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Re-orienting negativity

Philippe Holzmuller, Philippe Nirdé, Frédéric Vezilier, Paul Chuchana
: Macrophages exhibit multifunctional activity and play a central role in the response to infectious agents. It is commonly accepted that the plasticity of the response of macrophages depends on the type of stimuli. Here we re-evaluate whether the macrophage response is only dependent on the stimulus. We analyzed the transcriptomic profile of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) that were activated with several pathogens and multiple in vitro-stimulations. The transcriptomic data were normalized using matched-pair analysis...
October 11, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Geancarlo Zanatta, Gustavo Della Flora Nunes, Eveline Matias Bezerra, Roner F da Costa, Alice Maria Martins, Ewerton Wagner Santos Caetano, Valder Nogueira Freire, Carmem Gottfried
Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of schizophrenia and of symptoms of irritability associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Its main action mechanism is the blockade of D2-like receptors acting over positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia with small risk of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) at doses corresponding to low/moderate D2 occupancy. Such decrease in the side effect incidence can be associated to its fast unbinding from D2 receptors in the nigrostriatal region allowing the recovery of dopamine signaling pathways...
July 19, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Zhen-Hua Cui, Wen-Lu Bi, Xin-Yi Hao, Yan Xu, Peng-Min Li, M Andrew Walker, Qiao-Chun Wang
Stresses caused by viral diseases and drought have long threatened sustainable production of grapevine. These two stresses frequently occur simultaneously in many of grapevine growing regions of the world. We studied responses of in vitro-grown plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3) and PEG-induced drought stress. Results showed that stress induced by either virus infection or drought had negative effects on vegetative growth, caused significant decreases and increases in total soluble protein and free proline, respectively, induced obvious cell membrane damage and cell death, and markedly increased accumulations of [Formula: see text] and H2O2...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Chan-Gun Lee, Nhu-Ngoc Dao, Seonmin Jang, Deokhwan Kim, Yonghun Kim, Sungrae Cho
Sensor fusion techniques have made a significant contribution to the success of the recently emerging mobile applications era because a variety of mobile applications operate based on multi-sensing information from the surrounding environment, such as navigation systems, fitness trackers, interactive virtual reality games, etc. For these applications, the accuracy of sensing information plays an important role to improve the user experience (UX) quality, especially with gyroscopes and accelerometers. Therefore, in this paper, we proposed a novel mechanism to resolve the gyro drift problem, which negatively affects the accuracy of orientation computations in the indirect Kalman filter based sensor fusion...
2016: Sensors
Dmytro S Radchenko, Saskia Kattge, Sezgin Kara, Anne S Ulrich, Sergii Afonin
Yes. To understand the molecular mechanisms of amphiphilic membrane-active peptides, it is essential to study their interactions with lipid bilayers under near-native conditions. Amino acid composition largely determines the non-specific properties of peptides, on the basis of the physicochemical properties of the side chains. The resultant effects on peptides' functional properties include influences on the conformation, structural dynamics and binding affinities within the peptide interactome. Here, we studied the effect of substituting oxidation-prone methionine (Met) with non-oxidizable norleucine (Nle) in the model α-helical antimicrobial peptide PGLa, through systematic comparison of PGLa with the (2)Met/(2)Nle mutant...
September 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Martin Pecaric, Kathy Boutis, Jason Beckstead, Martin Pusic
Collecting and analyzing large amounts of process data for the purposes of education can be considered a big data/learning analytics (BD/LA) approach to improving learning. However, in the education of health care professionals, the application of BD/LA is limited to date. The authors discuss the potential advantages of the BD/LA approach for the process of learning via cognitive simulations. Using the lens of a cognitive model of radiograph interpretation with four phases (orientation, searching/scanning, feature detection, and decision making), they reanalyzed process data from a cognitive simulation of pediatric ankle radiography where 46 practitioners from three expertise levels classified 234 cases online...
