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Arp 2/3 complex

Ebrahim Soleimani, Katherine N Robertson, Cory C Pye, Jason A C Clyburne
Lawesson's reagent (LR) has been shown to react with the N-heterocyclic carbenes [1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (IMes) and 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolidin-2-ylidene (SIPr)] to give adducts of the general form NHC·P(S)2-C6H4OCH3. Full characterizations, including X-ray crystal structures, are provided. The reaction of Woollins' reagent (WR) with IMes gave the known selanone, (IMes)Se.
April 19, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Yuanyuan Zhang, Shu Ren, Yuci Liu, Kun Gao, Zheng Liu, Zhou Zhang
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease with multiple initiators and pathways that converge on death for retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In this study, effects of taurine on calpains, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells (a human RPE cell line) were investigated. We first confirmed that autophagy, ER stress and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells were induced by Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS) through starvation to induce RPE metabolic stress...
October 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Patrick Belvitch, Mary E Brown, Brittany N Brinley, Eleftheria Letsiou, Alicia N Rizzo, Joe G N Garcia, Steven M Dudek
Pulmonary endothelial cell (EC) barrier dysfunction and recovery is critical to the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Cytoskeletal and subsequent cell membrane dynamics play a key mechanistic role in determination of EC barrier integrity. Here, we characterizAQe the actin related protein 2/3 (Arp 2/3) complex, a regulator of peripheral branched actin polymerization, in human pulmonary EC barrier function through studies of transendothelial electrical resistance (TER), intercellular gap formation, peripheral cytoskeletal structures and lamellipodia...
March 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
Lawrence P L Iu, Rachel Lee, Michelle C Y Fan, Wai-Ching Lam, Robert T Chang, Ian Y H Wong
PURPOSE: To evaluate the features of acute retinal pigment epitheliitis (ARPE) at onset and in the course of recovery by serial spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) and the correlation to visual acuity (VA). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients with ARPE. METHODS: A review of medical records was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Integrity of SD OCT retinal bands at onset and in the course of disease, time required to achieve each retinal band restoration, corresponding VA change, and final VA...
June 2017: Ophthalmology
Anjian Xu, Xiaojin Li, Siwen Li, Lan Sun, Shanna Wu, Bei Zhang, Jian Huang
Cell migration involves dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, which exhibits rapid actin polymerization at the leading edge of migrating cells. This process relies on regulated recruitment of actin nucleators and actin-binding proteins to the leading edge to polymerize new actin filaments. Many of these proteins have been identified, including the actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex, which has emerged as the core player in the initiation of actin polymerization. However, the functional coordination of these proteins is unclear...
September 3, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
W Silva, A F Ribeiro, M C P Silva, W R Terra, C Ferreira
A role of gelsolin in opening the way along the microvilli for secretory vesicles during microapocrine secretion is proposed here. Data obtained with different techniques showed that many digestive enzymes are released by microapocrine secretion in insects. Proteins that might be involved in the machinery of microapocrine secretion were selected from our transcriptomes and literature searches. The proteins were annexin, Complex actin-related proteins 2 and 3 (ARP 2/3) cofilin, fimbrin, gelsolin 1, gelsolin 2, moesin, myosin 1, myosin 6, protein disulphide isomerase 1 (PDI 1), PDI 2 and profilin...
December 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
Geun-Young Kim, Jin-Hee Park, Hanna Kim, Hyun-Joung Lim, Hyun-Young Park
Coronin 1B is an actin-binding protein that regulates various cellular processes including cell motility. However, the role of coronin 1B in vascular cell migration remains controversial. Here, we examined the function of coronin 1B in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and investigated the mechanism by which coronin 1B regulates this cellular process. We found that depletion of coronin 1B increased the VEGF-induced migration of HUVECs...
