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Hossein Sojoudi, Hadi Arabnejad, Asif Raiyan, Siamack A Shirazi, Gareth H McKinley, Karen K Gleason
Ice formation and accumulation on surfaces can result in severe problems for solar photovoltaic installations, offshore oil platforms, wind turbines and aircrafts. In addition, blockage of pipelines by formation and accumulation of clathrate hydrates of natural gases has safety and economical concerns in oil and gas operations, particularly at high pressures and low temperatures such as those found in subsea or arctic environments. Practical adoption of icephobic/hydrate-phobic surfaces requires mechanical robustness and stability under harsh environments...
March 16, 2018: Soft Matter
Srabanti Ghosh, Laurence Ramos, Hynd Remita
Materials are the key roadblocks for the commercialization of energy conversion devices in fuel cells and solar cells. Significant research has focused on tuning the intrinsic properties of materials at the nanometer scale. The soft template mediated controlled fabrication of advanced nanostructured materials is attracting considerable interest due to the promising applications of these materials in catalysis and electrocatalysis. Swollen hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystals (SLCs) consist of oil-swollen surfactant-stabilized 1D, 2D or 3D nanometric assemblies regularly arranged in an aqueous solvent...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Azadeh Rahimi Chatri, Solmaz Torabi, Vincent Marc Le Corre, L Jan Anton Koster
In recent years, the efficiency of organic solar cells (OSCs) has increased to more than 13%, while different barriers are on the way for reaching higher efficiencies. One crucial barrier is the recombination of charge carriers, which can either occur as the bulk recombination of photogenerated charges or the recombination of photogenerated charges and electrodic induced charges (EICs). This work studies the impact of EICs on the recombination lifetime in OSCs. To this end, the net recombination lifetime of photogenerated charge carriers in the presence of EICs is measured by means of conventional and newly developed transient photovoltage techniques...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
B A Hussein, J T Huynh, P L Prieto, C P Barran, A E Arnold, O V Sarycheva, A J Lough, B D Koivisto
BODIPY (4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacenes) dyes possess intense absorption profiles that can be exploited in various light harvesting applications. However, redox stability and optimization of frontier molecular orbital energies in these dyes are critical for their successful incorporation into new solar cell materials. This article describes the synthesis and characterization of a family of β-substituted BODIPY-ferrocene dyads with push-pull architectures. Designed to stabilize the photo-oxidized BODIPY for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications, some deleterious electron transfer behaviours emerged when the ferrocene unit was conjugated to electron deficient BODIPYs...
March 16, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Daniel Amgar, Tal Binyamin, Vladimir Uvarov, Lioz Etgar
One of the most attractive features of perovskite materials is their chemical flexibility. Due to innovative chemical compositions of perovskites, their optical and structural properties, and functionalities have become more advanced, enabling better solar performance in photovoltaics, as well as robustness and excellent properties in the nanoscale for optoelectronics. The quest for novel perovskite compositions in the nano-scale is significantly important. This paper reports on a mixed-cation system of RbxCs1-xPbX3 (where X = Cl or Br) nanoparticles...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Ahmed Mourtada Elseman, Ahmed Esmail Shalan, Sajid Sajid, Mohamed Mohamed Rashad, Ali Mostafa Hassan, Meicheng Li
Toxicity as well as chemical instability issues of halide perovskites based on organic-inorganic lead-containing materials still remains the main drawbacks for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Herein, we discuss the preparation of copper (Cu)-based hybrid materials, where we replace lead (Pb) with non-toxic Cu metal for lead free perovskite solar cells; investigate of its potential towards solar cells applications based on experimental and theoretical studies. The formation of (CH3NH3)2CuX4 [(CH3NH3)2CuCl4, (CH3NH3)2CuCl2I2, and (CH3NH3)2CuCl2Br2] were discussed in details...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ana P F Santos, Bianca M Souza, Tânia F C V Silva, Rodrigo P Cavalcante, Silvio C Oliveira, Amílcar Machulek, Rui A R Boaventura, Vítor J P Vilar
The mineralization of bio-recalcitrant humic acids (HAs) by a solar photo-Fenton (SPF) process was investigated in aqueous system, in order to understand its abatement in real high-HA content matrices, such as sanitary landfill leachates. SPF reactions were performed in tubular photoreactors with CPCs at lab-scale (simulated solar light) and pilot-scale (natural sunlight). Considering the experimental conditions selected for this work, the formation of insoluble HA-Fe3+ complexes was observed. Thus, to avoid HA precipitation, oxalic acid (Ox) was added, since Fe3+ -Ox complexes present a higher stability constant...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sarah Freitas Magalhães, Sofia Calvo-Rodriguez, Mário Marcos do Espírito Santo, Gerardo Arturo Sánchez Azofeifa
