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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029014/1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-regulation-of-glutamine-synthetase-and-glutamine-metabolism-in-human-mammary-epithelial-cells
#1
Sarah Beaudin, JoEllen Welsh
Genomic profiling has identified a subset of metabolic genes that are altered by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) in breast cells including GLUL, the gene that encodes glutamine synthetase (GS). Here, we explored the relevance of vitamin D modulation of GLUL and other metabolic genes in the context of glutamine utilization and dependence. We show that exposure of breast epithelial cells to glutamine deprivation or a GS inhibitor reduced growth and these effects were exacerbated by co-treatment with 1,25D. 1,25D down-regulation of GLUL was sufficient to reduce abundance and activity of GS...
September 28, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027537/optimal-detection-of-clinically-relevant-mutations-in-colorectal-carcinoma-sample-pooling-overcomes-intra-tumoral-heterogeneity
#2
Andrew C Nelson, Jamie Boone, David Cartwright, Bharat Thyagarajan, Robyn Kincaid, Aaron P Lambert, Kylene Karnuth, Christine Henzler, Sophia Yohe
Intra-tumoral genomic heterogeneity is a well-established biologic property of human malignancies with emerging roles in cancer progression and therapy resistance. However, its impact on the clinical utility of genomic testing in patient management remains unclear. Furthermore, best practices to account for heterogeneity in the provision of highly accurate, clinically valid molecular testing have yet to be firmly established. Genomic biomarkers for the management of colorectal carcinoma are both well-established (ie, KRAS, NRAS) and emerging (BRAF, PIK3CA, and others) in respect to therapy selection and clinical trial eligibility...
October 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026708/identification-of-risk-factors-influencing-in-stent-restenosis-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-presentation
#3
Jae Young Cho
Although the angiographic rates of in-stent restenosis (ISR) at later months have reduced dramatically with the introduction of drug-eluting stents (DESs), some patients with ISR after implantation of DES present with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Here, we sought to identify parameters influencing the likelihood of restenosis with ACS presentation after DES implantation. Stented patients (n=3,817) with DESs in the Korea University Anam Hospital percutaneous coronary intervention registry were reviewed retrospectively for inclusion...
September 2017: Chonnam Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026683/high-sensitivity-optical-measurement-of-skin-gloss
#4
Anna Ezerskaia, Arno Ras, Pascal Bloemen, Silvania F Pereira, H Paul Urbach, Babu Varghese
We demonstrate a low-cost optical method for measuring the gloss properties with improved sensitivity in the low gloss regime, relevant for skin gloss properties. The gloss estimation method is based on, on the one hand, the slope of the intensity gradient in the transition regime between specular and diffuse reflection and on the other on the sum over the intensities of pixels above threshold, derived from a camera image obtained using unpolarized white light illumination. We demonstrate the improved sensitivity of the two proposed methods using Monte Carlo simulations and experiments performed on ISO gloss calibration standards with an optical prototype...
September 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026529/coordinating-erk-signaling-via-the-molecular-scaffold-kinase-suppressor-of-ras
#5
REVIEW
Danielle Frodyma, Beth Neilsen, Diane Costanzo-Garvey, Kurt Fisher, Robert Lewis
Many cancers, including those of the colon, lung, and pancreas, depend upon the signaling pathways induced by mutated and constitutively active Ras. The molecular scaffolds Kinase Suppressor of Ras 1 and 2 (KSR1 and KSR2) play potent roles in promoting Ras-mediated signaling through the Raf/MEK/ERK kinase cascade. Here we summarize the canonical role of KSR in cells, including its central role as a scaffold protein for the Raf/MEK/ERK kinase cascade, its regulation of various cellular pathways mediated through different binding partners, and the phenotypic consequences of KSR1 or KSR2 genetic inactivation...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025208/an-atypical-case-of-noonan-syndrome-with-kras-mutation-diagnosed-by-targeted-exome-sequencing
#6
Jinsup Kim, Sung Yoon Cho, Aram Yang, Ja-Hyun Jang, Youngbin Choi, Ji-Eun Lee, Dong-Kyu Jin
Noonan syndrome (NS) is a genetic disorder caused by autosomal dominant inheritance and is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, short stature, chest deformity, and congenital heart disease. In individuals with NS, germline mutations have been identified in several genes involved in the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway. Because of its clinical and genetic heterogeneity, the conventional diagnostic protocol with Sanger sequencing requires a multistep approach. Therefore, molecular genetic diagnosis using targeted exome sequencing (TES) is considered a less expensive and faster method, particularly for patients who do not fulfill the clinical diagnostic criteria of NS...