May 24, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Dana Hayward, Vicky Bungay, Angela C Wolff, Valerie MacDonald
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this research was to critically examine the factors that contribute to turnover of experienced nurses' including their decision to leave practice settings and seek alternate nursing employment. In this study, we explore experienced nurses' decision-making processes and examine the personal and environmental factors that influenced their decision to leave. BACKGROUND: Nursing turnover remains a pressing problem for healthcare delivery...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Menja Scheer, Heinrich H Bülthoff, Lewis L Chuang
The current study investigates the demands that steering places on mental resources. Instead of a conventional dual-task paradigm, participants of this study were only required to perform a steering task while task-irrelevant auditory distractor probes (environmental sounds and beep tones) were intermittently presented. The event-related potentials (ERPs), which were generated by these probes, were analyzed for their sensitivity to the steering task's demands. The steering task required participants to counteract unpredictable roll disturbances and difficulty was manipulated either by adjusting the bandwidth of the roll disturbance or by varying the complexity of the control dynamics...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Chiara Volpato, Maria Angeles Prats Sedano, Stefano Silvoni, Nicoletta Segato, Marianna Cavinato, Antonio Merico, Francesco Piccione, Arianna Palmieri, Niels Birbaumer
Objective of this study was to evaluate attentional control mechanisms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using an auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) paradigm. Fifteen mild to moderate ALS patients and 15 healthy controls were administered a brief neuropsychological test battery and an ERPs paradigm assessing selective attention. Four types of auditory stimuli were presented in random order: short standard (200 Hz, 200 ms), long standard (200 Hz, 500 ms), short deviant (1000 Hz, 200 ms) and long deviant (1000 Hz, 500 ms)...
2016: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Mihoko A Tame, Jonne A Raaijmakers, Pavel Afanasyev, René H Medema
Cortical pulling forces on astral microtubules are essential to position the spindle. These forces are generated by cortical dynein, a minus-end directed motor. Previously, another dynein regulator termed Spindly was proposed to regulate dynein-dependent spindle positioning. However, the mechanism of how Spindly regulates spindle positioning has remained elusive. Here, we find that the misalignment of chromosomes caused by Spindly depletion is directly provoking spindle misorientation. Chromosome misalignments induced by CLIP-170 or CENP-E depletion or by noscapine treatment are similarly accompanied by severe spindle-positioning defects...
March 2016: EMBO Reports
V Sinayko, L Korovina
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of motivational and targeted psychoeducational programs designed for patients with paranoid schizophrenia with abdominal obesity. We observed 34 women aged 18-42 with continuous-flow type paranoid schizophrenia. All patients had a concomitant abdominal obesity, which developed secondarily after long-term administration of second generation antipsychotic medications (at least 1 year). Based on clinical-psychopathological and psychometric methods of assessment and on the analysis of Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire we have developed modules for psychoeducational programs...
January 2016: Georgian Medical News
Silvia Selinski, Stephan Getzmann, Patrick D Gajewski, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, Jan G Hengstler, Michael Falkenstein, Klaus Golka
N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genotype is associated with age-related declines in basic sensory hearing functions. However, the possible modulatory role of NAT2 for higher cognitive functions has not yet been studied. We tested auditory goal-directed behavior and attentional control in 120 NAT2 genotyped subjects (63-88 years), using an auditory distraction paradigm in which participants responded to the duration of long and short tone stimuli. We studied involuntary shifts in attention to task-irrelevant deviant stimuli and applied event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine which cognitive subprocesses are affected by NAT2 status on a neurophysiological level...
December 2015: Archives of Toxicology
Reena H Doshi, Patrick Mukadi, Calixte Shidi, Audry Mulumba, Nicole A Hoff, Sue Gerber, Emile Okitolonda-Wemakoy, Benoit Kebela Ilunga, Jean-Jacques Muyembe, Anne W Rimoin
BACKGROUND: Large-scale measles outbreaks in areas with high administrative vaccine coverage rates suggest the need to re-evaluate measles prevention and control in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Monitoring of measles Vaccine Effectiveness (VE) is a useful measure of quality control in immunization programs. We estimated measles VE among children aged 12-59 months in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) using laboratory surveillance data from 2010-2012. METHODS: We used the case-based surveillance system with laboratory confirmation to conduct a case-control study using the test negative design...
June 26, 2015: Vaccine
Andrea Madeo, Paolo Piras, Federica Re, Stefano Gabriele, Paola Nardinocchi, Luciano Teresi, Concetta Torromeo, Claudia Chialastri, Michele Schiariti, Geltrude Giura, Antonietta Evangelista, Tania Dominici, Valerio Varano, Elisabetta Zachara, Paolo Emilio Puddu
The assessment of left ventricular shape changes during cardiac revolution may be a new step in clinical cardiology to ease early diagnosis and treatment. To quantify these changes, only point registration was adopted and neither Generalized Procrustes Analysis nor Principal Component Analysis were applied as we did previously to study a group of healthy subjects. Here, we extend to patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy the original approach and preliminarily include genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals to explore the potential that incumbent pathology might also be detected...
