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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922660/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-altered-renal-metabolism-in-dahl-salt-sensitive-rats
#1
Zhengjun Wang, Qiong Sun, Na Sun, Mingyu Liang, Zhongmin Tian
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The kidney plays a critical role in the control of blood pressure and its elevation in salt-induced hypertension. Mitochondrial dysfunction, especially in energy metabolism, has been associated with hypertension. Here, we aimed to investigate mitochondrial function and metabolic features in renal mitochondria of Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats to gain further insight into the relationship between mitochondrial metabolism and predisposition to hypertension. METHODS: In this study, SS rats fed low-salt (LS) or high-salt (HS) diets were used to investigate mitochondrial function and metabolism including mitochondrial enzyme activities, pyridine nucleotides, metabolites, and oxidative stress by biochemical analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS)...
September 19, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921743/exercise-training-dose-differentially-alters-muscle-and-heart-capillary-density-and-metabolic-functions-in-an-obese-rat-with-metabolic-syndrome
#2
Marcus Vinicius Machado, Aline Bomfim Vieira, Fabiana Gomes da Conceição, Alessandro Rodrigues Nascimento, Antonio Claudio Lucas da Nóbrega, Eduardo Tibirica
We evaluated the effect of frequency, duration and intensity of exercise training on metabolic parameters and structural capillary density in obese rats with metabolic syndrome (MS). Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed a either standard commercial diet (CON) or high-fat diet (HFD). Animals that received the HFD were randomly separated into either a sedentary (SED) group or 8 different exercise groups that varied by the frequency, duration and intensity of training. After 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training, body composition, aerobic capacity, hemodynamic variables, metabolic parameters and capillary density in the heart and skeletal muscle were evaluated...
September 17, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921259/epigenetic-effects-of-the-pregnancy-mediterranean-diet-adherence-on-the-offspring-metabolic-syndrome-markers
#3
REVIEW
David Lorite Mingot, Eva Gesteiro, Sara Bastida, Francisco J Sánchez-Muniz
Metabolic syndrome (MS) has a multifactorial and not yet fully clarified origin. Insulin resistance is a key element that connects all the accepted components of MS (obesity, dyslipemia, high blood pressure, and hyperglycemia). There is strong evidence that epigenetic changes during fetal development are key factors in the development of MS. These changes are induced by maternal nutrition, among different factors, affecting the intrauterine environment. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to be a healthy eating pattern that protects against the development of MS in adults...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916335/troxerutin-abrogates-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-and-myocardial-apoptosis-in-mice-fed-calorie-rich-diet
#4
Rajagopalan Geetha, Chandrasekaran Sathiya Priya, Carani Venkatraman Anuradha
Mitochondrial oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of myocardial apoptosis in metabolic syndrome (MS) patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of troxerutin (TX), an antioxidant on mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptotic markers in heart of mice fed fat and fructose-rich diet. Adult male Mus musculus mice were fed either control diet or high fat, high fructose diet (HFFD) for 60 days to induce MS. Mice from each dietary group were divided into two on the 16th day and were either treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg bw, p...
September 12, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912724/abnormalities-in-the-polysomnographic-adenosine-and-metabolic-response-to-sleep-deprivation-in-an-animal-model-of-hyperammonemia
#5
Selena Marini, Olena Santangeli, Pirjo Saarelainen, Benita Middleton, Namrata Chowdhury, Debra J Skene, Rodolfo Costa, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, Sara Montagnese
Patients with liver cirrhosis can develop hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy (HE), accompanied by pronounced daytime sleepiness. Previous studies with healthy volunteers show that experimental increase in blood ammonium levels increases sleepiness and slows the waking electroencephalogram. As ammonium increases adenosine levels in vitro, and adenosine is a known regulator of sleep/wake homeostasis, we hypothesized that the sleepiness-inducing effect of ammonium is mediated by adenosine. Eight adult male Wistar rats were fed with an ammonium-enriched diet for 4 weeks; eight rats on standard diet served as controls...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903761/protective-effects-of-grape-seed-and-skin-extract-against-high-fat-diet-induced-lipotoxicity-in-rat-lung
#6
Mohamed El Ayed, Safwen Kadri, Selima Smine, Salem Elkahoui, Ferid Limam, Ezzedine Aouani
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a public health problem characterized by increased fat accumulation in different tissues. Obesity is directly linked to breathing problems and medical complications with lung, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma….In the present work, we aimed to investigate the effect of high fat diet (HFD) on lung lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, fatty acid composition and proportions in lung and implication in asthma development...
