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Mohamed Nabil Elnaggar, Kahtan Jbeili, Nik Nik-Hussin, Mohandas Kozhippally, Joseph M Pappachan
Amiodarone is one of the most commonly prescribed antiarrhythmic agents in clinical practice owing to its efficacy, even with high toxicity profile. The high iodine content and the prolonged biological half-life of the drug can result in thyroid dysfunction in a high proportion of patients treated with amiodarone even after cessation of amiodarone. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are common side effects that mandate regular monitoring of patients with thyroid function tests. Amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism (AIH) is diagnosed and managed in the same way as a usual case of hypothyroidism...
March 20, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Karine Danno, Gérard Duru, Jean Marie Vetel
BACKGROUND:  The increasing use of psychotropic drugs to treat anxiety and depressive disorders (ADDs) is concerning. According to the study, 'Etude Pharmacoépidémiologique de l'Impact de Santé Publique des modes de prise en charge pour 3 groupes de pathologies' (EPI3)-LASER, adult ADD patients who consult a general practitioner prescribing homeopathic medicines (GP-Ho) report less psychotropic drug use and are marginally more likely to experience clinical improvement than those receiving conventional care...
March 20, 2018: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
Amy L Donaldson, Mariella Nolfo, Marissa Montejano
Children with autism may perceive friendship in a qualitatively different manner than their neurotypical peers. Yet, these friendships have been reported as satisfying to the child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although many studies have identified lower quality of friendship in ASD, reduced reciprocity, and increased loneliness and depression, perhaps it is time to take a closer look at the perspective of autistic individuals and to identify how the broader community influences development of relationships and friendship...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Tiffany L Hutchins, Patricia A Prelock
Episodic memory (EM) and scene construction are critical for organizing and understanding personally experienced events and for developing several aspects of social cognition including self-concept, identity, introspection, future thinking, counterfactual reasoning, theory of mind, self-regulation, flexible problem-solving, and socially adaptive behavior. This article challenges the reader to think differently about EM in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as we expand our understanding of autobiographical memory that requires an ability to travel back in time and re-experience an event...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Jie Tang, Jiaqian Fei, Chunxia Gu, Weixia Liu, Minwei Li, Cheng Zhou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is an immune inhibitory receptor involved in the pathogenesis of chronic viral infections. Little is known about the effects of BTLA gene polymorphisms on chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. In this study, we investigated whether the polymorphisms of BTLA are associated with the progression of chronic HBV infection. METHODS: A total of 382 chronic HBV carriers and 170 healthy individuals in the same region were recruited for this study...
March 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Masaki Naganuma, Yuichiro Inatomi, Makoto Nakajima, Toshiro Yonehara, Yukio Ando
BACKGROUND: Uric acid (UA), an antioxidant with neuroprotective effects, favorably affects stroke outcome. However, the effect has not been examined in patients treated with edaravone, a frequently used free radical scavenger. We investigated whether the use of edaravone affected the relationship between UA levels and outcome in acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 1,114 consecutive ischemic stroke patients with premorbid modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores <2 admitted within 24 h of onset (mean, 74 years; median UA levels, 333 μmol/L)...
March 20, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Hyun Goo Kang, Bum Joon Kim, Sang Hun Lee, Dong-Wha Kang, Sun U Kwon, Jong S Kim
BACKGROUND: Lateral medullary infarction (LMI) is not an uncommon disease. Although lesions are usually restricted to the lateral medullary area, some patients have additional infarcts in other parts of the brain. The clinical features and prognosis of isolated LMI (pure LMI, LMIpr) have been investigated. However, it remains unclear whether clinical characteristics, prognosis and factors associated with prognosis differ between patients with LMIpr and those with additional lesions (LMI plus, LMIpl)...
March 20, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
María Del Pino, Amado Andrés, Ana Ávila Bernabéu, Joaquín de Juan-Rivera, Elvira Fernández, Juan de Dios García Díaz, Domingo Hernández, José Luño, Isabel Martínez Fernández, José Paniagua, Manuel Posada de la Paz, José Carlos Rodríguez-Pérez, Rafael Santamaría, Roser Torra, Joan Torras Ambros, Pedro Vidau, Josep-Vicent Torregrosa
Fabry disease (FD) is a rare, X-linked disorder caused by mutations in the GLA gene encoding the enzyme α-galactosidase A. Complete or partial deficiency in this enzyme leads to intracellular accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and other glycosphingolipids in many cell types throughout the body, including the kidney. Progressive accumulation of Gb3 in podocytes, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, and tubular cells contribute to the renal symptoms of FD, which manifest as proteinuria and reduced glomerular filtration rate leading to renal insufficiency...
March 16, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Carlos M Guardia, Raffaella De Pace, Rafael Mattera, Juan S Bonifacino
Selective transport of transmembrane proteins to different intracellular compartments often involves the recognition of sorting signals in the cytosolic domains of the proteins by components of membrane coats. Some of these coats have as their key components a family of heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes named AP-1 through AP-5. AP complexes play important roles in all cells, but their functions are most critical in neurons because of the extreme compartmental complexity of these cells. Accordingly, various diseases caused by mutations in AP subunit genes exhibit a range of neurological abnormalities as their most salient features...
