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Cholesterol, nanoemulsions, lipid nanoparticles

A I Fiorelli, D D Lourenço-Filho, E R Tavares, P O Carvalho, A F Marques, P S Gutierrez, R C Maranhão, N A G Stolf
Coronary allograft vasculopathy is an inflammatory-proliferative process that compromises the long-term success of heart transplantation and has no effective treatment. A lipid nanoemulsion (LDE) can carry chemotherapeutic agents in the circulation and concentrates them in the heart graft. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of methotrexate (MTX) associated to LDE. Rabbits fed a 0.5% cholesterol diet and submitted to heterotopic heart transplantation were treated with cyclosporine A (10 mg·kg-1·day-1 orally) and allocated to treatment with intravenous LDE-MTX (4 mg/kg, weekly, n=10) or with weekly intravenous saline solution (control group, n=10), beginning on the day of surgery...
August 17, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Danielle Cristinne Azevedo Feio, Nayara Cristina Lima de Oliveira, Edmundo Luis Rodrigues Pereira, Aleksandra Tiemi Morikawa, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro Muniz, Raquel Carvalho Montenegro, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes Alves, Patrícia Danielle Lima de Lima, Raul Cavalcante Maranhão, Rommel Rodríguez Burbano
Lipid-based nanoparticle systems have been used as vehicles for chemotherapeutic agents in experimental cancer treatments. Those systems have generally been credited with attenuating the severe toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents. This study aimed to investigate the effects of associating paclitaxel (PTX) with a lipid-based nanoparticle system on a nonhuman primate, Cebus apella, documenting the toxicity as measured by serum biochemistry, which is a detailed analysis of blood and tissue. Eighteen C. apella were studied: three animals were treated with cholesterol-rich nanoemulsion (LDE) only, without PTX, administered intravenously every 3 weeks, during six treatment cycles; six animals were treated with PTX associated with LDE at the same administration scheme, three with lower (175 mg/m(2)) and three with higher (250 mg/m(2)) PTX doses; and six animals were treated with commercial PTX, three with the lower and three with the higher doses...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Afonso A Shiozaki, Tiago Senra, Aleksandra T Morikawa, Débora F Deus, Antonio T Paladino-Filho, Ibraim M F Pinto, Raul C Maranhão
OBJECTIVE: The toxicity of anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents can be reduced by associating these compounds, such as the anti-proliferative agent paclitaxel, with a cholesterol-rich nanoemulsion (LDE) that mimics the lipid composition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). When injected into circulation, the LDE concentrates the carried drugs in neoplastic tissues and atherosclerotic lesions. In rabbits, atherosclerotic lesion size was reduced by 65% following LDE-paclitaxel treatment. The current study aimed to test the effectiveness of LDE-paclitaxel on inpatients with aortic atherosclerosis...
August 2016: Clinics
P Riangjanapatee, R H Müller, C M Keck, S Okonogi
Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) were developed using a skin-compatible surfactant and natural lipid materials (rice oil, cholesterol) to incorporate lycopene. Characteristics of the NLC were explored in comparison with nanoemulsions and solid-lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffractometry (LD) and differential scanning calorimetry were used to determine particle size and thermal stability. Particle size expressed as LD (0.99) was 405 nm for the SLN, 350 nm for the NLC without cholesterol and 287 nm for the NLC with cholesterol...
September 2013: Die Pharmazie
Marina P Bertato, Carolina P Oliveira, Bernardo L Wajchenberg, Antonio C Lerario, Raul C Maranhão
OBJECTIVE: Glucose intolerance is frequently associated with an altered plasma lipid profile and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Nonetheless, lipid metabolism is scarcely studied in normolipidemic glucose-intolerant patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether important lipid metabolic parameters, such as the kinetics of LDL free and esterified cholesterol and the transfer of lipids to HDL, are altered in glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids. METHODS: Fourteen glucose-intolerant patients and 15 control patients were studied; none of the patients had cardiovascular disease manifestations, and they were paired for age, sex, race and co-morbidities...
