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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927009/brush-polymer-of-donor-accepter-dyads-via-adduct-formation-between-lewis-base-polymer-donor-and-all-carbon-lewis-acid-acceptor
#1
Yang Wang, Miao Hong, Travis S Bailey, Eugene Y-X Chen
A synthetic method that taps into the facile Lewis base (LB)→Lewis acid (LA) adduct forming reaction between the semiconducting polymeric LB and all carbon LA C60 for the construction of covalently linked donor-acceptor dyads and brush polymer of dyads is reported. The polymeric LB is built on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) macromers containing either an alkyl or vinyl imidazolium end group that can be readily converted into the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) LB site, while the brush polymer architecture is conveniently constructed via radical polymerization of the macromer P3HT with the vinyl imidazolium chain end...
September 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926930/modeling-of-bn-lifetime-prediction-of-a-system-based-on-integrated-multi-level-information
#2
Jingbin Wang, Xiaohong Wang, Lizhi Wang
Predicting system lifetime is important to ensure safe and reliable operation of products, which requires integrated modeling based on multi-level, multi-sensor information. However, lifetime characteristics of equipment in a system are different and failure mechanisms are inter-coupled, which leads to complex logical correlations and the lack of a uniform lifetime measure. Based on a Bayesian network (BN), a lifetime prediction method for systems that combine multi-level sensor information is proposed. The method considers the correlation between accidental failures and degradation failure mechanisms, and achieves system modeling and lifetime prediction under complex logic correlations...
September 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926685/nir-absorbing-metal-free-organic-porphyrin-and-phthalocyanine-dyes-for-panchromatic-dscs
#3
Phillip Brogdon, Hammad Cheema, Jared Heath Delcamp
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are a promising source of renewable energy. However, power conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices has been limited largely by the difficulty of producing electricity using photons from the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region. Metal-free organic sensitizers frequently employ strong electron donating or withdrawing moieties to tune the optical band gap to allow the absorption of lower energy wavelengths in charge transfer systems while porphyrins and phthalocyanines use substituents to shift the Soret and Q bands toward lower energy absorption...
September 19, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926568/changing-hearts-and-minds-results-from-a-multi-country-gender-and-sexual-diversity-training
#4
Tonia Poteat, Chulwoo Park, Diego Solares, John K Williams, R Cameron Wolf, Noah Metheny, Andrea Vazzano, Juan Dent, Ashley Gibbs, Bareng Aletta Sanny Nonyane, Nora Toiv
Engaging key populations, including gender and sexual minorities, is essential to meeting global targets for reducing new HIV infections and improving the HIV continuum of care. Negative attitudes toward gender and sexual minorities serve as a barrier to political will and effective programming for HIV health services. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), established in 2003, provided Gender and Sexual Diversity Trainings for 2,825 participants including PEPFAR staff and program implementers, U...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926037/strain-induced-ferroelectricity-and-lattice-coupling-in-basno3-and-srsno3
#5
Yajun Zhang, Jie Wang, M P K Sahoo, Takahiro Shimada, Takayuki Kitamura
Perovskite stannates such as BaSnO3 and SrSnO3 exhibit promising photovoltaic properties, and hold promise for application in solar cell devices. However, the lack of ferroelectricity and the wide band gap in these materials limit their potential for photovoltaic applications. Here, by first-principles calculations, we demonstrate the realization of a primary ferroelectric polarization in non-ferroelectric BaSnO3 and SrSnO3 through strain engineering. In addition to the appearance of polarization, the band gaps of the materials are greatly narrowed when the paraelectric to ferroelectric phase transition takes place under compressive strain...
September 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925706/field-effect-transistors-based-on-van-der-waals-grown-and-dry-transferred-all-inorganic-perovskites-ultrathin-platelets
#6
Chengxue Huo, Xuhai Liu, Xiufeng Song, Ziming Wang, Haibo Zeng
Nowdays, the research on perovskite transistors is still in its infancy, despite that perovskite based solar cells and light emitting diodes have been widely investigated. Two major hurdles exist before obtaining reliable perovskite based transistors: the processing difficulty for their sensitivity to polar solvents, and unsatisfactory perovskite quality on the transistor platform. Here, for the first time, we report on high-performance all-inorganic perovskite FETs profited from both van-der-Waals epitaxial boundary-free ultrathin single-crystals and completely dry-processed transfer technique without chemical contaminant...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925705/incoherent-pathways-of-charge-separation-in-organic-hybrid-solar-cells
#7
Alexander Grupp, Philipp Ehrenreich, Julian Kalb, Arne Budweg, Lukas Schmidt-Mende, Daniele Brida
In this work, we investigate the exciton dissociation dynamics occurring at the donor-acceptor interface in organic and hybrid blends employed in the realization of photovoltaic cells. Fundamental differences in the charge separation process are studied with the organic semiconductor polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and either [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) or titanium dioxide (TiO2) acting as acceptor. By using ultrafast broadband transient absorption spectroscopy with few-fs temporal resolution, we observe that in both cases the incoherent formation of free charges is dominating the charge generation process...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925390/alterations-of-micrornas-throughout-the-malignant-evolution-of-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-the-role-of-mir-497-in-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-keratinocytes
#8
A Mizrahi, A Barzilai, D Gur-Wahnon, I Z Ben-Dov, S Glassberg, T Meningher, E Elharar, M Masalha, J Jacob-Hirsch, H Tabibian-Keissar, I Barshack, J Roszik, R Leibowitz-Amit, Y Sidi, D Avni
Skin carcinogenesis is known to be a multi-step process with several stages along its malignant evolution. We hypothesized that transformation of normal epidermis to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is causally linked to alterations in microRNAs (miRNA) expression. For this end we decided to evaluate their alterations in the pathologic states ending in cSCC. Total RNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded biopsies of five stages along the malignant evolution of keratinocytes towards cSCC: Normal epidermis, solar elastosis, actinic keratosis KIN1-2, advanced actinic keratosis KIN3 and well-differentiated cSCC...