March 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
He Liu, Yue Gu, Tao Dong, Liuqing Yan, Xiaoyi Yan, Tingting Zhang, Nannan Lu, Zhiqian Xu, Haixin Xu, Zhiquan Zhang, Ting Bian
The combination of nanoparticles and biomarkers yields functional nanostructured biointerface, which is playing a notable role in biotechnology development. Due to the 5-fold twined structure in the Au-Pt star-shaped decahedra not only allowed it to act as efficient scaffold for immobilization of antibody, but it also exhibits superior electrocatalytic activity toward H2 O2 reduction, the nanocrystal as the efficient signal transduction label is first employed to construct an electrochemical immunosensor. Donor-π-Acceptor (D-π-A) linking fashion generates a dipolar push-pull system and assures superior intramolecular charge transfer...
March 13, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Peisheng Liang, Wangyong Zhu, Tianjun Lan, Qian Tao
Saliva secretion disorder is one of the most common symptoms in primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS). Salivary biomarkers related to saliva secretion disorder were identified in a pSS murine model, NOD/ShiLtJ mouse, using differential proteomic analysis. Candidate biomarkers were screened with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis and validated in saliva and salivary glands by western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Biological functions were detected using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Hai-Cheng Dou, Jun-Yu Chen, Tang-Fei Ran, Wei-Min Jiang
The treatment goal in spinal cord injury (SCI) is to repair neurites and suppress cell apoptosis. Panax quinquefolius saponin (PQS) is the major active ingredient of American ginseng and has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic roles in various diseases. However, the potential effect of PQS on the pathological process of acute SCI remains unknown. This work tested the effects of PQS on acute SCI and clarified its potential mechanisms. PQS treatment ameliorated the damage to spinal tissue and improved the functional recovery after SCI...
March 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Fatemeh Kiani, Negar Ashari Astani, Reza Rahighi, Ahmad Tayyebi, Meysam Tayebi, Jafar Khezri, Ehsan Hashemi, Ursula Rothlisberger, Abdolreza Simchi
In the present work, the effect of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets on the antibacterial activity of CuO nanowire arrays under visible light irradiation is shown. A combined thermal oxidation/electrophoretic deposition technique was employed to prepare three-dimensional networks of graphene oxide nanosheets hybridized with vertically aligned CuO nanowires. With the help of standard antibacterial assays and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, it is shown that the light-activated antibacterial response of the hybrid material against gram-negative Escherichia coli is significantly improved as the oxide functional groups of the GO nanosheets are reduced...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Leila Saedi, Maryam Maskanati, Majede Modheji, Hamed Soleymanabadi
The effect of replacing an Si atom of a silicon nanocone (SiNC) by Al or P atom on its electronic and field emission properties was investigated using density functional theory calculations. Molecular electrostatic potential surface indicates that the electrons do not spread out on the surface of SiNC evenly, and they tend to accumulate more at the apex, facilitating the electron emission from this site. Replacing an Si atom of the apex of nanocone by Al and P atoms is energetically more favorable than that of the wall by about 12...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Khushboo Patel, Basant Roondhe, Shweta D Dabhi, Prafulla K Jha
Recently predicted and grown new single element two dimensional (2D) material borophene gathered tremendous research interest due to its structural, electronic and other properties. Using first principles based dispersion corrected density functional calculations, we have studied interaction of two toxic gases phosgene (COCl2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO) with borophene to understand the role of borophene as biosensor and carriers in drug delivery. The sensing behaviour of borophene towards COCl2 and CO has been studied by calculating the binding energy and electronic density of states (DOS)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Tian Xie, Meie Wang, Chao Su, Weiping Chen
Soils provide the service of attenuating and detoxifying pollutants. Such ability, natural attenuation capacity (NAC), is one of the most important ecosystem services for urban soils. We improved the ecosystem-service performance index (EPX) model by integrating with entropy weight determination method to evaluate the NAC of residential soils in Beijing. Eleven parameters related to the soil process of pollutants fate and transport were selected and 115 residential soil samples were collected. The results showed that bulk density, microbial functional diversity and soil organic matter had high weights in the NAC evaluation...
March 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Shahid Khan, Jonathan M Scholey
Cells from all three domains of life on Earth utilize motile macromolecular devices that protrude from the cell surface to generate forces that allow them to swim through fluid media. Research carried out on archaea during the past decade or so has led to the recognition that, despite their common function, the motility devices of the three domains display fundamental differences in their properties and ancestry, reflecting a striking example of convergent evolution. Thus, the flagella of bacteria and the archaella of archaea employ rotary filaments that assemble from distinct subunits that do not share a common ancestor and generate torque using energy derived from distinct fuel sources, namely chemiosmotic ion gradients and FlaI motor-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis, respectively...
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Katarina Harasimov, Melina Schuh
Contractile actin networks take on various functions in cells. How disordered actin networks contract is still poorly understood. A recent study proposes a contractile mechanism that is driven by actin disassembly and required to prevent chromosome losses in starfish oocytes.
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Tetsuya Higashiyama
Many receptor-like kinases localized at the pollen tube tip precisely control tube functions in flowering plants. Two recent reports have identified autocrine peptide ligands and receptor systems, providing insight into the molecular machinery that controls pollen tube growth and termination.
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Burak DiK, Emre Bahcivan, Hatice Eser Faki, Kamil Uney
In the present study, combined treatment with etanercept and anakinra were tested in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into 5 groups; healthy control (HC), diabetic control (DC), diabetic+anakinra (DAT), diabetic+etanercept (DET), and diabetic+etanercept+anakinra (DEAT). HC and DC groups received subcutaneous (sc.) injection with a saline solution, while DAT and DET groups received anakinra (10 mg/kg/day, sc.) or etanercept (10 mg/kg, twice a week, sc.), and DEAT rats received both anakinra and etanercept treatments for 21 days after diabetes has developed...
March 20, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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