/chitosan (MMT/CS) composite was prepared by solution intercalation and complexion methods. The valence states of Pd (both Pd(0) and Pd(II) coexisting) and Cu (mainly Cu(II)) of the Pd0 /Cu2+ @MMT/CS catalyst were confirmed by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization. The d001 spacing was enlarged from 1.25 nm (MMT) to 1.94 nm (Pd0 /Cu2+ @MMT/CS). Pd0 /Cu2+ @MMT/CS catalyst had obviously bigger specific surface area (SBET ) and total pore volume (Vp ) than pure MMT...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Zeinab Haghparasti, Mahnaz Mahdavi Shahri
The use of nontoxic biological compounds in the synthesis of nanomaterials is an ecofriendly and cost-effective approach in nanotechnology. The present work was carried out to develop silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) by a green method using white tea (Wt) extract as reducing agent for reduction of silver nitrate as silver precursor into the lamellar space of inorganic polymer montmorillonite (Mt) as an effective protective reagent and support as well. The bioformed Wt/Ag@Mt nanocomposite (NCs) was compared with pure biosynthesized Wt/Ag-NPs under free stabilizer condition and effect of Mt stabilizer on antioxidant, cytotoxicity and structural properties were also investigated...
June 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Kehu Zhang, Jiangtao Liu, Yinzhou Guo, Yan Li, Xiao Ma, Zhongli Lei
Herein, we prepared a novel quintuple-stimuli-responsive shell-crosslinked (SCL) nanocontainer in respond to temperature, pH, light, and oxidation or reduction species. The well-defined amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl ferrocenecarboxylate)-(5-propargylether-2-nitrobenzyl bromoisobutyrate)-poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PMAEFc-ONB-PDMAEMA) was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and click chemistry. The diblock copolymer self-assembled into spherical micelles with a uniform size in aqueous media as non-crosslinked (NCL) micelles, and then the micelles were crosslinked by N,N'-bis(bromoacetyl) cystamine (BBAC) through quaternization reaction between the nitrogen of DMAEMA and the bromine of BBAC to receive the SCL micelles which shrunk at higher temperature, swelled at acidic pH or a low concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), decrosslinked by a small amount of DL-dithiothreitol (DTT), and were disrupted with DTT and UV light...
June 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
A R Niemeijer
Phyllosilicate-bearing faults are characterized by an anastomosing foliation with intervening hard clasts and are believed to be long-term weak structures. Here, I present results of sliding experiments on gouges of 80 wt% quartz and 20 wt% muscovite, sheared under hydrothermal conditions at constant velocity. The results show that significant strengthening occurs over a narrow range of sliding velocities (0.03-1 μm/s). At the lowest velocity investigated, weakness is achieved after a considerable sliding distance of over 20 mm with friction reaching a value of 0...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiangjun Li, Mingsheng Chen, Zhonghua Wang, Lei Si
OBJECTIVE: In general, published studies analyse healthcare utilisation, rather than foregone care, among different population groups. The assessment of forgone care as an aspect of healthcare system performance is important because it indicates the gap between perceived need and actual utilisation of healthcare services. This study focused on a specific vulnerable group, middle-aged and elderly people with chronic diseases, and evaluated the prevalence of foregone care and associated factors among this population in China...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Jana Pöttgen, Rona Moss-Morris, Janina-Maria Wendebourg, Lena Feddersen, Stefanie Lau, Sascha Köpke, Björn Meyer, Tim Friede, Iris-Katharina Penner, Christoph Heesen, Stefan M Gold
OBJECTIVE: Fatigue is a major disabling symptom in many chronic diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS), but treatment options are limited.Here, we tested the effectiveness of a self-guided , interactive, online fatigue management programme (ELEVIDA) based on principles of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and related psychotherapeutic approaches (eg, mindfulness) for reducing fatigue in MS. METHODS: Patients with MS and self-reported fatigue were recruited via the website of the German MS Society and assigned via an automated randomisation generator (1:1, no blocking or stratification) to a 12-week online intervention (ELEVIDA, n=139, 82% female, mean age 40...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Guanyu Chen, Darren Svirskis, Weiyue Lu, Man Ying, Yuan Huang, Jingyuan Wen
Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analogue effective against a number of cancers. However, the full potential of this drug has not been realised, in part due to low oral bioavailability and frequent dosing requirements. This study reports the synthesis, in-vitro, ex-vivo and in-vivo evaluation of trimethyl chitosan (TMC) - CSKSSDYQC (CSK) peptide conjugates capable of enhancing the oral bioavailability of gemcitabine due to the ability to target intestinal goblet cells and promote intestinal cellular uptake. TMC was synthesized by a novel two-step methylation method to improve quanternization and yield...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Guillaume Gobert, Aurélie Cotillard, Candice Fourmestraux, Laurence Pruvost, Jean Miguet, Mickaël Boyer
Analysing correlations between the observed health effects of ingested probiotics and their survival in digestive tract allows adapting their preparations for food. Tracking ingested probiotic in faecal samples requires accurate and specific tools to quantify live vs dead cells at strain level. Traditional culture-based methods are simpler to use but they do not allow quantifying viable but non-cultivable (VBNC) cells and they are poorly discriminant below the species level. We have set up a viable PCR (vPCR) assay combining propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment and either real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) or droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to quantify a Lactobacillus rhamnosus and two Lactobacillus paracasei subsp...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
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