2012: Clinics
Carolina H M Azevedo, Maurício Wajngarten, Ana C Lo Prete, Jayme Diament, Raul C Maranhão
OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the capacity of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to simultaneously receive nonesterified cholesterol, triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids changes with aging and the presence of coronary artery disease. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with biochemical analyses. SUBJECTS: Eleven elderly patients with coronary artery disease (74 ± 5 years) were compared with the following groups of non-coronary artery disease subjects (referred to as "healthy"): 25 young (25 ± 5 years), 25 middle-aged (42 ± 6 years), and 25 elderly subjects (75 ± 8 years)...
2011: Clinics
Jeferson L da Silva, Carmen G C M Vinagre, Aleksandra T Morikawa, Maria Janieire N N Alves, Carlos H Mesquita, Raul C Maranhão
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of resistance training (RT) on the metabolism of an LDL-like nanoemulsion and on lipid transfer to HDL, an important step of HDL metabolism. METHODS: LDL-like nanoemulsion plasma kinetics was studied in 15 healthy men under regular RT for 1-4 years (age = 25 ± 5 years, VO(2)peak = 50 ± 6 mL/kg/min) and in 15 healthy sedentary men (28 ± 7 years, VO(2)peak = 35 ± 9 mL/kg/min). LDL-like nanoemulsion labeled with (14)C-cholesteryl-ester and (3)H-free-cholesterol was injected intravenously, plasma samples were collected over 24-h to determine decay curves and fractional clearance rates (FCR)...
December 2011: Atherosclerosis
Giovani M Favero, Raul C Maranhão, Durvanei A Maria, Débora Levy, Sérgio P Bydlowski
7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) differs from cholesterol by a functional ketone group at C7. It is an oxygenated cholesterol derivative (oxysterol), commonly present in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Oxysterols are generated and participate in several physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. For instance, the cytotoxic effects of oxidized LDL have been widely attributed to bioactive compounds like oxysterols. The toxicity is in part due to 7-KC. Here we aimed to demonstrate the possibility of incorporating 7-KC into the synthetic nanoemulsion LDE, which resembles LDL in composition and behavior...
2010: Biological Research
Domingos D Lourenço-Filho, Raul C Maranhão, Carlos A Méndez-Contreras, Elaine R Tavares, Fatima R Freitas, Noedir A Stolf
OBJECTIVE: In previous studies cholesterol-rich nanoemulsions (LDE) resembling low-density lipoprotein were shown to concentrate in atherosclerotic lesions of rabbits. Lesions were pronouncedly reduced by treatment with paclitaxel associated with LDE. This study aimed to test the hypothesis of whether LDE-paclitaxel is able to concentrate in grafted hearts of rabbits and to ameliorate coronary allograft vasculopathy after the transplantation procedure. METHODS: Twenty-one New Zealand rabbits fed 0...
June 2011: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Elisabeth S Ficker, Raul C Maranhão, Ana P M Chacra, Vanessa C Neves, Carlos E Negrão, Vanessa C N Martins, Carmen G C de M Vinagre
OBJECTIVE: Exercise training improves plasma lipid profile and diminishes risk of coronary heart disease. Previously, we showed that training increases LDL plasma clearance, as tested by an artificial LDL-like nanoemulsion method, presumably by increasing LDL receptor activity. In this study, we investigated whether training could also improve LDL clearance in hypercholesterolemic subjects (HCh) that are exposed to increased risk of cardiovascular events. METHODS: Twenty sedentary HCh and 20 normolipidemic (NL) sedentary volunteers were divided into four groups: 12 HCh submitted to 4-month training program, 8 HCh with no exercise program, 12 NL submitted to 4-month training and 8 NL with no exercise program...