September 13, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899400/impact-of-combined-sodium-chloride-and-saturated-long-chain-fatty-acid-challenge-on-the-differentiation-of-t-helper-cells-in-neuroinflammation
#7
Anna Hammer, Anne Schliep, Stefanie Jörg, Aiden Haghikia, Ralf Gold, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Dominik N Müller, Ralf A Linker
BACKGROUND: There has been a marked increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) in the last decades which is most likely driven by a change in environmental factors. Here, growing evidence suggests that ingredients of a Western diet like high intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) or saturated fatty acids may impact systemic immune responses, thus increasing disease susceptibility. Recently, we have shown that high dietary salt or long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intake indeed aggravates T helper (Th) cell responses and neuroinflammation...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891296/non-invasive-body-fat-burn-monitoring-from-exhaled-acetone-with-si-doped-wo3-sensing-nanoparticles
#8
Andreas T Güntner, Noriane A Sievi, S Jonathan Theodore, Tobias Gulich, Malcolm Kohler, Sotiris E Pratsinis
Obesity is a global health threat on the rise and its prevalence continues to grow. Yet suitable biomedical sensors to monitor the body fat burn rates in situ to guide physical activity or dietary interventions toward efficient weight loss are missing. Here, we introduce a compact and inexpensive breath acetone sensor based on Si-doped WO3 nanoparticles that can accurately follow body fat burn rates in real-time. We tested this sensor on 20 volunteers during exercise and rest and measured their individual breath acetone concentrations in good agreement to bench-top proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS)...
September 11, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887965/preparation-characterization-and-anti-colitis-activity-of-curcumin-asafoetida-complex-encapsulated-in-turmeric-nanofiber
#9
Sreeraj Gopi, Augustine Amalraj, Shintu Jude, Karthik Varma, T R Sreeraj, Józef T Haponiuk, Sabu Thomas
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a main form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Asafoetida (ASF) and turmeric have traditionally been used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including UC, because ASF is rich in sulfur compounds and turmeric contains curcumin (CUR). Turmeric nanofiber (TNF), the modified cell wall component of turmeric is considered to play important role in the human diet, health and can be used as a carrier agent to encapsulate bioactive components. A novel gut health product (GHP) was formulated by encapsulation of ASF and CUR complex onto TNF...
December 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887709/mapping-and-comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-starch-biosynthetic-pathway-in-rice-by-2d-page-ms
#10
Tao-Shan Chang, Chih-Wei Liu, Yu-Ling Lin, Chao-Yi Li, Arthur Z Wang, Min-Wei Chien, Chang-Sheng Wang, Chien-Chen Lai
Our results not only provide a comprehensive overview of the starch biosynthetic pathway in the developing endosperm but also reveal some important protein markers that regulate the synthesis of starch. In human diets, rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important source of starch, a substantial amount of which is accumulated in developing endosperm. A better understanding of the complicated pathways involved in starch biosynthesis is needed to improve the yield and quality of rice and other cereal crops through breeding...
September 8, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883813/a-structural-and-functional-elucidation-of-the-rumen-microbiome-influenced-by-various-diets-and-microenvironments
#11
Simon Deusch, Amélia Camarinha-Silva, Jürgen Conrad, Uwe Beifuss, Markus Rodehutscord, Jana Seifert
The structure and function of the microbiome inhabiting the rumen are, amongst other factors, mainly shaped by the animal's feed intake. Describing the influence of different diets on the inherent community arrangement and associated metabolic activities of the most active ruminal fractions (bacteria and archaea) is of great interest for animal nutrition, biotechnology, and climatology. Samples were obtained from three fistulated Jersey cows rotationally fed with corn silage, grass silage or grass hay, each supplemented with a concentrate mixture...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879642/determination-of-fecal-sterols-following-a-diet-with-and-without-plant-sterols
#12
María Cuevas-Tena, Amparo Alegría, María Jesús Lagarda
The aim of this study was to develop a method for neutral fecal sterols determination in subjects receiving a normal diet with or without a plant sterols-enriched beverage using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Sample preparation conditions (homogenization of lyophilized feces with water) were evaluated. Sterol determination required direct hot saponification, unsaponifiable extraction with hexane, and the formation of trimethylsilyl (TMS) ether derivatives. The method allows the quantification of cholesterol, plant sterols and their metabolites (coprostanol, coprostanone, cholestanol, cholestanone, methylcoprostanol, methylcoprostanone, ethylcoprostenol, stigmastenol, ethylcoprostanol and ethylcoprostanone)...
September 6, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872781/armax-a-method-for-assessment-of-the-dynamic-response-of-the-arterial-baroreflex
#13
Morten T Lund, Max Salomonsson, Thomas E N Jonassen, Niels-Henrik Holstein-Rathlou
AIM: The baroreflex is a key mechanism in cardiovascular regulation and alterations in baroreceptor function are seen in many diseases, including heart failure, obesity and hypertension. We propose a new method for analyzing baroreceptor function from continuous blood pressure and heart rate in both health and disease. METHODS: 48-hour data series of blood pressure and heart rate were collected with telemetry. Sprague-Dawley rats on standard chow (n=11) served as controls, while rats on a high-fat, high-fructose diet (n=6) constituted the obese-hypertensive model...