September 18, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925263/partially-reversible-photo-induced-chemical-changes-in-a-mixed-ion-perovskite-material-for-solar-cells
#9
Ute B Cappel, Sebastian Svanström, Valeria Lanzilotto, Fredrik Oskar Lars Johansson, Kerttu Aitola, Bertrand Philippe, Erika Giangrisostomi, Ruslan Ovsyannikov, Torsten Leitner, Alexander Foehlisch, Svante Svensson, Nils Mårtensson, Gerrit Boschloo, Andreas Lindblad, Håkan Rensmo
Metal halide perovskites have emerged as materials of high interest for solar energy to electricity conversion and in particular the use of mixed ion structures has led to high power conversion efficiencies and improved stability. For this reason, it is important develop means to obtain atomic level understanding of the photo-induced behaviour of these materials including processes such as photo-induced phase separation and ion migration. In this paper, we implement a new methodology combining visible laser illumination of a mixed-ion perovskite ((FAPbI3)0...
September 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924612/water-on-the-surface-of-the-moon-as-seen-by-the-moon-mineralogy-mapper-distribution-abundance-and-origins
#10
Shuai Li, Ralph E Milliken
A new thermal correction model and experimentally validated relationships between absorption strength and water content have been used to construct the first global quantitative maps of lunar surface water derived from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper near-infrared reflectance data. We find that OH abundance increases as a function of latitude, approaching values of ~500 to 750 parts per million (ppm). Water content also increases with the degree of space weathering, consistent with the preferential retention of water originating from solar wind implantation during agglutinate formation...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924609/the-empty-primordial-asteroid-belt
#11
Sean N Raymond, Andre Izidoro
The asteroid belt contains less than a thousandth of Earth's mass and is radially segregated, with S-types dominating the inner belt and C-types the outer belt. It is generally assumed that the belt formed with far more mass and was later strongly depleted. We show that the present-day asteroid belt is consistent with having formed empty, without any planetesimals between Mars and Jupiter's present-day orbits. This is consistent with models in which drifting dust is concentrated into an isolated annulus of terrestrial planetesimals...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924166/determination-of-unique-power-conversion-efficiency-of-solar-cell-showing-hysteresis-in-the-i-v-curve-under-various-light-intensities
#12
Ludmila Cojocaru, Satoshi Uchida, Koichi Tamaki, Piyankarage V V Jayaweera, Shoji Kaneko, Jotaro Nakazaki, Takaya Kubo, Hiroshi Segawa
Energy harvesting at low light intensities has recently attracted a great deal of attention of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) which are regarded as promising candidate for indoor application. Anomalous hysteresis of the PSCs a complex issue for reliable evaluation of the cell performance. In order to address these challenges, we constructed two new evaluation methods to determinate the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of PSCs. The first setup is a solar simulator based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) allowing evaluation of the solar cells at wider range of light intensities, ranging from 10(2) to 10(-3) mW·cm(-2)...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923996/predicting-the-nature-of-supernova-progenitors
#13
REVIEW
Jose H Groh
Stars more massive than about 8 solar masses end their lives as a supernova (SN), an event of fundamental importance Universe-wide. The physical properties of massive stars before the SN event are very uncertain, both from theoretical and observational perspectives. In this article, I briefly review recent efforts to predict the nature of stars before death, in particular, by performing coupled stellar evolution and atmosphere modelling of single stars in the pre-SN stage. These models are able to predict the high-resolution spectrum and broadband photometry, which can then be directly compared with the observations of core-collapse SN progenitors...
