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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728307/changes-in-reference-evapotranspiration-and-its-driving-factors-in-the-middle-reaches-of-yellow-river-basin-china
#1
Dunxian She, Jun Xia, Yongyong Zhang
Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is important for agricultural, environmental and other studies, and understanding the attribution of its change is helpful to provide information for irrigation scheduling and water resources management. The present study investigates the attribution of the change of ET0 at 49 meteorological stations in the middle reaches of Yellow River basin (MRYRB) of China from 1960 to 2012. Results show that annual ET0 increases from the northwest to the southeast of MRYRB in space. We find that annual ET0 clearly presents a zigzag change pattern rather than a monotonically change during the whole period...
July 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728028/direct-evidence-of-the-photocatalytic-generation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-ros-in-a-bi2w2o9-layered-structure
#2
S Obregón, M A Ruíz-Gómez, D B Hernández-Uresti
In the present work, the Bi2W2O9 photocatalyst has been prepared by an easy and prompt co-precipitation route. From the structural characterization, we have stated that the formation of the Bi2W2O9 is accompanied by a small amount of the Bi2WO6 oxide, which gradually decreases by increasing the calcination temperature. The conduction and valence band edges of the Bi2W2O9 semiconductor were experimentally estimated for the first time using the X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and diffuse reflectance (DRS) spectroscopies...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727932/laboratory-studies-of-methane-and-its-relationship-to-prebiotic-chemistry
#3
Kensei Kobayashi, Wolf D Geppert, Nathalie Carrasco, Nils G Holm, Olivier Mousis, Maria Elisabetta Palumbo, J Hunter Waite, Naoki Watanabe, Lucy M Ziurys
To examine how prebiotic chemical evolution took place on Earth prior to the emergence of life, laboratory experiments have been conducted since the 1950s. Methane has been one of the key molecules in these investigations. In earlier studies, strongly reducing gas mixtures containing methane and ammonia were used to simulate possible reactions in the primitive atmosphere of Earth, producing amino acids and other organic compounds. Since Earth's early atmosphere is now considered to be less reducing, the contribution of extraterrestrial organics to chemical evolution has taken on an important role...
July 20, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727930/visual-perception-of-british-women-s-skin-color-distribution-in-two-nonindustrialized-societies-the-maasai-and-the-tsimane
#4
Bernhard Fink, Marina Butovskaya, Piotr Sorokowski, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Paul J Matts
In women with lightly pigmented skin in particular, facial skin color homogeneity decreases with age, primarily due to chronic exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), leading to a decrease in perceived health and attractiveness. Perception of female skin may be influenced by continuous exposure to, and thus familiarity with, age-related changes in visible skin condition in a given society. Men and women of two traditional societies, the Maasai (Tanzania) and the Tsimane' (Bolivia), unfamiliar with lighter colored skin, judged images of British women's facial skin for age, health, and attractiveness...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727458/unraveling-the-high-voc-and-high-performance-of-integrated-perovskite-organic-bulk-heterojunction-solar-cells
#5
Shiqi Dong, Yongsheng Liu, Ziruo Hong, En-Ping Yao, Pengyu Sun, Lei Meng, Yuze Lin, Jinsong Huang, Gang Li, Yang Yang
We have demonstrated high performance integrated perovskite/bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells due to the low carrier recombination velocity, high open circuit voltage (Voc) and increased light absorption ability in near-infrared (NIR) region of integrated devices. In particular, we find that the Voc of the integrated devices is dominated by (or pinned to) the perovskite cells, not the OPV cells. A Quasi-Fermi Level Pinning Model was proposed to understand the working mechanism and the origin of the Voc of the integrated perovskite/BHJ solar cell, which following that of the perovskite solar cell and is much higher than that of the low bandgap polymer based organic BHJ solar cell...
July 20, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727320/plasmonic-gold-nanostars-incorporated-into-high-efficiency-perovskite-solar-cells
#6
Munkhbayar Batmunkh, Thomas Macdonald, William Peveler, Abdulaziz Bati, Claire J Carmalt Claire J Carmalt, Ivan Parkin, Joseph George Shapter
Incorporating appropriate plasmonic nanostructures into photovoltaic (PV) systems is of great utility for enhancing photon absorption and thus improving device performance. Herein, the successful integration of plasmonic gold nanostars (AuNSs) into mesoporous TiO2 photoelectrodes for perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is reported. The PSCs fabricated with TiO2-AuNSs photoelectrodes exhibited a device efficiency of up to 17.72%, while the control cells without AuNSs showed a maximum efficiency of 15.19%. We attribute the origin of increased device performance to enhanced light absorption and suppressed charge recombination...