2015: PloS One
Muhammad Kamran, Vincent M Friebe, Juan D Delgado, Thijs J Aartsma, Raoul N Frese, Michael R Jones
Photosynthetic reaction centres show promise for biomolecular electronics as nanoscale solar-powered batteries and molecular diodes that are amenable to atomic-level re-engineering. In this work the mechanism of electron conduction across the highly tractable Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centre is characterized by conductive atomic force microscopy. We find, using engineered proteins of known structure, that only one of the two cofactor wires connecting the positive and negative termini of this reaction centre is capable of conducting unidirectional current under a suitably oriented bias, irrespective of the magnitude of the bias or the applied force at the tunnelling junction...
2015: Nature Communications
Antonia Cianciulli, Rosa Calvello, Maria A Panaro
In the homologous genes studied, the exons and introns alternated in the same order in mouse and human. We studied, in both species: corresponding short segments of introns, whole corresponding introns and complete homologous genes. We considered the total number of nucleotides and the number and orientation of the SINE inserts. Comparisons of mouse and human data series showed that at the level of individual relatively short segments of intronic sequences the stochastic variability prevails in the local structuring, but at higher levels of organization a deterministic component emerges, conserved in mouse and human during the divergent evolution, despite the ample re-editing of the intronic sequences and the fact that processes such as SINE spread had taken place in an independent way in the two species...
April 2015: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Rong Tang, Suzanne B Coopey, Michelle C Specht, Lan Lei, Michele A Gadd, Kevin S Hughes, Elena F Brachtel, Barbara L Smith
BACKGROUND: In breast conserving surgery, the concordance between lumpectomy margin (LM) status and the status of the corresponding lumpectomy cavity remains uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed pathology reports of lumpectomies from 2004 to 2006. We included those which contained both ink-directed LM and complete (≥4) separate corresponding shaved cavity margins (SCMs). SCM pathology was used as a surrogate for lumpectomy cavity status, to determine the predictive value of LM for residual disease...
July 2015: American Journal of Surgery
Stephan Getzmann, Michael Falkenstein, Edmund Wascher
The ability to understand speech under adverse listening conditions deteriorates with age. In addition to genuine hearing deficits, age-related declines in attentional and inhibitory control are assumed to contribute to these difficulties. Here, the impact of task-irrelevant distractors on speech perception was studied in 28 younger and 24 older participants in a simulated "cocktail party" scenario. In a two-alternative forced-choice word discrimination task, the participants responded to a rapid succession of short speech stimuli ("on" and "off") that was presented at a frequent standard location or at a rare deviant location in silence or with a concurrent distractor speaker...
February 1, 2015: Behavioural Brain Research
David Lopez, Kévin Tocquard, Jean-Stéphane Venisse, Valerie Legué, Patricia Roeckel-Drevet
Gravity is a crucial environmental factor regulating plant growth and development. Plants have the ability to sense a change in the direction of gravity, which leads to the re-orientation of their growth direction, so-called gravitropism. In general, plant stems grow upward (negative gravitropism), whereas roots grow downward (positive gravitropism). Models describing the gravitropic response following the tilting of plants are presented and highlight that gravitropic curvature involves both gravisensing and mechanosensing, thus allowing to revisit experimental data...
2014: Frontiers in Plant Science
Anthony J Rissling, Makoto Miyakoshi, Catherine A Sugar, David L Braff, Scott Makeig, Gregory A Light
Although sensory processing abnormalities contribute to widespread cognitive and psychosocial impairments in schizophrenia (SZ) patients, scalp-channel measures of averaged event-related potentials (ERPs) mix contributions from distinct cortical source-area generators, diluting the functional relevance of channel-based ERP measures. SZ patients (n = 42) and non-psychiatric comparison subjects (n = 47) participated in a passive auditory duration oddball paradigm, eliciting a triphasic (Deviant-Standard) tone ERP difference complex, here termed the auditory deviance response (ADR), comprised of a mid-frontal mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a positivity, and re-orienting negativity (RON) peak sequence...
2014: NeuroImage: Clinical
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