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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140980/prokaryotic-diversity-and-biogeochemical-characteristics-of-benthic-microbial-ecosystems-at-la-brava-a-hypersaline-lake-at-salar-de-atacama-chile
#1
Maria Eugenia Farias, Maria Cecilia Rasuk, Kimberley L Gallagher, Manuel Contreras, Daniel Kurth, Ana Beatriz Fernandez, Daniel Poiré, Fernando Novoa, Pieter T Visscher
Benthic microbial ecosystems of Laguna La Brava, Salar de Atacama, a high altitude hypersaline lake, were characterized in terms of bacterial and archaeal diversity, biogeochemistry, (including O2 and sulfide depth profiles and mineralogy), and physicochemical characteristics. La Brava is one of several lakes in the Salar de Atacama where microbial communities are growing in extreme conditions, including high salinity, high solar insolation, and high levels of metals such as lithium, arsenic, magnesium, and calcium...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140709/tuning-anatase-surface-reactivity-towards-carboxylic-acid-anchor-groups
#2
Mariana Cecilio de Oliveira Monteiro, Patrik Schmuki, Manuela Sonja Killian
The effect of different post-treatments on TiO2 anatase surface reactivity was investigated, in order to obtain the best techniques for enhancing anatase performance in diverse applications, e.g. in photocatalysis and especially as photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Different post-treatments of compact anodic anatase TiO2 were compared, including O2 plasma, UV irradiation, immersion in H2O2, vapor thermal treatment and post-anodization, evaluating the increase of the amount of OH reactive groups on the surface and removal of surface contamination...
November 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140071/ion-implantation-modified-fluorine-doped-tin-oxide-by-zirconium-with-continuously-tunable-work-function-and-its-application-in-perovskite-solar-cells
#3
Dong Han, Cuncun Wu, Yunbiao Zhao, Yi Chen, Lixin Xiao, Ziqiang Zhao
In recent years, perovskite solar cells have drawn widespread attention. As an electrode material, fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) is widely used in various kinds of solar cells. However, the relatively low work function (WF) (~4.6 eV) limits its application. The potential barrier between the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) electrode and the hole transport layer (HTL) in inverted perovskite solar cells results in device performance decrease. In this paper, we propose a method to adjust WF of FTO by implanting zirconium ions into the FTO surface...
November 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139495/a-simple-fluorene-core-based-non-fullerene-acceptor-for-high-performance-organic-solar-cells
#4
Suman, Anirban Bagui, Ram Datt, Vinay Gupta, Surya Prakash Singh
A small molecule non-fullerene acceptor based on a fluorene core having a furan π-spacer and end capped with rhodanine (FRd2) is developed for solution processable bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs). The simplistic synthetic protocol reduces several reaction steps and hence production cost. Extended π-conjugation via furan units and the presence of electronegative rhodanine groups result in a power conversion efficiency of 9.4% in OSCs, which is the highest so far among these categories of molecules...
November 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139395/three-dimensional-architecture-hybrid-perovskite-solar-cells-using-cds-nanorod-arrays-as-an-electron-transport-layer
#5
Zihang Song, Guoqing Tong, Huan Li, Guopeng Li, Shuai Ma, Shimeng Yu, Qian Liu, Yang Jiang
Three-dimensional (3-D) architecture perovskite solar cells (PSCs) using CdS nanorod arrays as electron transport layer were designed and prepared by layer-by-layer via a physical-chemical vapor deposition process (P-CVD). The CdS NRs not only provided a scaffold to perovskite film, but also increased the interfacial contact between the perovskite film and electron transport layer. As an optimized result, a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.46% with a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 19.88 mA cm-2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1...
