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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151002/management-of-arrhythmia-in-sepsis-and-septic-shock
#1
Martin Balik, Vojtech Matousek, Michal Maly, Tomas Brozek
The occurrence of supraventricular arrhythmias is associated with an unfavourable prognosis in septic shock. Available trials are difficult to apply in sepsis and septic shock patients due to included cohorts, control groups and because "one size does not fit all". The priorities in the critically ill are maintenance of a sinus rhythm and diastolic ventricular filling. The rate control modality should be reserved for chronic AF and in situations when a sinus rhythm is difficult to maintain due to extreme stress conditions resulting from a high dosage of vasoactive agents...
November 18, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150995/efficacy-and-safety-of-extracranial-vein-angioplasty-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Paolo Zamboni, Luigi Tesio, Stefania Galimberti, Luca Massacesi, Fabrizio Salvi, Roberto D'Alessandro, Patrizia Cenni, Roberto Galeotti, Donato Papini, Roberto D'Amico, Silvana Simi, Maria Grazia Valsecchi, Graziella Filippini
Importance: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is characterized by restricted venous outflow from the brain and spinal cord. Whether this condition is associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) and whether venous percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is beneficial in persons with MS and CCSVI is controversial. Objective: To determine the efficacy and safety of venous PTA in patients with MS and CCSVI. Design, Setting, and Participants: We analyzed 177 patients with relapsing-remitting MS; 62 were ineligible, including 47 (26...
November 18, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150993/overexpression-of-mir-31-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-pbmc-from-patients-with-ankylosing-spondylitis
#3
Mengmeng Wang, Li Wang, Xu Zhang, Xiao Yang, Xiaona Li, Qing Xia, Mengya Chen, Renfang Han, Rui Liu, Shengqian Xu, Faming Pan
BACKGROUND miRNAs play vital roles in regulating immunologic functions and autoimmunity. However, the levels of miR-31, miR-155, miR-16, and miR-181a have not been explored in AS, but were verified to play vital roles in other immunological diseases. The aim of our study was to examine whether the expressions of miR-31, miR-155, miR-16, and miR-181a are abnormal in AS. MATERIAL AND METHODS Real-time transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis (RT-PCR) was used to determine the expression of miR-31, miR-155, miR-16, and miR-181a in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 40 patients with AS and 40 healthy controls...
November 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150992/accelerated-aging-and-aging-process-in-the-brain
#4
Nickolay K Isaev, Elisaveta E Genrikhs, Maria V Oborina, Elena V Stelmashook
One of the approaches to the research of the problem of aging is the study of genetic pathologies leading to accelerated aging, such as the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, Werner syndrome, and Down syndrome. Probably, this approach can be used in an attempt to understand the neuronal mechanisms underlying normal and pathological brain aging. The analysis of the current state of scientific knowledge about these pathologies shows that in the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria and Werner syndrome, the rate of brain aging is significantly lower than the rate of whole body aging, whereas in Down syndrome, the brain ages faster than other organs due to amyloid-beta accumulation and chronic oxidative stress in the brain tissue...
November 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150988/patterns-and-correlates-of-grip-strength-in-older-americans
#5
Kimberly Forrest, Adelle Williams, Marcy Leeds, Joseph Robare, Thomas Bechard
BACKGROUND: Muscle strength is a sensitive indicator of morbidity and mortality in older adults. Loss of muscle strength contributes to a decline in physical functioning. Hand grip strength is a simple measurement but correlated with total body muscle strength. This study evaluated the patterns and correlates of grip strength among older adults in the United States. METHODS: The grip strength data were analyzed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
November 16, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150987/therapeutic-effect-of-curcumin-and-methylprednisolone-in-the-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Xuehong Liu, Yong Zhang, Yang Yang, Jingquan Lin, Xue Huo, Xiaoxue Du, Benson O A Botchway, Marong Fang
In addition to imperiling an individual's daily life, spinal cord injury (SCI), a catastrophic medical damage, can permanently impair an individual's body function. Methylprednisolone (MP), a medically accepted therapeutic drug for SCI, is highly controversial for the lack of consensus on its true therapeutic effect. In recent years, curcumin has served as a potential and novel therapeutic drug in SCI. Our study was intended to investigate the precise effect of MP and curcumin in SCI. We examined the function of MP and curcumin in a SCI model rat, both in vivo and in vitro, and found that there was a momentous improvement in Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) scores in the MP-treated group when compared to Cur-treated group within 14 days...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150985/general-illness-and-psychological-factors-in-patients-with-chronic-nasal-symptoms
#7
Naveed Kara, Alexander C Yao, Julia Newton, Vincent Deary, James O'Hara, Janet A Wilson
OBJECTIVES: Only a minority of patients referred to specialists with sinonasal symptoms have clear evidence of chronic rhinosinusitis. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of and associations between (i) general illness factors (fatigue, autonomic dysfunction) and (ii) psychological factors (anxiety, depression, somatisation, personality traits) in patients presenting with sinonasal symptoms. DESIGN: The following validated questionnaires were administered to patients: the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22) to identify symptom burden, Composite Autonomic Symptom Score-31 (COMPASS-31) measuring autonomic function, Chalder fatigue questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) addressing somatisation symptoms, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the International Personality Item Pool-50 (IPIP-50)...
