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L-Carnosine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822337/on-the-anticataractogenic-effects-of-l-carnosine-is-it-best-described-as-an-antioxidant-metal-chelating-agent-or-glycation-inhibitor
#1
Hamdy Abdelkader, Michael Longman, Raid G Alany, Barbara Pierscionek
Purpose. L-Carnosine is a naturally occurring dipeptide which recently gained popularity as an anticataractogenic agent due to its purported antioxidant activities. There is a paucity of research and conclusive evidence to support such claims. This work offers compelling data that help clarify the mechanism(s) behind the anticataract properties of L-carnosine. Methods. Direct in vitro antioxidant free radical scavenging properties were assayed using three different antioxidant (TEAC, CUPRAC, and DPPH) assays...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801825/a-clinical-trial-about-a-food-supplement-containing-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-on-oxidative-stress-markers-in-type-2-diabetic-patients
#2
Giuseppe Derosa, Angela D'Angelo, Davide Romano, Pamela Maffioli
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a food supplement containing α-lipoic acid and of a placebo on glyco-metabolic control and on oxidative stress markers in type 2 diabetics. We randomized 105 diabetics to either a supplementation containing 600 mg of α-lipoic acid, 165 mg of L-carnosin, 7.5 mg of zinc, and vitamins of group B, or a placebo, for three months. We evaluated body mass index, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post-prandial-glucose (PPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), HOMA-index (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA)...
October 28, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584013/computational-approaches-in-the-rational-design-of-improved-carbonyl-quenchers-focus-on-histidine-containing-dipeptides
#3
Giulio Vistoli, Mara Colzani, Angelica Mazzolari, Danilo De Maddis, Giovanni Grazioso, Alessandro Pedretti, Marina Carini, Giancarlo Aldini
AIM: The inhibition of protein carbonylation can play therapeutic roles in several oxidative-based diseases and direct carbonyl quenching appears the most effective inhibition strategies. l-carnosine derivatives are effective and selective quenchers toward 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal even though their activity was never investigated in a fully comparable way. RESULTS: The reported results revealed that anserine, homocarnosine and carnosinamide retain a remarkable quenching activity combined with a satisfactory selectivity...
September 2016: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488081/minocycline-combination-therapy-with-fluvoxamine-in-moderate-to-severe-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-placebo-controlled-double-blind-randomized-trial
#4
Sophia Esalatmanesh, Zoha Abrishami, Atefeh Zeinoddini, Fatemeh Rahiminejad, Majid Sadeghi, Mohammad-Reza Najarzadegan, Mohammad-Reza Shalbafan, Shahin Akhondzadeh
AIM: Several lines of evidence implicate glutamatergic dysfunction in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), presenting this neurotransmitter as a target for the development of novel pharmacotherapy. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of minocycline as an augmentative agent to fluvoxamine in the treatment of patients with OCD. METHODS: One hundred and two patients with the diagnosis of moderate-to-severe OCD were recruited to this study...
November 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455800/-zinc-and-gastrointestinal-disorders
#5
Yasuki Higashimura, Tomohisa Takagi, Yuji Naito
Zinc, an essential trace element, affects immune responses, skin metabolism, hormone composition, and some sensory function, so that the deficiency presents various symptoms such as immunodeficiency and taste obstacle. Further, the zinc deficiency also considers as a risk of various diseases. Recent reports demonstrated that -20% of the Japanese population was marginally zinc deficiency, and over 25% of the global population is at high risk of zinc deficiency. In gastrointestinal disorders, zinc plays an important role in the healing of mucosal and epithelial damage...
July 2016: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433836/identification-of-telomerase-activating-blends-from-naturally-occurring-compounds
#6
Ghania Ait-Ghezala, Samira Hassan, Miles Tweed, Daniel Paris, Gogce Crynen, Zuchra Zakirova, Stefan Crynen, Fiona Crawford
Context • Telomeres are repeated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences (TTAGGG) that are located on the 5' ends of chromosomes, and they control the life span of eukaryotic cells. Compelling evidence has shown that the length of a person's life is dictated by the limited number of times that a human cell can divide. The enzyme telomerase has been shown to bind to and extend the length of telomeres. Thus, strategies for activating telomerase may help maintain telomere length and, thus, may lead to improved health during aging...
June 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418192/preparation-and-clinical-evaluation-of-a-novel-lozenge-containing-polaprezinc-a-zinc-l-carnosine-for-prevention-of-oral-mucositis-in-patients-with-hematological-cancer-who-received-high-dose-chemotherapy
#7
Hiroko Hayashi, Ryo Kobayashi, Akio Suzuki, Yuto Yamada, Masayuki Ishida, Toshinobu Shakui, Junichi Kitagawa, Hideki Hayashi, Tadashi Sugiyama, Hirofumi Takeuchi, Hisashi Tsurumi, Yoshinori Itoh
We previously reported that oral ingestion of polaprezinc, a zinc-L-carnosine, suspended in sodium alginate solution prevents oral mucositis in patients receiving radiotherapy or high-dose chemotherapy. In the present study, we developed a novel preparation of polaprezinc and evaluated clinical effect of the lozenge preparation in patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The preparation contained 18.75 mg polaprezinc in a tablet and showed an excellent uniformity and stability up to 24 weeks after storage under room temperature...