July 20, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727222/spatiotemporal-pattern-of-gross-primary-productivity-and-its-covariation-with-climate-in-china-over-the-last-thirty-years
#7
Yitong Yao, Xuhui Wang, Yue Li, Tao Wang, Miaogen Shen, Mingyuan Du, Honglin He, Yingnian Li, Weijun Luo, Mingguo Ma, Yaoming Ma, Yanhong Tang, Huimin Wang, Xianzhou Zhang, Yiping Zhang, Liang Zhao, Guangsheng Zhou, Shilong Piao
The uncertainties of China's GPP estimates by global data-oriented products and ecosystem models justify a development of high-resolution data-oriented GPP dataset over China. We applied a machine learning algorithm developing a new GPP dataset for China with 0.1° spatial resolution and monthly temporal frequency based on eddy flux measurements from 40 sites in China and surrounding countries, most of which have not been explored in previous global GPP datasets. According to our estimates, mean annual GPP over China is 6...
July 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727193/hydrogen-bonded-polymer-porphyrin-assemblies-in-water-supramolecular-structures-for-light-energy-conversion
#8
Anne Kutz, Wiebke Alex, Anja Krieger, Franziska Gröhn
In this study, a new type of functional, self-assembled nanostructure formed from porphyrins and polyamidoamine dendrimers based on hydrogen bonding in an aqueous solution is presented. As the aggregates formed are promising candidates for solar-energy conversion, their photocatalytic activity is tested using the model reaction of methyl viologen reduction. The self-assembled structures show significantly increased activity as compared to unassociated porphyrins. Details of interaction forces driving the supramolecular structure formation and regulating catalytic efficiency are fundamentally discussed...
July 20, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727097/evaluating-the-impact-of-breed-pregnancy-and-hair-coat-on-body-temperature-and-sweating-rate-of-hair-sheep-ewes-in-the-tropics
#9
R W Godfrey, W D Preston, S R Joseph, L LaPlace, P E Hillman, K G Gebremedhin, C N Lee, R J Collier
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pregnancy, breed, and hair coat on body temperature and sweating rate (SR) of hair sheep. St. Croix White (STX; = 9) and Dorper × STX (DRPX; = 9) ewes (3.6 yr of age) were evaluated over 4 d at 126 d of gestation (PREG) and over 4 d at 46 d postpartum (OPEN) in the shade and sun and in the morning (AM; 0900 to 1200 h) and afternoon (PM; 1300 to 1600 h) after a 20 min acclimation to each condition on each day. Data loggers recorded vaginal temperature (VT) at 10-min intervals for 96 h...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726867/fluorine-substituted-benzothiadiazole-based-hole-transport-materials-for-highly-efficient-planar-perovskite-solar-cells-with-a-ff-exceeding-80
#10
Fei Wu, Yu Ji, Cheng Zhong, Yuan Liu, Luxi Tan, Linna Zhu
Fluorine-substituted benzothiadiazole (BT) was introduced as a core structure to construct new hole transport materials. Planar perovskite solar cells with conventional materials (CH3NH3PbI3-xClx) were fabricated. The perovskite solar cells using monofluorinated BT exhibit a leading efficiency of 18.54% with a FF as high as 81%.
July 20, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726757/characterization-of-essential-oil-composition-in-different-basil-species-and-pot-cultures-by-a-gc-ms-method
#11
Andrea Muráriková, Anton Ťažký, Jarmila Neugebauerová, Alexandra Planková, Josef Jampílek, Pavel Mučaji, Peter Mikuš
Basil (Ocimum L.) species are used as medicinal plants due to their essential oils exhibiting specific biological activity. The present work demonstrated that both the variety and season/conditions of cultivation had a significant effect on (i) the produced amount (extraction yield), (ii) qualitative, as well as (iii) quantitative profile of basil essential oil. Among studied basil varieties, a new variety, 'Mánes', was characterized for the first time. Based on our quantitative evaluation of GC-MS profiles, the following chemotypes and average concentrations of a main component were detected in the studied basil varieties: 'Ohře', 'Lettuce Leaf', 'Purple Opaal', 'Dark Green' (linalool, 5...
July 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726745/dual-source-linear-energy-prediction-line-p-model-in-the-context-of-wsns
#12
Faisal Ahmed, Gert Tamberg, Yannick Le Moullec, Paul Annus
Energy harvesting technologies such as miniature power solar panels and micro wind turbines are increasingly used to help power wireless sensor network nodes. However, a major drawback of energy harvesting is its varying and intermittent characteristic, which can negatively affect the quality of service. This calls for careful design and operation of the nodes, possibly by means of, e.g., dynamic duty cycling and/or dynamic frequency and voltage scaling. In this context, various energy prediction models have been proposed in the literature; however, they are typically compute-intensive or only suitable for a single type of energy source...