November 15, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139326/dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-mutational-signatures-are-found-in-a-variety-of-different-types-of-cancer
#6
Igor B Rogozin, Alexander Goncearenco, Artem G Lada, Subhajyoti De, German Nudelman, Anna R Panchenko, David N Cooper, Youri I Pavlov
DNA polymerase (pol) η is a specialized error-prone polymerase with at least two quite different and contrasting cellular roles: to mitigate the genetic consequences of solar UV irradiation, and promote somatic hypermutation in the variable regions of immunoglobulin genes. Misregulation and mistargeting of pol η can compromise genome integrity. We explored whether the mutational signature of pol η could be found in datasets of human somatic mutations derived from normal and cancer cells. A substantial excess of single and tandem somatic mutations within known pol η mutable motifs was noted in skin cancer as well as in many other types of human cancer, suggesting that somatic mutations in A:T bases generated by DNA polymerase η are a common feature of tumorigenesis...
November 15, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139299/integrating-zeolite-type-chalcogenide-with-titanium-dioxide-nanowires-for-enhanced-photoelectrochemical-activity
#7
Chengyu Mao, Yanxiang Wang, Wei Jiao, Xitong Chen, Qipu Lin, Mingli Deng, Yun Ling, Yaming Zhou, Xianhui Bu, Pingyun Feng
Developing photoanodes with efficient visible-light harvesting and excellent charge separation still remains a key challenge in photoelectrochemical water splitting. Here zeolite-type chalcogenide CPM-121 is integrated with TiO2 nanowires to form a heterostructured photoanode, in which crystalline CPM-121 particles serve as a visible light absorber and TiO2 nanowires serve as an electron conductor. Owing to the small band gap of chalcogenides, the hybrid electrode demonstrates obvious absorption in visible-light range...
November 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139249/-clinical-features-analysis-of-qingkailing-injection-for-adolescent-patients-based-on-real-world-his
#8
Li-Zhen Chen, Yan-Ming Xie, Lian-Xin Wang, Yin Zhang, Qun Wang, Ping-Ping Jia, Bo Feng
To explore the clinical application features of Qingkailing injection for adolescent patients. This study was based on the information from the hospitalized patients in 1998-2011 in HIS (hospital information system) of 16 tertiary hospitals in China. 615 adolescent patients with Qingkailing injection were used to investigate the clinical characteristics of Qingkailing injection. Apriori algorithm was adopted to establish the model, and Clementine 12.0 was used for correlation analysis. The results showed that male patients (355 cases) were more than female patients (243 cases); the age of the most patients was under 14 years old, with an average age of 9...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139155/additive-enhanced-crystallization-of-solution-process-for-planar-perovskite-solar-cells-with-efficiency-exceeding-19
#9
Shuai You, Shiqing Bi, Jing Huang, Qiushuang Jia, Yuhe Yuan, Yanjie Xia, Zhenyu Xiao, Zhuzhu Sun, Jiangfeng Liu, Shujie Sun, Zhiqiang Zhao
To reduce intrinsic defect density in perovskite films, various additives are often added into the precursor solution. In this paper, a novel solution approach where isopropanol (IPA) was added into the precursor solution was developed for the preparation of normal planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs). A champion power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 19.70% was achieved with this approach. By adding IPA into the precursor solution, CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite showed better crystallization and stability, indicating improved film quality...