Vegetation indices are useful tools to remotely estimate several important parameters related to ecosystem functioning. However, improving and validating estimations for a wide range of vegetation types are necessary. In this study, we provide a methodology for the estimation of the leaf area index (LAI) in a tropical dry forest (TDF) using the light diffusion through the canopy as a function of the successional stage. For this purpose, we estimated the K coefficient, a parameter that relates the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to LAI, based on photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and solar radiation...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Shiguang Wang, Bingtian Ma, Qiang Gao, Guojing Jiang, Lei Zhou, Bin Tu, Peng Qin, Xueqin Tan, Peixiong Liu, Yunhai Kang, Yuping Wang, Weilan Chen, Chengzhi Liang, Shigui Li
Shuhui498 (R498) is an elite parent of heavy panicle hybrid rice by pyramiding the rare gn1a and null gs3 alleles. This finding reveals the genetic basis and great potential application in future breeding of R498. The heavy panicle trait, defined as 5 g or more of grain weight per panicle, is one of the target traits in super-high-yield rice breeding programs. The use of heavy panicle-type hybrid rice has been shown to be a successful strategy for super-high-yield breeding programs, particularly under the environmental conditions of high humidity and deficient solar radiation in southwestern China...
March 15, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Andrea Raponi, Maria Cristina De Sanctis, Alessandro Frigeri, Eleonora Ammannito, Mauro Ciarniello, Michelangelo Formisano, Jean-Philippe Combe, Gianfranco Magni, Federico Tosi, Filippo Giacomo Carrozzo, Sergio Fonte, Marco Giardino, Steven P Joy, Carol A Polanskey, Marc D Rayman, Fabrizio Capaccioni, Maria Teresa Capria, Andrea Longobardo, Ernesto Palomba, Francesca Zambon, Carol A Raymond, Christopher T Russell
The dwarf planet Ceres is known to host a considerable amount of water in its interior, and areas of water ice were detected by the Dawn spacecraft on its surface. Moreover, sporadic water and hydroxyl emissions have been observed from space telescopes. We report the detection of water ice in a mid-latitude crater and its unexpected variation with time. The Dawn spectrometer data show a change of water ice signatures over a period of 6 months, which is well modeled as ~2-km2 increase of water ice. The observed increase, coupled with Ceres' orbital parameters, points to an ongoing process that seems correlated with solar flux...
March 2018: Science Advances
Jamey R Szalay, Petr Pokorný, Peter Jenniskens, Mihály Horányi
The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer mission orbited the Moon from 2013 October to 2014 April and detected impact ejecta generated by the continual bombardment of meteoroids to the lunar surface. While the Moon transited the Geminid meteoroid stream, LDEX observed a large enhancement in the lunar impact ejecta cloud, particularly above the portion of lunar surface normal to the Geminids radiant. Here, we present the LDEX measurements during the Geminids, using the surface density of impact ejecta at the Moon as a proxy for meteoroid activity...
March 2018: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Kohei Tanaka, Darla K Zelenitsky, François Therrien, Yoshitsugu Kobayashi
Dinosaurs thrived and reproduced in various regions worldwide, including the Arctic. In order to understand their nesting in diverse or extreme environments, the relationships between nests, nesting environments, and incubation methods in extant archosaurs were investigated. Statistical analyses reveal that species of extant covered nesters (i.e., crocodylians and megapodes) preferentially select specific sediments/substrates as a function of their nesting style and incubation heat sources. Relationships between dinosaur eggs and the sediments in which they occur reveal that hadrosaurs and some sauropods (i...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elizabeth W Uhl
Although vitamin D is critical to calcium/phosphorus homeostasis, bone formation and remodeling, there is evolution-based variation between species in vitamin D metabolism and susceptibility to rickets and osteomalacia. Most herbivores produce vitamin D3 in response to sunlight, but dogs and cats have generally lost the ability as carnivore diets are rich in vitamin D. Nutritional deficiencies and/or poor exposure to sunlight can induce rickets in birds, swine, cattle and sheep, but horses are less susceptible as they have evolved a calcium homeostasis that is quite different than other animals...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Lijuan Wang, Wenzhong Wang, Yuanlu Chen, Lizhen Yao, Xin Zhao, Honglong Shi, Maosheng Cao, Yujie Liang
Heterogenous p-n junction CdS/Cu2O nanorod arrays have been fabricated by using a facile successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction process to grow Cu2O nanoparticles on the surface of ordered CdS nanorod arrays. The heterogenous p-n junction nanorod arrays exhibit superior photoelectrochemical performance for hydrogen (H2) generation and high stability under visible light irradiation. The highest photocurrent density achieved by heterogenous nanorod array photoelectrode is 4.2 mA cm-2 in sacrificial Na2S and Na2SO3 mixture electrolyte solution at 0 V vs...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Eloi Parladé, Andrea Hom-Diaz, Paqui Blánquez, Maira Martínez-Alonso, Teresa Vicent, Nuria Gaju
The use of microalgal consortia for urban wastewater treatment is an increasing trend, as it allows simultaneous nutrient removal and biomass production. Emerging contaminants proposed for the list of priority substances such as the hormone 17β-estradiol are commonly found in urban wastewater, and their removal using algal monocultures has been accomplished. Due to the inherent potential of algae-based systems, this study aimed to assess the capability of native photobioreactor biomass to remove 17β-estradiol under indoor and outdoor conditions...