August 2016: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413694/generation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-the-anterior-eye-segment-synergistic-codrugs-of-n-acetylcarnosine-lubricant-eye-drops-and-mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-act-as-a-powerful-therapeutic-platform-for-the-treatment-of-cataracts-and-primary-open-angle
#8
REVIEW
Mark A Babizhayev
Senile cataract is a clouding of the lens in the aging eye leading to a decrease in vision. Symptoms may include faded colors, blurry vision, halos around light, trouble with bright lights, and trouble seeing at night. This may result in trouble driving, reading, or recognizing faces. Cataracts are the cause of half of blindness and 33% of visual impairment worldwide. Cataracts result from the deposition of aggregated proteins in the eye lens and lens fiber cells plasma membrane damage which causes clouding of the lens, light scattering, and obstruction of vision...
December 2016: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366062/phytosome-hyaluronic-acid-systems-for-ocular-delivery-of-l-carnosine
#9
Hamdy Abdelkader, Michael R Longman, Raid G Alany, Barbara Pierscionek
This study reports on L-carnosine phytosomes as an alternative for the prodrug N-acetyl-L-carnosine as a novel delivery system to the lens. L-carnosine was loaded into lipid-based phytosomes and hyaluronic acid (HA)-dispersed phytosomes. L-carnosine-phospholipid complexes (PC) of different molar ratios, 1:1 and 1:2, were prepared by the solvent evaporation method. These complexes were characterized with thermal and spectral analyses. PC were dispersed in either phosphate buffered saline pH 7.4 or HA (0.1% w/v) in phosphate buffered saline to form phytosomes PC1:1, PC1:2, and PC1:2 HA, respectively...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27234614/l-carnosine-dipeptide-overcomes-acquired-resistance-to-5-fluorouracil-in-ht29-human-colon-cancer-cells-via-downregulation-of-hif1-alpha-and-induction-of-apoptosis
#10
Barbara Iovine, Francesca Guardia, Carlo Irace, Maria Assunta Bevilacqua
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) protein is over-expressed in many human cancers and is a major cause of resistance to drugs. HIF-1α up-regulation decreases the effectiveness of several anticancer agents, including 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), because it induces the expression of drug efflux transporters, alters DNA repair mechanisms and modifies the balance between pro- and antiapoptotic factors. These findings suggest that inhibition of HIF-1α activity may sensitize cancer cells to cytotoxic drugs. We previously reported that l-carnosine reduces HIF-1α expression by inhibiting the proliferation of colon cancer cells...
August 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190533/endogenous-l-carnosine-level-in-diabetes-rat-cardiac-muscle
#11
Yali Liu, Dan Su, Ling Zhang, Shaofeng Wei, Kuangyi Liu, Mi Peng, Hanyun Li, Yonggui Song
A novel method for quantitation of cardiac muscle carnosine levels using HPLC-UV is described. In this simple and reliable method, carnosine from the rat cardiac muscle and the internal standard, thymopentin, were extracted by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The method was linear up to 60.96 μg·mL(-1) for L-carnosine. The calibration curve was linear in concentration ranges from 0.5 to 60.96 μg·mL(-1). The relative standard deviations obtained for intra- and interday precision were lower than 12% and the recoveries were higher than 90% for both carnosine and internal standard...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121957/separation-and-detection-of-amino-acid-metabolites-of-escherichia-coli-in-microbial-fuel-cell-with-ce
#12
Wei Wang, Lihong Ma, Ping Lin, Kaixuan Xu
In this work, CE-LIF was employed to investigate the amino acid metabolites produced by Escherichia coli (E. coli) in microbial fuel cell (MFC). Two peptides, l-carnosine and l-alanyl-glycine, together with six amino acids, cystine, alanine, lysine, methionine, tyrosine, arginine were separated and detected in advance by a CE-LIF system coupled with a homemade spontaneous injection device. The injection device was devised to alleviate the effect of electrical discrimination for analytes during sample injection...
July 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27105448/carnosine-and-homocarnosine-degradation-mechanisms-by-the-human-carnosinase-enzyme-cn1-insights-from-multiscale-simulations
#13
Matic Pavlin, Giulia Rossetti, Marco De Vivo, Paolo Carloni
The endogenous dipeptide l-carnosine, and its derivative homocarnosine, prevent and reduce several pathologies like amytrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Their beneficial action is severely hampered because of the hydrolysis by carnosinase enzymes, in particular the human carnosinase, hCN1. This belongs to the metallopeptidase M20 family, where a cocatalytic active site is formed by two Zn(2+) ions, bridged by a hydroxide anion. The protein may exist as a monomer and as a dimer in vivo...