November 14, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138402/impacts-of-hemispheric-solar-geoengineering-on-tropical-cyclone-frequency
#10
Anthony C Jones, James M Haywood, Nick Dunstone, Kerry Emanuel, Matthew K Hawcroft, Kevin I Hodges, Andy Jones
Solar geoengineering refers to a range of proposed methods for counteracting global warming by artificially reducing sunlight at Earth's surface. The most widely known solar geoengineering proposal is stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI), which has impacts analogous to those from volcanic eruptions. Observations following major volcanic eruptions indicate that aerosol enhancements confined to a single hemisphere effectively modulate North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the following years. Here we investigate the effects of both single-hemisphere and global SAI scenarios on North Atlantic TC activity using the HadGEM2-ES general circulation model and various TC identification methods...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138392/bay-region-functionalisation-of-ar-bian-ligands-and-their-use-within-highly-absorptive-cationic-iridium-iii-dyes
#11
Kamrul Hasan, Jingyi Wang, Amlan K Pal, Claus Hierlinger, Véronique Guerchais, Han Sen Soo, Felipe García, Eli Zysman-Colman
We report the synthesis, UV-vis absorption, electrochemical characterisation, and DFT studies of five panchromatic, heteroleptic iridium complexes (four of which are new) supported by Ar-BIAN ligands. In particular, the synthesis of an ester-functionalised Ar-BIAN ligand was carried out by a mechanochemical milling approach, which was advantageous over conventional metal templating solution methods in terms of reaction time and product purity. The introduction of ester and carboxylate functionalities at the bay region of the acenaphthene motif increases each ligand's π-accepting capacity and imparts grafting capabilities to the iridium complexes...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136372/photochemical-alteration-of-dissolved-organic-sulfur-from-sulfidic-porewater
#12
Gonzalo V Gomez-Saez, Anika M Pohlabeln, Aron Stubbins, Chris M Marsay, Thorsten Dittmar
Sulfidic sediments are a source of dissolved organic sulfur (DOS) to the ocean but the fate of sedimentary DOS in the oxic, sunlit water column is unknown. We hypothesized that photodegradation after discharge from the dark sedimentary environment results in DOS molecular transformation and decomposition. To test this hypothesis, sulfidic porewater from a saltmarsh was exposed to potential abiotic transformations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the water column. We quantitatively investigated DOM transformations via elemental analysis and molecularly via ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136333/role-of-bismuth-in-the-electro-kinetics-of-silicon-photocathodes-for-solar-rechargeable-vanadium-redox-flow-batteries
#13
Cristina Flox, Sebastián Murcia-López, Nina M Carretero, Carles Ros, Juan Ramón Morante, Teresa Andreu
The ability of crystalline Si to photo-assist the V3+/V2+ cathodic reaction under simulated solar irradiation, combined with the effect of Bi have led to important electrochemical improvements. Besides the photo-voltage supplied by the photovoltaics, additional decrease in the onset potentials, high reversibility of the V3+/V2+ redox pair and improvement in the electro-kinetics have been attained thanks to the addition of Bi. In fact, Bi0 deposition has shown to slightly decrease the photocurrent, but the significant betterment in the charge transfer, reflected in the overall electrochemical performance clearly justifies its use as additive in a photo-assisted system for maximizing the efficiency of solar charge to battery...
November 14, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136289/extraction-of-amino-acids-from-aerogel-for-analysis-by-capillary-electrophoresis-implications-for-a-mission-concept-to-enceladus-plume
#14
Maria F Mora, Steve M Jones, Jessica Creamer, Peter A Willis
Ocean worlds like Europa and Enceladus in the outer solar system are prime targets in the search for life beyond Earth. Enceladus is particularly interesting due to the presence of a water plume ejecting from the south polar region. The recent discovery of H2 in the plume, in addition to the presence of previously observed organic compounds, highlights the possibility of life in this moon. The plume provides materials from the underlying ocean that could be collected simply by flying through it. The presence of the plume means that material from the ocean is available for collection during a flyby, without the need for landing or complex sample handling operations such as scooping or drilling...
November 14, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135965/comparison-of-ground-based-and-satellite-derived-solar-uv-index-levels-at-six-south-african-sites
#15
Jean-Maurice Cadet, Hassan Bencherif, Thierry Portafaix, Kévin Lamy, Katlego Ncongwane, Gerrie J R Coetzee, Caradee Y Wright
South Africa has been measuring the ground-based solar UV index for more than two decades at six sites to raise awareness about the impacts of the solar UV index on human health. This paper is an exploratory study based on comparison with satellite UV index measurements from the OMI/AURA experiment. Relative UV index differences between ground-based and satellite-derived data ranged from 0 to 45% depending on the site and year. Most of time, these differences appear in winter. Some ground-based stations' data had closer agreement with satellite-derived data...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135927/design-and-calibration-of-a-novel-bio-inspired-pixelated-polarized-light-compass
#16
Guoliang Han, Xiaoping Hu, Junxiang Lian, Xiaofeng He, Lilian Zhang, Yujie Wang, Fengliang Dong
Animals, such as Savannah sparrows and North American monarch butterflies, are able to obtain compass information from skylight polarization patterns to help them navigate effectively and robustly. Inspired by excellent navigation ability of animals, this paper proposes a novel image-based polarized light compass, which has the advantages of having a small size and being light weight. Firstly, the polarized light compass, which is composed of a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera, a pixelated polarizer array and a wide-angle lens, is introduced...