November 18, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150981/systematic-proteomic-analysis-of-protein-methylation-in-prokaryotes-and-eukaryotes-revealed-distinct-substrate-specificity
#8
Min Zhang, Jun-Yu Xu, Hao Hu, Bang-Ce Ye, Minjia Tan
The studies of protein methylation mainly focus on lysine and arginine residues due to their diverse roles in essential cellular processes from gene expression to signal transduction. Nevertheless, atypical protein methylation occurring on amino acid residues, such as glutamine and glutamic acid, was largely neglected until recently. In addition, the systematic analysis for the distribution of methylation on different amino acids in various species is still lacking, which hinders our understanding of its functional roles...
November 18, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150979/anterior-thalamic-nuclei-lesions-have-a-greater-impact-than-mammillothalamic-tract-lesions-on-the-extended-hippocampal-system
#9
Brook A L Perry, Stephanie A Mercer, Sophie C Barnett, Jungah Lee, John C Dalrymple-Alford
The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN), mammillary bodies and their interconnecting fiber tract, the mammillothalamic tract (MTT), are important components of an extended hippocampal circuit for episodic memory. In humans, damage to the MTT or ATN in many disorders is associated with severe anterograde amnesia and it is assumed that their influence on memory is functionally equivalent. The relative influence of these two structures on memory has not, however, been assessed explicitly. Here, a direct comparison found that only ATN lesions impaired spatial reference memory in rats...
November 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150978/mice-lacking-a-functional-nmda-receptor-exhibit-social-subordination-in-a-group-housed-environment
#10
Waka Ujita, Ayako Kohyama-Koganeya, Nozomi Endo, Toki Saito, Hiroshi Oyama
Social dominance, in which an individual asserts control over others or benefits most after social conflict, has an influence on social behaviour. However, the mechanisms mediating social dominance remain unclear. Social dominance within social groups determines the distribution of rewards such as food and access to mating partners, which can act as reinforcers. In this study, we used the water competition test to determine whether mice were dominant or subordinate. We have previously reported that mice heterozygous for a missense mutation in Grin1 (Grin1(Rgsc174) ) showed altered social behaviour, with increased locomotor activity, novelty-seeking and anxiety...
November 18, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150976/salt-bridge-interactions-within-the-%C3%AE-2-integrin-%C3%AE-7-helix-mediate-force-induced-binding-and-shear-resistance-ability
#11
Xiao Zhang, Linda Li, Ning Li, Xinyu Shu, Lüwen Zhou, Shouqin Lü, Shenbao Chen, Debin Mao, Mian Long
The functional performance of αI domain α7 helix in β2 integrin activation depends on the allostery of the α7 helix, which axially slides down; therefore, it is critical to elucidate what factors regulate the allostery. In this study, we determined that there were two conservative salt bridge interaction pairs that constrain both the upper and bottom ends of the α7 helix. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations for three β2 integrin members of LFA-1 (αL β2 ), Mac-1 (αM β2 ) and αx β2 indicated that the magnitude of the salt bridge interaction is related to the stability of the αI domain and the strength of the corresponding force-induced allostery...
November 18, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150961/modulation-of-igg1-immunoeffector-function-by-glycoengineering-of-the-gdp-fucose-biosynthesis-pathway
#12
Ronan M Kelly, Ronald L Kowle, Zhirui Lian, Beth A Strifler, Derrick R Witcher, Bhavin S Parekh, Tongtong Wang, Christopher C Frye
Cross-linking of the Fcγ receptors expressed on the surface of hematopoietic cells by IgG immune complexes triggers the activation of key immune effector mechanisms, including antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). A conserved N-glycan positioned at the N-terminal region of the IgG CH 2 domain is critical in maintaining the quaternary structure of the molecule for Fcγ receptor engagement. The removal of a single core fucose residue from the N-glycan results in a considerable increase in affinity for FcγRIIIa leading to an enhanced receptor-mediated immunoeffector function...
