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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544657/a-strategy-to-enhance-the-efficiency-of-quantum-dot-sensitized-solar-cells-by-decreasing-the-electron-recombinations-with-polyoxometalate-tio2-as-the-electronic-interface-layer
#1
Li Chen, Wei-Lin Chen, Jian-Ping Li, Jia-Bo Wang, En-Bo Wang
The serious electron recombination occurring in TiO2/quantum dot sensitizer/electrolyte interface is the key reason for hindering the further efficiency improvement of QDSCs. Polyoxometalate(POM) can be as electron transfer media to decreasing electron recombination of photoelectric device, which is due to the excellent oxidation reduction properties and thermostability. So in this paper, POM/TiO2 electronic interface layer prepared by a simple layer-by-layer self-assembly method is added between FTO and mesoporous TiO2 in the photoanode of the QDSCs, and their effects on the photovoltaic performance are systematically investigated...
May 23, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544632/understanding-the-limiting-factors-of-solvent-annealed-small-molecule-bulk-heterojunction-organic-solar-cells-from-a-chemical-perspective
#2
Aurelien Viterisi, Daniel Fernandez, Vijay Kumar Challuri, James William Ryan, Eugenia Martinez-Ferrero, Francesc Guispert-Guirado, Marta Martinez, Eduardo Escudero, Caterina Stenta, Lluis Francisco Marsal, Emilio Palomares
A detailed account on the limiting factors of solvent annealed bulk-heterojunction small molecule organic solars cell is given. This account is based on the extensive characterization of solar cell devices made from a library of five diketopyrolopyrole (DPP) donor dyes. Their chemical structure is designed in such a way as to provide insights on the energetics of solar cell active layer microstructure formation. Numerous chemical and physical properties of the active layers are assessed and interrelated such as light absorption, molecular packing in the solid state, crystal-forming properties in thin films, charge carrier mobility and charge carrier recombination kinetics...
May 24, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544617/defect-laden-mose2-quantum-dots-made-by-turbulent-shear-mixing-as-enhanced-electrocatalysts
#3
Chongyang Zhu, Yuan Huang, Feng Xu, Peng Gao, Binghui Ge, Jing Chen, Haibo Zeng, Eli Sutter, Peter Sutter, Litao Sun
A high density of edge sites and other defects can significantly improve the catalytic activity of layered 2D materials. Herein, this study demonstrates a novel top-down strategy to maximize catalytic edge sites of MoSe2 by breaking up bulk MoSe2 into quantum dots (QDs) via "turbulent shear mixing" (TSM). The ultrasmall size of the MoSe2 QDs provides a high fraction of atoms in reactive edge sites, thus significantly improving the catalytic activities. The violent TSM further introduces abundant defects as additional active sites for electrocatalytic reactions...
May 24, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544598/from-extended-nano-fluidics-to-an-autonomous-solar-light-driven-micro-fuel-cell-device
#4
Yuriy Pihosh, Jin Uemura, Ivan Turkevych, Kazuma Mawatari, Yutaka Kazoe, Adelina Smirnova, Takehiko Kitamori
Autonomous micro/nano mechanical, chemical and biomedical sensors require persistent power sources scaled to their size. Realization of autonomous micro-power sources is a challenging task, as it requires combination of wireless energy supply, conversion, storage and delivery to the sensor. In this work, we realized solar light driven power source that consists of a micro fuel cell (μFC) and a photocatalytic micro fuel generator (μFG) integrated on a single microfluidic chip. The μFG produces hydrogen by photocatalytic water splitting under solar light...
May 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544453/black-tungsten-nitride-as-metallic-photocatalyst-for-overall-water-splitting-operable-at-up-to-765-nm
#5
Yu Lei Wang, Ting Nie, Yu Hang Li, Xue Lu Wang, Li Rong Zheng, Ai Ping Chen, Xue Qing Gong, Huagui Yang
Semiconductor photocatalysts are hardly to be employed for overall water splitting beyond 700 nm, owing to both thermodynamic aspects and activation barriers. Metallic materials as photocatalysts are known to overcome this limitation through interband transitions for creating electron-hole pairs, however, the application of metallic photocatalysts for overall water splitting has never been fulfilled. Here we report, for the first time, that the black tungsten nitride can be employed as metallic photocatalyst for overall water splitting at wavelengths of up to 765 nm...
May 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544169/recent-progress-of-first-principles-calculations-in-ch3nh3pbi3-perovskite-solar-cells
#6
Sining Yun, Xiao Zhou, Jacky Even, Anders Hagfeldt
Hybrid halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) exceeding 22% power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) have attracted considerable global attention due to the intrinsic nature of perovskite. Although we all know about that perovskite plays a significant role in the operation of PSCs, the fundamental theories associated with perovskite have not been resolved by the exponential increase in research effort. This raises questions about whether the first-principles calculations are sufficiently addressing the underlying issues in perovskite...