November 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135473/controllable-nanoscale-inverted-pyramids-for-high-efficient-quasi-omnidirectional-crystalline-silicon-solar-cells
#17
Haiyuan Xu, Sihua Zhong, Yufeng Zhuang, Wenzhong Shen
Nanoscale inverted pyramid structures (NIPs) have always been regarded as one of the most paramount light management schemes to achieve the extraordinary performance in various devices, especially in solar cells, due to their outstanding antireflection ability with relative lower surface enhancement ratio. However, the current approaches to fabricating the NIPs are complicated and not cost-effective for the massive cell production in the photovoltaic industry. Here, controllable NIPs are fabricated on crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers by Ag catalyzed chemical etching and alkaline modification, which is a preferable all-solution-processed method...
November 14, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135219/room-temperature-and-solution-processable-cu-doped-nickel-oxide-nanoparticles-for-efficient-hole-transport-layers-of-flexible-large-area-perovskite-solar-cells
#18
Qiqi He, Kai Yao, Xiaofeng Wang, Xuefeng Xia, Shifeng Leng, Fan Li
Flexible perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) using plastic substrates have become one of the most attractive points in the field of thin film solar cells. Low-temperature and solution-processable nanoparticles enable the fabrication of semiconductor thin films in a simple and low cost approach to function as charge-selective layers in flexible PeSCs. Here, we synthesized phase-pure p-type Cu-doped NiOx nanoparticles (NPs) with good electrical properties, which can be processed to smooth, pinhole-free and efficient hole transport layers (HTLs) with large-area uniformity over a wide range of film thickness using the room-temperature solution-processing technique...
November 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134996/photo-cross-linked-perylene-diimide-derivative-materials-as-efficient-electron-transporting-layers-in-inverted-polymer-solar-cells
#19
Yong-Jin Noh, Yu-Jin Choi, Ji-Ho Jeong, Seok-Soon Kim, Kwang-Un Jeong, Seok-In Na
We present an efficient and stable interfacial material based on a water-soluble perylene diimide derivative functionalized with ionic and methacrylate groups (abbreviated as PDIM), which can be stabilized by the photo-polymerization of diacrylate groups at both ends of the side chain in the PDIM. The characteristics of the photo-cross-linked PDIM films were examined using absorption spectra, cyclic voltammetry, work function, and surface morphology. The feasibility of the photo-cross-linked PDIM films as a novel electron transporting layer (ETL) in polymer solar cells (PSCs) was also investigated...
November 14, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134800/high-performance-solid-state-pbs-quantum-dot-sensitized-solar-cells-prepared-by-introduction-of-hybrid-perovskite-inter-layer
#20
Jin Hyuck Heo, Min Hyuk Jang, Min Ho Lee, Dong Hee Shin, Do Hun Kim, Sang Hwa Moon, Sang-Wook Kim, Bum Jun Park, Sang Hyuk Im
High performance solid-state PbS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QD-SSCs) with stable 9.2 % power conversion efficiency at 1 Sun condition are demonstrated by introduction of hybrid perovskite inter-layer. The PbS QDs formed on mesoscopic TiO¬¬2 (mp-TiO2) by spin-assisted successive precipitation and anionic exchange reaction method do not exhibit PbSO4 but have PbSO3 oxidation species. By introducing perovskite inter-layer in between mp-TiO2/PbS QDs and poly-3-hexylthiophene, the PbSO3 oxidation species are fully removed in the PbS QDs and thereby the efficiency of PbS QD-SSCs is enhanced over 90 % compared to the pristine PbS QD-SSCs...
November 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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