September 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025027/maternal-melatonin-or-agomelatine-therapy-prevents-programmed-hypertension-in-male-offspring-of-mother-exposed-to-continuous-light
#7
You-Lin Tain, Yu-Ju Lin, Julie Y H Chan, Chien-Te Lee, Chien-Ning Hsu
Hypertension can originate from early-life insults, whereas maternal melatonin therapy can be protective in a variety of models of programmed hypertension. We hypothesize that melatonin or melatonin receptor agonist agomelatine can prevent programmed hypertension in adult offspring induced by maternal exposure to continuous light. Female Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats randomly divided into four groups: controls, rats exposed to continuous light, exposed to continuous light plus treated with agomelatine (50mg/day i...
September 9, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024937/protein-biomarkers-predictive-for-response-to-anti-egfr-treatment-in-ras-wild-type-metastatic-colorectal-carcinoma
#8
Astrid Lièvre, Bérèngere Ouine, Jim Canet, Aurélie Cartier, Yael Amar, Wulfran Cacheux, Odette Mariani, Rosine Guimbaud, Janick Selves, Thierry Lecomte, Serge Guyetant, Ivan Bieche, Frédérique Berger, Leanne de Koning
BACKGROUND: Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients with mutant KRAS or NRAS are ineligible for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) therapy, as RAS mutations activate downstream pathways independently of EGFR and induce primary resistance. However, even among RAS wild-type (WT) patients, only a fraction responds to anti-EGFR therapy, suggesting that other mechanisms of resistance exist. We hypothesise that different (epi)genetic alterations can lead to primary anti-EGFR resistance and that the crucial end point is the activation of protein signalling pathways...
October 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024814/anti-tumor-effects-of-nvp-bkm120-alone-or-in-combination-with-mek162-in-biliary-tract-cancer
#9
Ling Jin, Mei-Hua Jin, Ah-Rong Nam, Ji-Eun Park, Ju-Hee Bang, Do-Youn Oh, Yung-Jue Bang
There are currently no clinically validated therapeutic targets for biliary tract cancer (BTC). Despite promising results in other cancers, compounds targeting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, alone or in combination with Ras/Raf/MEK pathway inhibitors, have not been evaluated in BTC. Here, we examined the effects of a pan-PI3K inhibitor (BKM120) with or without a MEK inhibitor (MEK162), on eight human BTC cell lines carrying mutations in K-Ras and/or the PI3K catalytic subunit, PI3KCA...
October 9, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024812/inhibition-of-pyruvate-carboxylase-by-1%C3%AE-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-promotes-oxidative-stress-in-early-breast-cancer-progression
#10
Tomasz Wilmanski, Xuanzhu Zhou, Wei Zheng, Aparna Shinde, Shawn S Donkin, Michael Wendt, John R Burgess, Dorothy Teegarden
Maintaining reductive-oxidative (redox) balance is an essential feature in breast cancer cell survival, with cellular metabolism playing an integral role in maintaining redox balance through its supply of reduced NADPH. In the present studies, the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) on redox balance was investigated in early stages of breast cancer. Treatment with 1,25(OH)2D promoted oxidative stress in MCF10A-ras and MCF10A-ErbB2 breast epithelial cells, as measured by the decreased ratios of NADPH/NADP+ and reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG)...
October 9, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024000/myeloid-notch1-deficiency-activates-rhoa-rock-pathway-and-aggravates-hepatocellular-damage-in-mouse-ischemic-livers
#11
Ling Lu, Shi Yue, Longfeng Jiang, Changyong Li, Qiang Zhu, Michael Ke, Hao Lu, Xuehao Wang, Ronald W Busuttil, Qi-Long Ying, Jerzy W Kupiec-Weglinski, Bibo Ke
Notch signaling plays an emerging role in the regulation of immune cell development and function during inflammatory response. Activation of the ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA)/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) pathway promotes leukocyte accumulation in tissue injury. However, it remains unknown whether Notch signaling regulates RhoA/ROCK-mediated immune responses in liver ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI). This study investigated intracellular signaling pathways regulated by Notch receptors in the IR-stressed liver and in vitro...