July 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726698/experimental-study-and-artificial-neural-network-modeling-of-tartrazine-removal-by-photocatalytic-process-under-solar-light
#13
Aicha Sebti, Fatiha Souahi, Faroudja Mohellebi, Sadek Igoud
This research focuses on the application of an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the removal efficiency of tartrazine from simulated wastewater using a photocatalytic process under solar illumination. A program is developed in Matlab software to optimize the neural network architecture and select the suitable combination of training algorithm, activation function and hidden neurons number. The experimental results of a batch reactor operated under different conditions of pH, TiO2 concentration, initial organic pollutant concentration and solar radiation intensity are used to train, validate and test the networks...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726671/in-situ-decoration-of-plasmonic-au-nanoparticles-on-graphene-quantum-dots-graphitic-carbon-nitride-hybrid-and-evaluation-of-its-visible-light-photocatalytic-performance
#14
Biswajit Choudhury, Pravat Kumar Giri, Rajender Gone
This work spotlights the development of a plasmonic photocatalyst showing surface plasmon induced enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance. Plasmonic Au nanoparticles (NPs) are decorated over the hybrid nanosystem of graphitic carbon nitride (GCN) and graphene quantum dots (GQD) by citrate reduction method. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) induced enhancement of Raman G and 2D band intensity is encountered on excitation of the Plasmonic hybrid at 514.5 nm, which is near to the 532 nm absorption band of Au nanoparticles...
July 20, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726381/impact-of-the-metallic-crystalline-structure-on-the-properties-of-nanocrystals-and-their-mesoscopic-assemblies
#15
Marie-Paule Pileni
The spontaneous assembly of uniform-sized globular entities into ordered arrays is a universal phenomenon observed for objects with diameters spanning a broad range of length scales. These extend from the atomic scale (10(-8) cm), through molecular and macromolecular scales with proteins, synthetic low polymers, and colloidal crystals (∼10(-6) cm), to the wavelength of visible light (∼10(-5) cm). The associated concepts of sphere packing have had an influence in diverse fields ranging from pure geometrical analysis to architectural models or ideals...
July 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726374/impact-of-thermal-annealing-on-organic-photovoltaic-cells-using-regioisomeric-donor-acceptor-acceptor-molecules
#16
Tao Zhang, Han Han, Yunlong Zou, Ying-Chi Lee, Hiroya Oshima, Ken-Tsung Wong, Russell J Holmes
We report a promising set of donor-acceptor-acceptor (D-A-A) electron-donor materials based on coplanar thieno[3,2-b]/[2,3-b]indole, benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole, and dicyanovinylene, which are found to show broadband absorption with high extinction coefficients. The role of the regioisomeric electron-donating thienoindole moiety on the physical and structural properties is examined. Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) based on the thieno[2,3-b]indole-based electron donor NTU-2, using C70 as an electron acceptor, show a champion power conversion efficiency of 5...
July 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726369/comprehensive-study-of-sol-gel-versus-hydrolysis-condensation-methods-to-prepare-zno-films-electron-transport-layers-in-perovskite-solar-cells
#17
Yuhan Zhao, Kai-Cheng Zhang, Zhao-Wei Wang, Peng Huang, Kai Zhu, Zhendong Li, Dahua Li, Ligang Yuan, Yi Zhou, Bo Song
Owing to the high charge mobility and low processing temperature, ZnO is regarded as an ideal candidate for electron transport layer (ETL) material in thin-film solar cells. For the film preparation, the presently dominated sol-gel (SG) and hydrolysis-condensation (HC) methods show great potential, however, the effect of these two methods on the performance of the resulting devices has not been investigated in the same frame. In this study, the ZnO films made through SG and HC methods were applied in perovskite solar cells (Pero-SCs), and the performances of corresponding devices were compared under parallel conditions...
July 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726212/melasma-an-up-to-date-comprehensive-review
#18
REVIEW
Oluwatobi A Ogbechie-Godec, Nada Elbuluk
Melasma is a common acquired condition of symmetric hyperpigmentation, typically occurring on the face, with higher prevalence in females and darker skin types. Multiple etiologies, including light exposure, hormonal influences, and family history, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Overall prevalence ranges widely at 1-50%, since values are typically calculated within a specific ethnic population within a geographic region. Histologically, melasma can display increased epidermal and/or dermal pigmentation, enlarged melanocytes, increased melanosomes, solar elastosis, dermal blood vessels, and, occasionally, perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates...
July 19, 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725402/what-does-body-size-mean-from-the-plant-s-eye-view
#19
Amanda J Tracey, Kimberly A Stephens, Brandon S Schamp, Lonnie W Aarssen
Alternative metrics exist for representing variation in plant body size, but the vast majority of previous research for herbaceous plants has focused on dry mass. Dry mass provides a reasonably accurate and easily measured estimate for comparing relative capacity to convert solar energy into stored carbon. However, from a "plant's eye view", its experience of its local biotic environment of immediate neighbors (especially when crowded) may be more accurately represented by measures of "space occupancy" (S-O) recorded in situ-rather than dry mass measured after storage in a drying oven...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724899/carrier-dynamics-of-mn-induced-states-in-gan-thin-films
#20
Yu-Ting Chen, Chi-Yuan Yang, Po-Cheng Chen, Jinn-Kong Sheu, Kung-Hsuan Lin
GaN-based materials are widely used for light emission devices, but the intrinsic property of wide bandgap makes it improper for photovoltaic applications. Recently, manganese was doped into GaN for absorption of visible light, and the conversion efficiency of GaN-based solar cells has been greatly improved. We conducted transient optical measurements to study the carrier dynamics of Mn-doped GaN. The lifetime of carriers in the Mn-related intermediate bands (at 1.5 eV above the valence band edge) is around 1...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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