December 2016: Cellular Signalling
Luis M López-Martínez, Javier Pitarch-Jarque, Àlvar Martínez-Camarena, Enrique García-España, Roberto Tejero, Hisila Santacruz-Ortega, Rosa-Elena Navarro, Rogerio R Sotelo-Mundo, Mario Alberto Leyva-Peralta, Antonio Doménech-Carbó, Begoña Verdejo
The synthesis, acid-base behavior, and Cu(2+) coordination chemistry of a new ligand (L1) consisting of an azamacrocyclic core appended with a lateral chain containing a 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4(1H)-pyridinone group have been studied by potentiometry, cyclic voltammetry, and NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. UV-vis and NMR studies showed that phenolate group was protonated at the highest pH values [log K = 9.72(1)]. Potentiometric studies point out the formation of Cu(2+) complexes of 1:2, 2:2, 4:3, 1:1, and 2:1 Cu(2+)/L1 stoichiometries...
August 1, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Max Rodnick-Smith, Qing Luan, Su-Ling Liu, Brad J Nolen
The Arp2/3 (Actin-related proteins 2/3) complex is activated by WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) family proteins to nucleate branched actin filaments that are important for cellular motility. WASP recruits actin monomers to the complex and stimulates movement of Arp2 and Arp3 into a "short-pitch" conformation that mimics the arrangement of actin subunits within filaments. The relative contribution of these functions in Arp2/3 complex activation and the mechanism by which WASP stimulates the conformational change have been unknown...
July 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Spencer C Serin, Fraser S Pick, Gregory R Dake, Derek P Gates
The synthesis of enantiomerically pure pyridine-bridged phosphaalkene-oxazolines ArP═C(Ph)(2,6-C5H3NOx) (1, Ar = Mes/Mes*, Ox = CNOCH(i-Pr)CH2/CNOCH(CH2Ph)CH2) is reported. This new ligand forms a κ(P), κ(2)(NN) dimeric complex with copper(I) (7) that dissociates into a cationic κ(3)(PNN) monomeric complex upon addition of a neutral ligand {[1a·CuL]OTf (8a-e): L = PPh3 (a), P(OPh)3 (b), 2,6-lutidine (c), 4-DMAP (d), 1-methylimidazole (e)}. The P-Cu bond lengths in 8 are influenced by the π-accepting/σ-donating properties of L, and this can be observed by changes in the δ(31)PP═C NMR shift...
July 5, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Yun Dong, Sonbol Shahid-Salles, Dan Sherling, Nathan Fechheimer, Nathan Iyer, Lance Wells, Marcus Fechheimer, Ruth Furukawa
Hirano bodies are eosinophilic, actin-rich inclusions found in autopsied brains in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. The mechanism of Hirano body formation is unknown. Mass spectrometry analysis was performed to identify proteins from partially purified model Hirano bodies from Dictyostelium This analysis identified proteins primarily belonging to ribosomes, proteasomes, mitochondria and cytoskeleton. Profilin, Arp/2/3 and WASH identified by mass spectrometry were found to colocalise with model Hirano bodies...
2016: Biology Open
Hoi Ping Weeks, Andrew J Sanders, Howard G Kynaston, Wen G Jiang
BACKGROUND: Actin polymerisation is stimulated by the actin-related protein (ARP) 2/3 complex and drives cell migration. This complex is activated by Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family (WASP) verprolin homologous protein (WAVE) proteins. WAVE1 and -3 have been implicated in the aggressiveness of metastatic prostate cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell growth, motility and invasion were analyzed in WAVE1- and WAVE3-knockdown PC-3 cells along with the ARP2/3 inhibitor, CK-0944636...
March 2016: Anticancer Research
Fernando Lara-Rojas, Salomón Bartnicki-García, Rosa R Mouriño-Pérez
The subapical endocytic collar is a prominent feature of hyphae of Neurospora crassa. It comprises a dynamic collection of actin patches associated with a number of proteins required for endocytosis, namely, ARP-2/3 complex, fimbrin, coronin, etc. We presently show that MYO-1 is another key component of this endocytic collar. A myo-1 sequence was identified in the genome of N. crassa and used it to generate a strain with a myo-1-sgfp allele under the ccg1 promoter. Examination of living hyphae by confocal microscopy, revealed MYO-1-GFP located mainly as a dynamic collection of small patches arranged in collar-like fashion in the hyphal subapex...