October 12, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023897/atf1-and-ras-in-exosomes-are-potential-clinical-diagnostic-markers-for-cervical-cancer
#12
Yanhua Shi, Wei Wang, Baozhi Yang, Hongge Tian
Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide. It is highly lethal yet can be treated when found in early stage. Thus, early detection is of significant important for early diagnosis of cervical cancer. Exosomes have been used as biomarkers in clinical diagnosis. It is unknown that whether blood exosomes associated with cervical cancer can be detected and if these exosomes can accurately represent the developmental stage of cervical cancer. Mouse models were made out of a relapsed cervical cancer patient's tumour sample for original and recurrent cervical cancer, and gene analysis in both tumours and exosomes in these mouse models were performed...
October 10, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021377/a-comprehensive-review-of-sequencing-and-combination-strategies-of-targeted-agents-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Kristen K Ciombor, Tanios Bekaii-Saab
The emergence of targeted therapies for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has considerably improved survival, but has resulted in a dilemma of identifying the optimal sequence and combination of various agents in the mCRC treatment landscape. A number of cytotoxic agents, including irinotecan, oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, and TAS-102, are available for treatment of mCRC. Additionally, whereas patients harboring rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (RAS)-wild type mCRC can be treated with the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab or antiangiogenic agents (bevacizumab, ziv-aflibercept, and ramucirumab), patients with RAS-mutant mCRC are limited to antiangiogenic agents as biologic options...
October 11, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021226/attenuation-of-accelerated-renal-cystogenesis-in-pkd1-mice-by-renin-angiotensin-system-blockade
#14
Wayne R Fitzgibbon, Yujing Dang, Marlene A Bunni, Catalin F Baicu, Michael R Zile, Adam E Mullick, Takamitsu Saigusa
BACKGROUND: The intrarenal renin angiotensin system (RAS) is activated in polycystic kidney disease. We have recently shown in the Pkd1 mouse that Gen 2 antisense oligonucleotide (ASO), which suppresses angiotensinogen (Agt) synthesis, is efficacious in slowing kidney cyst formation compared to lisinopril. The aim of this current study was to determine 1) if unilateral nephrectomy accelerates cystogenesis in Pkd1 mice (as previously shown in cilia knockout mice), and 2) whether Agt ASO can slow the progression in this accelerated cystic mouse model...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021196/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-upregulation-of-pro-renin-receptor-mediates-high-nacl-induced-apoptosis-in-mouse-inner-medullary-collecting-duct-cells
#15
Jiahui Su, Xiyang Liu, Chuanming Xu, Xiaohan Lu, Fei Wang, Hui Fang, Aihua Lu, Qixiang Qiu, Chunling Li, Tianxin Yang
(Pro)renin receptor (PRR), a new component of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), has emerged as a new regulator of collecting duct function. The present study was designed to investigate the role of PRR in high salt-induced apoptosis in cultured mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells, mIMCD-K2 cells. Exposure to high NaCl at 550 mOsm/kg H2O increased PRR protein abundance so did mannitol, sodium gluconate or choline chloride. This was accompanied with upregulation of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 protein abundance...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019267/ge11-peptide-conjugated-selenium-nanoparticles-for-egfr-targeted-oridonin-delivery-to-achieve-enhanced-anticancer-efficacy-by-inhibiting-egfr-mediated-pi3k-akt-and-ras-raf-mek-erk-pathways
#16
Jiang Pi, Jinhuan Jiang, Huaihong Cai, Fen Yang, Hua Jin, Peihui Yang, Jiye Cai, Zheng W Chen
Selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) have attracted increasing interest in recent decades because of their anticancer, immunoregulation, and drug carrier functions. In this study, GE11 peptide-conjugated Se NPs (GE11-Se NPs), a nanosystem targeting EGFR over-expressed cancer cells, were synthesized for oridonin delivery to achieve enhanced anticancer efficacy. Oridonin loaded and GE11 peptide conjugated Se NPs (GE11-Ori-Se NPs) were found to show enhanced cellular uptake in cancer cells, which resulted in enhanced cancer inhibition against cancer cells and reduced toxicity against normal cells...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018241/eugenol-inhibits-oxidative-phosphorylation-and-fatty-acid-oxidation-via-downregulation-of-c-myc-pgc-1%C3%AE-err%C3%AE-signaling-pathway-in-mcf10a-ras-cells
#17
Xianxin Yan, Guijuan Zhang, Fengjie Bie, Yanhong Lv, Yi Ma, Min Ma, Yurong Wang, Xiaoqian Hao, Naijun Yuan, Xuefeng Jiang
Alteration in cellular energy metabolism plays a critical role in the development and progression of cancer. Targeting metabolic pathways for cancer treatment has been investigated as potential preventive or therapeutic methods. Eugenol (Eu), a major volatile constituent of clove essential oil mainly obtained from Syzygium, has been reported as a potential chemopreventive drug. However, the mechanism by which Eu regulates cellular energy metabolism is still not well defined. This study was designed to determine the effect of Eu on cellular energy metabolism during early cancer progression employing untransformed and H-ras oncogene transfected MCF10A human breast epithelial cells...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017935/physiological-implications-of-dheas-induced-non-classical-steroid-hormone-signaling
#18
Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Mazen Shihan, Georgios Scheiner-Bobis
In the spermatogenic cell line GC-2, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), activates the Src/Ras/c-Raf/Erk1/2/CREB(ATF-1) signaling cascade. Since DHEAS is present in the gonads, and since spermatogenesis and maturation of spermatogonia to haploid spermatozoa requires activation of Erk1/2, the triggering of these signaling events by DHEAS might have physiological relevance. In the Sertoli cell line TM4, DHEAS-induces activation of Erk1/2, CREB, and ATF-1, stimulates expression of claudin-3 and claudin-5 and augments transepithelial resistance, indicating the formation of tight junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016845/pediatric-low-grade-gliomas-next-biologically-driven-steps
#19
David T W Jones, Mark W Kieran, Eric Bouffet, Sanda Alexandrescu, Pratiti Bandopadhayay, Miriam Bornhorst, David Ellison, Jason Fangusaro, Michael I Fisher, Nicholas Foreman, Maryam Fouladi, Darren Hargrave, Cynthia Hawkins, Nada Jabado, Maura Massimino, Sabine Mueller, Giorgio Perilongo, Antoinette Y N Schouten-van Meeteren, Uri Tabori, Katherine Warren, Angela J Waanders, David Walker, William Weiss, Olaf Witt, Karen Wright, Yuan Zhu, Daniel C Bowers, Stefan M Pfister, Roger J Packer
Despite the fact that they are not typically life-threatening, low-grade gliomas (LGGs) remain a significant clinical challenge in pediatric neurooncology due to co-morbidities associated with these tumors and/or their treatments, and their propensity to multiply recur. LGGs, in total the most common brain tumors arising in childhood, can often become a chronic problem requiring decades of management. The 2nd international consensus conference on pediatric low-grade gliomas held in Padua, Italy in 2016, was convened in an attempt to advance the pace of translating biological discoveries on LGGs into meaningful clinical benefit...
August 2, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016307/the-differential-expression-and-possible-function-of-long-noncoding-rnas-in-liver-cells-infected-by-dengue-virus
#20
Xiao-Jun Wang, Shi-Chen Jiang, Hai-Xia Wei, Sheng-Qun Deng, Cheng He, Hong-Juan Peng
The function of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in liver injury resulted by dengue virus (DENV) infection have not yet been explored. The differential expression profiles of lncRNAs coupled with mRNAs in L-02 liver cells in the DENV1 infected, DENV2 infected, and untreated control group were analyzed after high throughput RNA sequencing, the significantly upregulated and downregulated lncRNAs or mRNAs comparing with the control group were identified with a cutoff value at log2 (ratio) ≥ 1.5 and log2 (ratio) ≤ -1...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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