March 3, 2018: Water Research
Yongjie Wang, Kunyuan Lu, Lu Han, Zeke Liu, Guozheng Shi, Honghua Fang, Si Chen, Tian Wu, Fan Yang, Mengfan Gu, Sijie Zhou, Xufeng Ling, Xun Tang, Jiawei Zheng, Maria Antonietta Loi, Wanli Ma
Current efforts on lead sulfide quantum dot (PbS QD) solar cells are mostly paid to the device architecture engineering and postsynthetic surface modification, while very rare work regarding the optimization of PbS synthesis is reported. Here, PbS QDs are successfully synthesized using PbO and PbAc2  · 3H2 O as the lead sources. QD solar cells based on PbAc-PbS have demonstrated a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.82% (and independently certificated values of 10.62%), which is significantly higher than the PCE of 9...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
Chi-Yuan Lee, Shih-Chun Li, Chia-Hung Chen, Yen-Ting Huang, Yu-Syuan Wang
Looking for alternative energy sources has been an inevitable trend since the oil crisis, and close attentioned has been paid to hydrogen energy. The proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolyzer is characterized by high energy efficiency, high yield, simple system and low operating temperature. The electrolyzer generates hydrogen from water free of any carbon sources (provided the electrons come from renewable sources such as solar and wind), so it is very clean and completely satisfies the environmental requirement...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Cristina Rodríguez-Seco, Lydia Cabau, Anton Vidal-Ferran, Emilio Palomares
Over hundreds of new organic semiconductor molecules have been synthesized as hole transport materials (HTMs) for perovskite solar cells. However, to date, the well-known N2 , N2 , N2' , N2' , N7 , N7 , N7' , octakis-(4-methoxyphenyl)-9,9-spirobi-[9,9'-spirobi[9 H-fluorene]-2,2',7,7'-tetramine (spiro-OMeTAD) is still the best choice for the best perovskite device performance. Nevertheless, there is a consensus that spiro-OMeTAD by itself is not stable enough for long-term stable devices, and its market price makes its use in large-scale production costly...
March 15, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
A H Reshak
Comprehensive ab initio calculations from first- to second-principles methods are performed to investigate the suitability of non-centro-symmetric CdLa2 S4 and CdLa2 Se4 to be used as active photocatalysts under visible light illumination. The calculations reveal the direct band gap nature of both compounds with large absorption coefficients (104 -105 cm-1 ). The absorption edges of CdLa2 S4 and CdLa2 Se4 occur at λ = 579.3 nm and λ = 670.1 nm, and the optical band gaps are estimated to be 2.14 eV and 1.85 eV for CdLa2 S4 and CdLa2 Se4 , respectively...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Juan Zhao, Zhihe Chi, Zhan Yang, Xiaojie Chen, Michael S Arnold, Yi Zhang, Jiarui Xu, Zhenguo Chi, Matthew P Aldred
Truly stretchable electronics, wherein all components themselves permit elastic deformation as the whole devices are stretched, exhibit unique advantages over other strategies, such as simple fabrication process, high integrity of entire components and intimate integration with curvilinear surfaces. In contrast to the stretchable devices using stretchable interconnectors to integrate with rigid active devices, truly stretchable devices are realized with or without intentionally employing structural engineering (e...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
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