March 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Mrigya Babuta, M Shahid Mansuri, Sudha Bhattacharya, Alok Bhattacharya
The parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the etiological agent of amoebiasis and phagocytosis plays a key role in virulence of this organism. Signaling pathways involved in activation of cytoskeletal dynamics required for phagocytosis remain to be elucidated. Phagocytosis is initiated with sequential recruitment of EhC2PK, EhCaBP1, EhCaBP3 and an atypical kinase EhAK1 after particle attachment. Here we show that EhARPC1, an essential subunit of the actin branching complex Arp 2/3 is recruited to the phagocytic initiation sites by EhAK1...
December 2015: PLoS Pathogens
Hou-Feng Zheng, Vincenzo Forgetta, Yi-Hsiang Hsu, Karol Estrada, Alberto Rosello-Diez, Paul J Leo, Chitra L Dahia, Kyung Hyun Park-Min, Jonathan H Tobias, Charles Kooperberg, Aaron Kleinman, Unnur Styrkarsdottir, Ching-Ti Liu, Charlotta Uggla, Daniel S Evans, Carrie M Nielson, Klaudia Walter, Ulrika Pettersson-Kymmer, Shane McCarthy, Joel Eriksson, Tony Kwan, Mila Jhamai, Katerina Trajanoska, Yasin Memari, Josine Min, Jie Huang, Petr Danecek, Beth Wilmot, Rui Li, Wen-Chi Chou, Lauren E Mokry, Alireza Moayyeri, Melina Claussnitzer, Chia-Ho Cheng, Warren Cheung, Carolina Medina-Gómez, Bing Ge, Shu-Huang Chen, Kwangbom Choi, Ling Oei, James Fraser, Robert Kraaij, Matthew A Hibbs, Celia L Gregson, Denis Paquette, Albert Hofman, Carl Wibom, Gregory J Tranah, Mhairi Marshall, Brooke B Gardiner, Katie Cremin, Paul Auer, Li Hsu, Sue Ring, Joyce Y Tung, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Anke W Enneman, Natasja M van Schoor, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Nathalie van der Velde, Beatrice Melin, John P Kemp, Claus Christiansen, Adrian Sayers, Yanhua Zhou, Sophie Calderari, Jeroen van Rooij, Chris Carlson, Ulrike Peters, Soizik Berlivet, Josée Dostie, Andre G Uitterlinden, Stephen R Williams, Charles Farber, Daniel Grinberg, Andrea Z LaCroix, Jeff Haessler, Daniel I Chasman, Franco Giulianini, Lynda M Rose, Paul M Ridker, John A Eisman, Tuan V Nguyen, Jacqueline R Center, Xavier Nogues, Natalia Garcia-Giralt, Lenore L Launer, Vilmunder Gudnason, Dan Mellström, Liesbeth Vandenput, Najaf Amin, Cornelia M van Duijn, Magnus K Karlsson, Östen Ljunggren, Olle Svensson, Göran Hallmans, François Rousseau, Sylvie Giroux, Johanne Bussière, Pascal P Arp, Fjorda Koromani, Richard L Prince, Joshua R Lewis, Bente L Langdahl, A Pernille Hermann, Jens-Erik B Jensen, Stephen Kaptoge, Kay-Tee Khaw, Jonathan Reeve, Melissa M Formosa, Angela Xuereb-Anastasi, Kristina Åkesson, Fiona E McGuigan, Gaurav Garg, Jose M Olmos, Maria T Zarrabeitia, Jose A Riancho, Stuart H Ralston, Nerea Alonso, Xi Jiang, David Goltzman, Tomi Pastinen, Elin Grundberg, Dominique Gauguier, Eric S Orwoll, David Karasik, George Davey-Smith, Albert V Smith, Kristin Siggeirsdottir, Tamara B Harris, M Carola Zillikens, Joyce B J van Meurs, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Matthew T Maurano, Nicholas J Timpson, Nicole Soranzo, Richard Durbin, Scott G Wilson, Evangelia E Ntzani, Matthew A Brown, Kari Stefansson, David A Hinds, Tim Spector, L Adrienne Cupples, Claes Ohlsson, Celia M T Greenwood, Rebecca D Jackson, David W Rowe, Cynthia A Loomis, David M Evans, Cheryl L Ackert-Bicknell, Alexandra L Joyner, Emma L Duncan, Douglas P Kiel, Fernando Rivadeneira, J Brent Richards
The extent to which low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) between 1-5%) and rare (MAF ≤ 1%) variants contribute to complex traits and disease in the general population is mainly unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) is highly heritable, a major predictor of osteoporotic fractures, and has been previously associated with common genetic variants, as well as rare, population-specific, coding variants. Here we identify novel non-coding genetic variants with large effects on BMD (ntotal = 53,236) and fracture (ntotal = 508,253) in individuals of European ancestry from the general population...