September 2010: Atherosclerosis
Simone Alves Dantas, Elisabeth Salvatori Ficker, Carmen G C Vinagre, Barbara Maria Ianni, Raul Cavalcante Maranhão, Charles Mady
INTRODUCTION: Obesity increases triglyceride levels and decreases high-density lipoprotein concentrations in plasma. Artificial emulsions resembling lipidic plasma lipoprotein structures have been used to evaluate low-density lipoprotein metabolism. In grade III obesity, low density lipoprotein metabolism is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the kinetics with which a cholesterol-rich emulsion (called a low-density emulsion) binds to low-density lipoprotein receptors in a group of patients with grade III obesity by the fractional clearance rate...
2010: Clinics
Vikas Bali, Mushir Ali, Javed Ali
The objectives of the present study were to develop an optimal nanoemulsion of ezetimibe and evaluate its stability, lipid lowering and pharmacokinetic potential. Solubility of ezetimibe was determined in various vehicles. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to determine the existence of nanoemulsion region. Formulations were selected from the oil/water nanoemulsion region and subjected to various thermodynamic stability and dispersibility tests. Release rate of optimized formulations was determined using in vitro dissolution test...
August 2010: Journal of Drug Targeting
Vikas Bali, Mushir Ali, Javed Ali
The present study aimed at developing an optimal nanoemulsion of ezetimibe and evaluating its stability, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic potential. Solubility of ezetimibe was determined in various vehicles. Surfactants and cosurfactants were grouped in two different combinations to construct pseudoternary phase diagrams. Formulations were selected from the o/w nanoemulsion region and were subjected to various thermodynamic stability and dispersibility tests. Optimized formulations were characterized for their percentage transmittance, refractive index, viscosity, droplet size and zeta potential...
April 1, 2010: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Alina Coutinho Rodrigues Feitosa, Raul Cavalcante Maranhão, Gilson Soares Feitosa Filho, Bernardo Léo Wajchenberg
INTRODUCTION: People with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and may still have a normal lipid profile. In order to clarify whether normal HDL cholesterol levels may conceal defects in HDL function, we have studied the transfer of lipids to HDL in T1DM. METHODS: Twenty-one young women with T1DM were compared with 21 non-diabetic women. Nanoemulsion preparations were used as lipid donor to HDL: one labeled with (3)H-triglycerides and 14C-free cholesterol and the other with (3)H-cholesteryl esters and 14C-phospholipids...
February 2009: Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
A F Padoveze, F Maniero, T V Oliveira, T S Vitorio, R D Couto, R C Maranhão
We have shown that the free cholesterol (FC) and the cholesteryl ester (CE) moieties of a nanoemulsion with lipidic structure resembling low-density lipoproteins show distinct metabolic fate in subjects and that this may be related to the presence of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. The question was raised whether induction of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in rabbits would affect the metabolic behavior of the two cholesterol forms. Male New Zealand rabbits aged 4-5 months were allocated to a control group (N = 17) fed regular chow and to a 1% cholesterol-fed group (N = 13) during a 2-month period...
February 2009: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
S Mendes, S R Graziani, T S Vitório, A F Padoveze, R Hegg, S P Bydlowski, R C Maranhão
OBJECTIVE: Previously we showed that after intravenous injection a lipidic nanoemulsion concentrates in breast carcinoma tissue and other solid tumors and may carry drugs directed against neoplastic tissues. Use of the nanoemulsion decreases toxicity of the chemotherapeutic agents without decreasing the anticancer action. Currently, the hypothesis was tested whether the nanoemulsion concentrates in breast carcinoma tissue after locoregional injection. METHODS: Three different techniques of injection of the nanoemulsion were tested in patients scheduled for surgical treatment: G1 (n=4) into the mammary tissue 5 cm away from the tumor; G2 (n=4) into the peritumoral mammary tissue; G3 (n=6) into the tumoral tissue...
February 2009: Gynecologic Oncology
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