October 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923930/copper-nanoparticle-ensembles-for-selective-electroreduction-of-co2-to-c2-c3-products
#14
Dohyung Kim, Christopher S Kley, Yifan Li, Peidong Yang
Direct conversion of carbon dioxide to multicarbon products remains as a grand challenge in electrochemical CO2 reduction. Various forms of oxidized copper have been demonstrated as electrocatalysts that still require large overpotentials. Here, we show that an ensemble of Cu nanoparticles (NPs) enables selective formation of C2-C3 products at low overpotentials. Densely packed Cu NP ensembles underwent structural transformation during electrolysis into electrocatalytically active cube-like particles intermixed with smaller nanoparticles...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923741/influence-of-molybdenum-doping-on-the-structural-optical-and-electronic-properties-of-wo3-for-improved-solar-water-splitting
#15
Shankara S Kalanur, Hyungtak Seo
Doping WO3 with foreign atoms is a very efficient strategy to modify the structural, optical and electronic properties which could influence its photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting activity. In this study, we report a simple and efficient single-step strategy for the fabrication of molybdenum (Mo)-doped WO3 thin films. The characterization results show that doping Mo into WO3 leads to a significant change in the morphology without changing its crystal structure. Elemental mapping and EDS analysis revealed that Mo was homogeneously doped into the crystal lattice of WO3 in the at...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923630/use-of-nonvascularized-abdominal-rectus-fascia-after-liver-small-bowel-and-multiorgan-transplantation-long-term-follow-up-of-a-single-center-series
#16
P A Farinelli, J S Rubio, J M Padín, C Rumbo, H Solar, D Ramisch, G E Gondolesi
BACKGROUND: The abdominal wall may be severely compromised in the vast majority of intestinal and multiorgan transplant candidates, and sometimes as a consequence of complex liver transplantation. Multiple options have been described to overcome this problem, varying from component separation to the extreme need of performing an abdominal wall transplantation. The aim of the present paper is to report the largest and longest-term results of patients that received an abdominal rectus fascia (ARF) after liver, intestinal, or multiorgan transplantation at a single transplant center...
October 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923583/sunlight-and-ultraviolet-radiation-pertinent-retinal-implications-current-management
#17
REVIEW
Tedi Begaj, Shlomit Schaal
Unprotected and prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from sunlight, lasers, and arc welding leads to outer retinal damage. The photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium located in the posterior pole are particularly susceptible to this radiation. Classically known as solar retinopathy, this disorder frequently affects young individuals who have clear lenses and a propensity toward observing solar eclipses. Various imaging techniques aid the clinician in diagnosis, even if patients cannot recall an exposure event...
September 16, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922769/psb33-sustains-photosystem-ii-d1-protein-under-fluctuating-light-conditions
#18
Rikard Fristedt, Andrea Trotta, Marjaana Suorsa, Anders K Nilsson, Roberta Croce, Eva-Mari Aro, Björn Lundin
On Earth, solar irradiance varies as the sun rises and sets over the horizon, and sunlight is thus in constant fluctuation, following a slow dark-low-high-low-dark curve. Optimal plant growth and development are dependent on the capacity of plants to acclimate and regulate photosynthesis in response to these changes of light. Little is known of regulative processes for photosynthesis during nocturnal events. The nucleus-encoded plant lineage-specific protein PSB33 has been described as stabilizing the photosystem II complex, especially under light stress conditions, and plants lacking PSB33 have a dysfunctional state transition...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922479/highly-conductive-and-transparent-large-area-bilayer-graphene-realized-by-mocl5-intercalation
#19
Hiroki Kinoshita, Il Jeon, Mina Maruyama, Kenji Kawahara, Yuri Terao, Dong Ding, Rika Matsumoto, Yutaka Matsuo, Susumu Okada, Hiroki Ago
Bilayer graphene (BLG) comprises a 2D nanospace sandwiched by two parallel graphene sheets that can be used to intercalate molecules or ions for attaining novel functionalities. However, intercalation is mostly demonstrated with small, exfoliated graphene flakes. This study demonstrates intercalation of molybdenum chloride (MoCl5 ) into a large-area, uniform BLG sheet, which is grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This study reveals that the degree of MoCl5 intercalation strongly depends on the stacking order of the graphene; twist-stacked graphene shows a much higher degree of intercalation than AB-stacked...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922475/a-new-passivation-route-leading-to-over-8-efficient-pbse-quantum-dot-solar-cells-via-direct-ion-exchange-with-perovskite-nanocrystals
#20
Zhilong Zhang, Zihan Chen, Lin Yuan, Weijian Chen, Jianfeng Yang, Bo Wang, Xiaoming Wen, Jianbing Zhang, Long Hu, John A Stride, Gavin J Conibeer, Robert J Patterson, Shujuan Huang
Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are promising candidate materials for photovoltaics (PV) owing to the tunable bandgap and low-cost solution processability. Lead selenide (PbSe) QDs are particularly attractive to PV applications due to the efficient multiple-exciton generation and carrier transportation. However, surface defects arising from the oxidation of the PbSe QDs have been the major limitation for their development in PV. Here, a new passivation method for chlorinated PbSe QDs via ion exchange with cesium lead halide (Br, I) perovskite nanocrystals is reported...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
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