October 1, 2015: Nature
Yongchao Li, Pei-Shan Wang, George Lucas, Rong Li, Li Yao
INTRODUCTION: The loss of oligodendrocytes in a lesion of the central nervous system causes demyelination and therefore impairs axon function and survival. Transplantation of neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte precursor cells (NSC-OPCs) results in increased oligodendrocyte formation and enhanced remyelination. The directional migration of grafted cells to the target can promote the establishment of functional reconnection and myelination in the process of neural regeneration. Endogenous electric fields (EFs) that were detected in the development of the central nervous system can regulate cell migration...
2015: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Kamila Mohamed Om Alblazi, Chong Huat Siar
Protrusive structures formed by migrating and invading cells are termed lamellipodia, filopodia, invadopodia and podosomes. Lamellipodia and filopodia appear on the leading edges of migrating cells and function to command the direction of the migrating cells. Invadopodia and podosomes are special F-actin-rich matrix-degrading structures that arise on the ventral surface of the cell membrane. Invadopodia are found in a variety of carcinomatous cells including squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck region whereas podosomes are found in normal highly motile cells of mesenchymal and myelomonocytic lineage...
2015: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Rainer Zitz, Henning Arp, Johann Hlina, Małgorzata Walewska, Christoph Marschner, Tibor Szilvási, Burgert Blom, Judith Baumgartner
Complexes featuring lanthanide (Ln)-Si bonds represent a highly neglected research area. Herein, we report a series of open-shell Ln(II+) and Ln(III+) complexes bearing σ-bonded silyl and base-stabilized N-heterocyclic silylene (NHSi) ligands. The reactions of the Ln(III+) complexes Cp3Ln (Ln = Tm, Ho, Tb, Gd; Cp = cyclopentadienide) with the 18-crown-6 (18-cr-6)-stabilized 1,4-oligosilanyl dianion [(18-cr-6)KSi(SiMe3)2SiMe2SiMe2Si(SiMe3)2K(18-cr-6)] (1) selectively afford the corresponding metallacyclopentasilane salts [Cp2Ln({Si(SiMe3)2SiMe2}2)](-)[K2(18-cr-6)2Cp](+) [Ln = Tm (2a), Ho (2b), Tb (2c), Gd (2d)]...
April 6, 2015: Inorganic Chemistry
Elvira Nieto-Pelegrin, Brendan Kenny, Narcisa Martinez-Quiles
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) binding to human intestinal cells triggers the formation of disease-associated actin rich structures called pedestals. The latter process requires the delivery, via a Type 3 secretion system, of the translocated Intimin receptor (Tir) protein into the host plasma membrane where binding of a host kinase-modified form to the bacterial surface protein Intimin triggers pedestal formation. Tir-Intimin interaction recruits the Nck adaptor to a Tir tyrosine phosphorylated residue where it activates neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP); initiating the major pathway to actin polymerization mediated by the actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex...
2014: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Kang Zhou, Andrew Muroyama, Julie Underwood, Rebecca Leylek, Samriddha Ray, Scott H Soderling, Terry Lechler
The epidermis provides an essential seal from the external environment and retains fluids within the body. To form an effective barrier, cells in the epidermis must form tight junctions and terminally differentiate into cornified envelopes. Here, we demonstrate that the branched actin nucleator, the actin-related protein (Arp)2/3 complex, is unexpectedly required for both these activities. Loss of the ArpC3 subunit of the Arp2/3 complex resulted in minimal changes in the morphogenesis and architecture of this stratified squamous epithelium, but resulted in profound defects in its physiology...
October 1, 2013: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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