May 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543370/overexpression-of-the-rubisco-activase-gene-improves-growth-and-low-temperature-and-weak-light-tolerance-in-cucumis-sativus-l
#7
Huangai Bi, Peipei Liu, Zhensheng Jiang, Xizhen Ai
Rubisco activase (RCA) is an important enzyme that can catalyze the carboxylation and oxygenation activities of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), which is involved in the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. Here, we studied the effects of changes in RCA activity on photosynthesis, growth and development, as well as the chilling tolerance of RCA overexpressing transgenic cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants. CsRCA overexpression increased the plant height, leaf area and dry matter, and decreased the root/top ratio in transgenic cucumber plants compared with the wild type (WT) plants...
May 22, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541326/rapidly-star-forming-galaxies-adjacent-to-quasars-at-redshifts-exceeding-6
#8
R Decarli, F Walter, B P Venemans, E Bañados, F Bertoldi, C Carilli, X Fan, E P Farina, C Mazzucchelli, D Riechers, H-W Rix, M A Strauss, R Wang, Y Yang
The existence of massive (10(11) solar masses) elliptical galaxies by redshift z ≈ 4 (refs 1, 2, 3; when the Universe was 1.5 billion years old) necessitates the presence of galaxies with star-formation rates exceeding 100 solar masses per year at z > 6 (corresponding to an age of the Universe of less than 1 billion years). Surveys have discovered hundreds of galaxies at these early cosmic epochs, but their star-formation rates are more than an order of magnitude lower. The only known galaxies with very high star-formation rates at z > 6 are, with one exception, the host galaxies of quasars, but these galaxies also host accreting supermassive (more than 10(9) solar masses) black holes, which probably affect the properties of the galaxies...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541310/perovskite-solar-cells-shedding-light-on-film-crystallization
#9
Osman M Bakr, Omar F Mohammed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540970/nanostructural-and-photo-electrochemical-properties-of-solution-spin-coated-cu2znsns4-tio2-nanorod-forest-films-with-an-improved-photovoltaic-performance
#10
Zhuoran Wang, Raynald Gauvin, George P Demopoulos
Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), other than in standard p-n junction device architecture, can be employed as a broad light absorber upon coating onto a wide bandgap electron conducting TiO2 film. Earlier CZTS sensitized TiO2 films have yielded low photoconversion efficiency and Voc. In this work, a water-ethanol solution spin coating approach has been applied to directly deposit CZTS nanocrystallites on rutile TiO2 nanorods grown on an FTO substrate (TNR) for evaluation in a sensitized solar cell configuration. The FTO@TNR@CZTS photoanode following controlled annealing is shown to exhibit improved photovoltaic properties...
May 25, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540718/oriented-built-in-electric-field-introduced-by-surface-gradient-diffusion-doping-for-enhanced-photocatalytic-h2-evolution-in-cds-nanorods
#11
Hengming Huang, Baoying Dai, Wei Wang, Chunhua Lu, Jiahui Kou, Yaru Ni, Lianzhou Wang, Zhongzi Xu
Element doping has been extensively attempted to develop visible-light-driven photocatalysts, which introduces impurity levels and enhances light absorption. However, the dopants can also become recombination centers for photogenerated electrons and holes. To address the recombination challenge, we report a gradient phosphorus-doped CdS (CdS-P) homojunction nanostructure, creating an oriented built-in electric-field for efficient extraction of carriers from inside to surface of the photocatalyst. The apparent quantum efficiency (AQY) based on the cocatalyst-free photocatalyst is up to 8...
May 25, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540544/five-year-volume-growth-of-european-beech-does-not-respond-to-ozone-pollution-in-italy
#12
Elena Paoletti, Alessandra De Marco, Alessandro Anav, Patrizia Gasparini, Enrico Pompei
A unique database of stand volume growth, estimated as periodic annual volume increment (in m(3) ha(-1) per year over the period 2001-2005) from 728 European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) sites distributed across Italy, was used to assess the effects of ambient ozone (O3), expressed as annual average (M24), accumulated exposure above a 40 ppb hourly threshold (AOT40), and total stomatal ozone flux (POD0). Growth data were from the National forest inventory of Italy, while climate data and ozone concentrations were computed by the WRF and CHIMERE models, respectively...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540366/recombination-in-perovskite-solar-cells-significance-of-grain-boundaries-interface-traps-and-defect-ions
#13
Tejas S Sherkar, Cristina Momblona, Lidón Gil-Escrig, Jorge Ávila, Michele Sessolo, Henk J Bolink, L Jan Anton Koster
Trap-assisted recombination, despite being lower as compared with traditional inorganic solar cells, is still the dominant recombination mechanism in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and limits their efficiency. We investigate the attributes of the primary trap-assisted recombination channels (grain boundaries and interfaces) and their correlation to defect ions in PSCs. We achieve this by using a validated device model to fit the simulations to the experimental data of efficient vacuum-deposited p-i-n and n-i-p CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells, including the light intensity dependence of the open-circuit voltage and fill factor...