September 5, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858486/metabolism-of-n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone-in-honey-bee-adults-and-larvae-exploring-age-related-differences-in-toxic-effects
#14
Julia Fine, Christopher A Mullin
In chronic feeding assays, the common agrochemical inert formulant, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is at least 20 times more toxic to honey bee larvae than to adults, but the underlying cause of this difference is unknown. In other taxa, NMP is primarily detoxified via a cytochrome P450 mediated pathway. Using a LC-MS method, putative cytochrome P450 metabolites of NMP were identified and quantified in adults and larvae following chronic exposure to NMP. Major differences in the identities and quantities of the generated metabolites were observed between adults and larvae...
August 31, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858365/antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-geranium-robertianum-l-decoctions
#15
Marcelo D Catarino, Artur M S Silva, Maria Teresa Cruz, Susana M Cardoso
Geranium robertianum L., commonly known as Herb Robert, is an herbaceous plant popularly known for its functional properties including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, the phenolic profile of leaf and stem decoctions of Geranium robertianum L. was elucidated by UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analysis, and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials were assessed in vitro. Importantly, and envisaging the use of these extracts in human diets, the potential toxicity of bioactive concentrations was also addressed in macrophages and hepatocytes...
August 31, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854592/weight-reduction-intervention-for-obese-infertile-women-prior-to-ivf-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Snorri Einarsson, Christina Bergh, Britt Friberg, Anja Pinborg, Anna Klajnbard, Per-Olof Karlström, Linda Kluge, Ingrid Larsson, Anne Loft, Anne-Lis Mikkelsen-Englund, Kaj Stenlöf, Anna Wistrand, Ann Thurin-Kjellberg
STUDY QUESTION: Does an intensive weight reduction programme prior to IVF increase live birth rates for infertile obese women? SUMMARY ANSWER: An intensive weight reduction programme resulted in a large weight loss but did not substantially affect live birth rates in obese women scheduled for IVF. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: Among obese women, fertility and obstetric outcomes are influenced negatively with increased risk of miscarriage and a higher risk of maternal and neonatal complications...
August 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836152/effect-of-dietary-supplementation-of-novel-probiotic-bacteria-bacillus-vireti-01-on-antioxidant-defence-system-of-freshwater-prawn-challenged-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
S Vidhya Hindu, Natarajan Chandrasekaran, Amitava Mukherjee, John Thomas
The aim of the present work was to isolate probiotic bacteria from the intestinal tract of healthy freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and to examine the effect of the isolated probiotic Bacillus vireti 01 in controlling Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. This is probably the first report on the isolation of probiotic B. vireti 01 from the intestine of M. rosenbergii. The compounds present in B. vireti 01 were identified using GC-MS analysis. The effect of B. vireti 01-incorporated diet on survival and antioxidant enzymes was studied in M...
August 23, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833140/characterization-of-steryl-glycosides-in-marine-microalgae-by-gas-chromatography-triple-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry-gc-qqq-ms
#18
Shanshan Yu, Yufan Zhang, Yun Ran, Wenyi Lai, Zhaoshou Ran, Jilin Xu, Chengxu Zhou, Xiaojun Yan
BACKGROUND: Steryl glycosides (SGs) are sterol conjugates found in various plants, especially in those made up human diets. It has been demonstrated that SGs have potential health benefits, and they could be used as food supplement in a variety of food matrixes. Marine microalgae are a potential resource for human food and ingredient. In this study, gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQ-MS) was used to characterize unknown SGs in eight microalgae belonging to different classes (Isochrysis galbana 3011, Pavlova viridis, Platymonas helgolandica, Conticribra weissflogii, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Niyzschia cloterium, Gymnodinium sp...
August 21, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823009/proton-pump-inhibitors-as-risk-factor-for-metabolic-syndrome-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-coeliac-disease-patients-on-gluten-free-diet
#19
Nicola Imperatore, Raffaella Tortora, Testa Anna, Nicolò Gerbino, Nicola Caporaso, Antonio Rispo
BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown that patients with coeliac disease (CD) are at risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MS) and hepatic steatosis (HS) after commencing a gluten-free diet (GFD). This study aimed to evaluate the predictive factors for MS and HS in CD after 1 year of GFD. METHODS: All consecutive newly diagnosed CD patients were enrolled. We prospectively collected data about BMI; waist circumference; blood pressure; cholesterol; triglycerides, glucose and insulin blood levels; insulin resistance (through the homeostatic model assessment HOMA-IR) and treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPI)...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821276/inflammatory-demyelination-alters-subcortical-visual-circuits
#20
Sheila Espírito Santo Araújo, Henrique Rocha Mendonça, Natalie A Wheeler, Paula Campello-Costa, Kimberle M Jacobs, Flávia C A Gomes, Michael A Fox, Babette Fuss
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease classically associated with axonal damage and loss; more recently, however, synaptic changes have been recognized as additional contributing factors. An anatomical area commonly affected in MS is the visual pathway; yet, changes other than those associated with inflammatory demyelination of the optic nerve, i.e., optic neuritis, have not been described in detail. METHODS: Adult mice were subjected to a diet containing cuprizone to mimic certain aspects of inflammatory demyelination as seen in MS...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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