May 17, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27094155/protective-effects-of-l-carnosine-on-ccl4-induced-hepatic-injury-in-rats
#14
Mehyar Mohammad Alsheblak, Nehal M Elsherbiny, Amro El-Karef, Mamdouh M El-Shishtawy
The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effect of L-carnosine (CAR), an endogenous dipeptide of alanine and histidine, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. Liver injury was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of CCl4, twice weekly for six weeks. CAR was administered to rats daily, at dose of 250 mg/kg, i.p. At the end of six weeks, blood and liver tissue specimens were collected. Results show that CAR treatment attenuated the hepatic morphological changes, necroinflammation and fibrosis induced by CCl4, as indicated by hepatic histopathology scoring...
March 1, 2016: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27040824/l-carnosine-enhanced-reproductive-potential-of-the-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-yeast-growing-on-medium-containing-glucose-as-a-source-of-carbon
#15
Magdalena Kwolek-Mirek, Mateusz Molon, Pawel Kaszycki, Renata Zadrag-Tecza
Carnosine is an endogenous dipeptide composed of β-alanine and L-histidine, which occurs in vertebrates, including humans. It has a number of favorable properties including buffering, chelating, antioxidant, anti-glycation and anti-aging activities. In our study we used the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast as a model organism to examine the impact of L-carnosine on the cell lifespan. We demonstrated that L-carnosine slowed down the growth and decreased the metabolic activity of cells as well as prolonged their generation time...
August 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27000946/therapeutic-efficacy-of-natural-dipeptide-carnosine-against-human-cervical-carcinoma-cells
#16
Muthuraman Pandurangan, Gansukh Enkhtaivan, Doo Hwan Kim
Natural substances have been attracted several researchers in the recent years, because of its potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. We have investigated the effect of carnosine on cell viability, apoptosis, DNA damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caspase 3 enzyme expression in human cervical carcinoma and Madin-Darby Kidney Cells (MDCK) cells. Carnosine inhibited cancer cell growth up to 23%. ROS level was increased up to 30 and 31% in MDCK and HeLa cells respectively. Tunnel assay showed 42 and 14% of positive apoptotic cells in cancer and normal cells respectively...
September 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26861248/oncolytic-adenovirus-loaded-with-l-carnosine-as-novel-strategy-to-enhance-the-antitumor-activity
#17
Mariangela Garofalo, Barbara Iovine, Lukasz Kuryk, Cristian Capasso, Mari Hirvinen, Andrea Vitale, Marjo Yliperttula, Maria Assunta Bevilacqua, Vincenzo Cerullo
Oncolytic viruses are able to specifically replicate, infect, and kill only cancer cells. Their combination with chemotherapeutic drugs has shown promising results due to the synergistic action of virus and drugs; the combinatorial therapy is considered a potential clinically relevant approach for cancer. In this study, we optimized a strategy to absorb peptides on the viral capsid, based on electrostatic interaction, and used this strategy to deliver an active antitumor drug. We used L-carnosine, a naturally occurring histidine dipeptide with a significant antiproliferative activity...
April 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26851022/l-carnosine-prevents-the-pro-cancerogenic-activity-of-senescent-peritoneal-mesothelium-towards-ovarian-cancer-cells
#18
Justyna Mikuła-Pietrasik, Krzysztof Książek
BACKGROUND/AIM: L-Carnosine inhibits senescence of somatic cells and displays anticancer activity. Here we analyzed if L-carnosine (20 mM) retards senescence of human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) and inhibits progression of ovarian cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experiments were performed with primary HPMCs established from patients undergoing abdominal surgery and with three ovarian cancer cell lines: A2780, OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3. RESULTS: L-Carnosine retards senescence of HPMCs plausibly via inhibition of mitochondria-related oxidative stress...
February 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26788523/hyperglycemia-does-not-affect-iron-mediated-toxicity-of-cultured-endothelial-and-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-influence-of-l-carnosine
#19
Shiqi Zhang, Emmanouil Ntasis, Sarah Kabtni, Jaap van den Born, Gerjan Navis, Stephan J L Bakker, Bernhard K Krämer, Benito A Yard, Sibylle J Hauske
Iron has been suggested to affect the clinical course of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as accompanying increased intracellular iron accumulation may provide an alternative source for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although carnosine has proven its therapeutic efficacy in rodent models of T2DM, little is known about its efficacy to protect cells from iron toxicity. We sought to assess if high glucose (HG) exposure makes cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) more susceptible to metal induced toxicity and if this is ameliorated by L-carnosine...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26629136/prevention-of-radiation-esophagitis-by-polaprezinc-zinc-l-carnosine-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-who-received-chemoradiotherapy
#20
Komei Yanase, Norihiko Funaguchi, Hirotoshi Iihara, Maya Yamada, Daizo Kaito, Junki Endo, Fumitaka Ito, Yasushi Ohno, Hidekazu Tanaka, Yoshinori Itoh, Shinya Minatoguchi
BACKGROUND: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) plays an important role in multimodality therapy for non-small cell lung cancer. However, esophagitis often develops as a complication of CCRT, causing treatment delays and reducing the patient's quality of life. We examined the efficacy of polaprezinc (PZ), zinc L-carnosine used for the therapy of gastric ulcer, against the onset of esophagitis caused by CCRT for lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who concurrently underwent chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel and thoracic radiotherapy at Gifu University Hospital during a period of January 2011 and May 2015 were the subjects of the present study...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
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