November 18, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150960/epithelial-cell-adhesion-molecule-fragments-and-signaling-in-primary-human-liver-cells
#13
Jörg C Gerlach, Hubert G Foka, Robert L Thompson, Bruno Gridelli, Eva Schmelzer
Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM), or CD326, is a trans-membrane glycoprotein expressed by multiple normal epithelia as well as carcinoma. Human hepatic stem cells and bile duct epithelium of the liver are EpCAM positive. In tumor cell lines, its intracellular domain can be released after cleavage of the extracellular domain. Within the cell nucleus it induces cell proliferation, but cleavage depends on cell contact. Fragments of various lengths have been described in tumor cells. Despite of its described important role in proliferation in tumor cells, there is not much known about the expression and role of EpCAM fragments in primary human liver cells...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150954/physiological-role-of-urothelial-cancer-associated-1-long-noncoding-rna-in-human-skeletogenic-cell-differentiation
#14
Takanori Ishikawa, Takashi Nishida, Mitsuaki Ono, Takeshi Takarada, Nguyen Ha, Shinnosuke Kurihara, Takayuki Furumatsu, Yurika Murase, Masaharu Takigawa, Toshitaka Oohashi, Hiroshi Kamioka, Satoshi Kubota
A vast number of long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) are found expressed in human cells, which RNAs have been developed along with human evolution. However, the physiological functions of these lncRNAs remain mostly unknown. In the present study, we for the first time uncovered the fact that one of such lncRNAs plays a significant role in the differentiation of chondrocytes and, possibly, of osteoblasts differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells, which cells eventually construct the human skeleton. The urothelial cancer-associated 1 (UCA1) lncRNA is known to be associated with several human malignancies...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150952/ck-2127107-amplifies-skeletal-muscle-response-to-nerve-activation-in-humans
#15
Jinsy A Andrews, Timothy M Miller, Vipin Vijayakumar, Randall Stoltz, Joyce K James, Lisa Meng, Andrew A Wolff, Fady I Malik
INTRODUCTION: Three studies evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of CK-2127107 (CK-107), a next-generation fast skeletal muscle troponin activator (FSTA), in healthy subjects. We tested the hypothesis that CK-107 would amplify the force-frequency response of muscle in humans. METHODS: To assess the force-frequency response, subjects received single doses of CK-107 and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, 4-period, crossover study...
November 18, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150951/inflammasome-its-role-in-traumatic-brain-and-spinal-cord-injury
#16
REVIEW
Keywan Mortezaee, Neda Khanlarkhani, Cordian Beyer, Adib Zendedel
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI) are pathological events that lead to neuropathological conditions which have in consequence the initiation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Neuroinflammation plays a key role in the secondary phase of both TBI and SCI after initial cell death. Activation of cytoplasmic inflammasome complexes is regarded as the essential step of neuroinflammation and a key trigger for neuronal death called pyroptosis. Inflammasome complexes are involved in activation of caspase-1 which catalyzes the cleavage of pro-interleukins into their active forms (including interleukin-18 (IL-18) and IL-1β)...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150946/lncrna-tcons_00034812-in-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-and-its-mechanism
#17
Yun Liu, Zengxian Sun, Jinquan Zhu, Bingxin Xiao, Jie Dong, Xiaomin Li
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been discovered to be playing important role in various biological processes. However, the contribution of lncRNAs to pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) remains largely unknown. Pulmonary vascular remodeling is an important pathological feature of PAH, leading to increased vascular resistance and reduced compliance. Here, we investigated the biological role of lncRNAs in PAH. Differences in the lncRNAs and mRNAs between hypoxia PAH rats and normoxia rats were screened using microarray analysis...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150944/toll-like-receptor-signaling-pathway-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-colorectal-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Reyhaneh Moradi-Marjaneh, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Hamid Fiuji, Saman Soleimanpour, Gordon A Ferns, Amir Avan, Majid Khazaei
Toll like receptor (TLR) signaling is involved in activating innate and adaptive immune responses and plays a critical role in inflammation-induced diseases such as colorectal cancer (CRC). Dysregulation of this signaling pathway can result in disturbance of epithelial layer hemostasis, chronic inflammatory, excessive repair responses and development of CRC. There is now substantial evidence for the benefit of targeting of this pathway in cancer treatment, and several agents have been approved, such as BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guérin), MPL (monophosphoryl lipid A) and imiquimod...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150943/muscle-regeneration-potential-and-satellite-cell-activation-profile-during-recovery-following-hindlimb-immobilization-in-mice
#19
Maria Guitart, Josep Lloreta, Laura Mañas-Garcia, Esther Barreiro
Reduced muscle activity leads to muscle atrophy and function loss in patients and animal models. Satellite cells (SCs) are postnatal muscle stem cells that play a pivotal role in skeletal muscle regeneration following injury. The regenerative potential, satellite cell numbers, and markers during recovery following immobilization of the hindlimb for seven days were explored. In mice exposed to seven days of hindlimb immobilization, in those exposed to recovery (seven days, splint removal), and in contralateral control muscles, muscle precursor cells were isolated from all hindlimb muscles (fluorescence-activated cell sorting, FACS), and SCs and muscle regeneration were identified using immunofluorescence (gastrocnemius and soleus) and electron microscopy (EM, gastrocnemius)...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150941/micrornas-as-predictive-biomarkers-for-myocardial-injury-in-aged-mice-following-myocardial-infarction
#20
Natia Qipshidze Kelm, Kellianne M Piell, Eugenia Wang, Marsha P Cole
The occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI) increases appreciably with age. In the Framingham Heart Study, the incidence of MI more than doubles for men and increases more than 5-fold in women (ages 55 to 64 years compared to 85 to 94 years). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) quantitatively regulate their target's expression post-transcriptionally by either silencing action through binding at the 3'UTR domains or degrading the messages at their coding regions. In either case, these regulations affect the cardiac transcriptional output and cardiac function...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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