May 12, 2017: ACS Energy Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537618/novel-ag-doped-glass-frits-for-high-efficiency-crystalline-silicon-solar-cells
#14
Sheng Yuan, Yongji Chen, Zongwei Mei, Ming-Jian Zhang, Zhou Gao, Xingbo Wang, Xing Jiang, Feng Pan
Glass frits play an important role in the front contact electrodes of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. In this work, we developed a novel glass frit by doping Ag into a glass frit in the process of high-temperature synthesis. When the Ag paste including this novel glass frit was used as the front contact electrode of silicon solar cells, the conversion efficiency of poly-crystalline silicon (pc-Si) solar cells was improved by 1.9% compared to the glass frit without Ag. Through SEM characterisation and calculation of series resistance, we further found that the interface between Ag and Si was improved and the contact resistance of Ag and Si was greatly reduced, which were believed to be responsible for the improvement of solar cell performance...
May 24, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537374/single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-enhance-the-efficiency-and-stability-of-mesoscopic-perovskite-solar-cells
#15
Munkhbayar Batmunkh, Cameron James Shearer, Munkhjargal Bat-Erdene, Mark J Biggs, Joseph G Shapter
Carbon nanotubes are 1D nanocarbons with excellent properties and have been extensively used in various electronic and optoelectronic device applications including solar cells. Herein, we report a significant enhancement in the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) by employing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the mesoporous photoelectrode. It was found that SWCNTs provide both rapid electron transfer and advantageously shifts the conduction band minimum of the TiO2 photoelectrode and thus enhances all photovoltaic parameters of PSCs...
May 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537311/naphthodifuran-based-zigzag-type-polycyclic-arene-with-conjugated-side-chains-for-efficient-photovoltaics
#16
Hongjian Peng, Xiangfeng Luan, Liuliu Feng, Jun Yuan, Zhi-Guo Zhang, Yongfang Li, Yingping Zou
Ladder-type conjugated structures with rigid and coplanar molecular frameworks feature longer effective conjugation, affirmative optoelectronic properties and strong intermolecular π-π interactions, which are ideal characteristics for organic photovoltaics. Here, a new "zigzag" angular-fused naphthodifuran (zNDF) based on alkoxyphenyl side chains was designed and synthesized. The distannylated zNDF building block was copolymerized with 4,7-di(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)-5,6-dioctyloxybenzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole and 5,8-bis(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)-2,3-bis(4-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-3-fluorophenyl)-6,7-difloroquinoxaline (Br-BT and Br-ffQx) acceptor units by Stille cross coupling reaction to form two new medium bandgap donor-acceptor polymers PzNDFP-BT and PzNDFP-ffQx, respectively...
May 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537283/effects-of-the-capping-ligands-linkers-and-oxide-surface-on-the-electron-injection-mechanism-of-copper-sulfide-quantum-dot-sensitized-solar-cells
#17
Javier Amaya Suárez, Jose J Plata, Antonio M Márquez, Javier Fdez Sanz
Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, QDSCs, are a clean and effective alternative to fossil fuels to reduce CO2 emissions. However, the different components that constitute the QDSCs and the difficulty of isolating experimentally their effects on the performance of the whole system slow down the development of more efficient devices. In this work, DFT calculations are combined with a bottom-up approach to differentiate the effect of each component on the electronic structure and absorption spectra. First, Cu2S QDs were built including a U parameter to effectively describe the localization of electrons...
May 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537257/non-poissonian-photon-statistics-from-macroscopic-photon-cutting-materials
#18
Mathijs de Jong, Andries Meijerink, Freddy T Rabouw
In optical materials energy is usually extracted only from the lowest excited state, resulting in fundamental energy-efficiency limits such as the Shockley-Queisser limit for single-junction solar cells. Photon-cutting materials provide a way around such limits by absorbing high-energy photons and 'cutting' them into multiple low-energy excitations that can subsequently be extracted. The occurrence of photon cutting or quantum cutting has been demonstrated in a variety of materials, including semiconductor quantum dots, lanthanides and organic dyes...
May 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537073/lead-free-mixed-tin-and-germanium-perovskites-for-photovoltaic-application
#19
Ming-Gang Ju, Jun Dai, Liang Ma, Xiao Cheng Zeng
The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of lead halide perov-skite photovoltaics has reached to 22.1% with significantly improved structural stability, thanks to the mixed cation and anion strategy. However, the mixing element strategy has not been widely seen in the design of lead-free perovskites for photovoltaic application. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of a series of lead-free and mixed tin and germanium halide perovskite materials. Most importantly, we predict that RbSn0.5Ge0.5I3 possesses not only a direct bandgap within the optimal range of 0...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537072/enhanced-photocatalytic-activities-in-g-c3n4-via-hybridization-with-bi-fe-nb-containing-ferroelectric-pyrochlore
#20
Xiaofeng Yin, Xiaoning Li, Wen Gu, Fangfang Wang, Yijun Zou, Shujie Sun, Zhengping Fu, Yalin Lu
Ferroelectricity may promote the photocatalytic performance because carrier separation efficiency can be effectively improved by the internal electrostatic field caused by spontaneous polarization. Heterostructures which combine ferroelectric materials with other semiconductor materials can be further advantageous to the photocatalysis process. In this work, the Bi1.65Fe1.16Nb1.12O7 was hybridized with g-C3N4 via a facile low temperature method. The results of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed that the tight interface were formed between g-C3N4 and Bi1...
May 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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