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Neurophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044223/modulating-hemispheric-lateralization-by-brain-stimulation-yields-gain-in-mental-and-physical-activity
#1
Catharina Zich, Siobhán Harty, Cornelia Kranczioch, Karen L Mansfield, Francesco Sella, Stefan Debener, Roi Cohen Kadosh
Imagery plays an important role in our life. Motor imagery is the mental simulation of a motor act without overt motor output. Previous studies have documented the effect of motor imagery practice. However, its translational potential for patients as well as for athletes, musicians and other groups, depends largely on the transfer from mental practice to overt physical performance. We used bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over sensorimotor areas to modulate neural lateralization patterns induced by unilateral mental motor imagery and the performance of a physical motor task...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044137/the-soothing-function-of-touch-affective-touch-reduces-feelings-of-social-exclusion
#2
Mariana von Mohr, Louise P Kirsch, Aikaterini Fotopoulou
The mammalian need for social proximity, attachment and belonging may have an adaptive and evolutionary value in terms of survival and reproductive success. Consequently, ostracism may induce strong negative feelings of social exclusion. Recent studies suggest that slow, affective touch, which is mediated by a separate, specific C tactile neurophysiological system than faster, neutral touch, modulates the perception of physical pain. However, it remains unknown whether slow, affective touch, can also reduce feelings of social exclusion, a form of social pain...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042004/quantitative-functional-mri-and-neurophysiological-markers-in-a-case-of-gerstmann-str%C3%A3-ussler-scheinker-syndrome
#3
Silvia Marino, Rosa Morabito, S De Salvo, L Bonanno, A Bramanti, P Pollicino, R Giorgianni, Placido Bramanti
Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) is an inherited autosomal dominant prion disease, caused by a codon 102 proline to leucine substitution (P102L) in the prion protein gene (PRNP). We describe the case of a 40-year-old male, affected by a slowly progressive gait disturbance, leg weakness and cognitive impairment. Genomic DNA revealed a point mutation of PRNP at codon 102, resulting in P102L, and the diagnosis of GSS was confirmed. Somatosensory evoked potentials showed alterations of principal parameters, particularly in the right upper and lower limbs...
July 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042000/nociceptive-blink-reflex-habituation-biofeedback-in-migraine
#4
M de Tommaso, M Delussi
Reduced habituation of the nociceptive blink reflex (NBR) is considered a trait marker for genetic predisposition to migraine. In this open-label randomized controlled study, we aimed to test the efficacy of a biofeedback training based on learning of habituation of the NBR (NBR biofeedback) compared with pharmacological (topiramate) treatment and NBR biofeedback plus topiramate treatment in a cohort of migraine without aura patients eligible for prophylaxis. Thirty-three migraine patients were randomly assigned to three months of treatment with: 1) NBR biofeedback, 2) NBR biofeedback plus topiramate 50 mg (b...
July 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040672/unsupervised-learning-of-spatiotemporal-interictal-discharges-in-focal-epilepsy
#5
Maxime O Baud, Jonathan K Kleen, Gopala K Anumanchipalli, Liberty S Hamilton, Yee-Leng Tan, Robert Knowlton, Edward F Chang
BACKGROUND: Interictal epileptiform discharges are an important biomarker for localization of focal epilepsy, especially in patients who undergo chronic intracranial monitoring. Manual detection of these pathophysiological events is cumbersome, but is still superior to current rule-based approaches in most automated algorithms. OBJECTIVE: To develop an unsupervised machine-learning algorithm for the improved, automated detection and localization of interictal epileptiform discharges based on spatiotemporal pattern recognition...
October 10, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037652/the-local-twitch-response-during-trigger-point-dry-needling-is-it-necessary-for-successful-outcomes
#6
Thomas Perreault, James Dunning, Raymond Butts
BACKGROUND: Myofascial trigger point (MTrP) injection and trigger point dry needling (TrPDN) are widely accepted therapies for myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Empirical evidence suggests eliciting a local twitch response (LTR) during needling is essential. OBJECTIVE: This is the first review exploring the available literature, regardless of study design, on the neurophysiological effects and clinical significance of the LTR as it relates to reductions in pain and disability secondary to MTrP needling...
October 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035218/interacting-with-robots-to-investigate-the-bases-of-social-interaction
#7
Alessandra Sciutti, Giulio Sandini
Humans show a great natural ability at interacting with each other. Such efficiency in joint actions depends on a synergy between planned collaboration and emergent coordination, a subconscious mechanism based on a tight link between action execution and perception. This link supports phenomena as mutual adaptation, synchronization and anticipation, which cut drastically the delays in the interaction and the need of complex verbal instructions and result in the establishment of joint intentions, the backbone of social interaction...
October 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035065/serial-decision-making-in-monkeys-during-an-oculomotor-task
#8
Zachary M Abzug, Marc A Sommer
Much of everyday behavior involves serial decision-making, in which the outcome of 1 choice affects another. An example is setting rules for oneself: choosing a behavioral rule guides appropriate choices in the future. How the brain links decisions across time is poorly understood. Neural mechanisms could be studied in monkeys, as it is known that they can select and use behavioral rules, but existing psychophysical paradigms are poorly suited for the constraints of neurophysiology. Therefore, we designed a streamlined task that requires sequential, linked decisions, and trained 2 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to perform it...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034802/unraveling-the-mechanisms-of-manual-therapy-modeling-an-approach
#9
Joel E Bialosky, Jason M Beneciuk, Mark D Bishop, Rogelio A Coronado, Charles W Penza, Corey B Simon, Steven Z George
Synopsis Manual therapy interventions are popular among individual healthcare providers and their patients; however, systematic reviews do not strongly support their effectiveness. Small treatment effect sizes of manual therapy interventions may result from a "one size fits all" approach to treatment. Mechanistic based treatment approaches to manual therapy offer an intriguing alternative for identifying patients likely to respond to manual therapy. However, the current lack of knowledge of the mechanisms through which manual therapy interventions inhibit pain limits such an approach...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034468/using-the-common-marmoset-for-neurophysiological-studies-of-neocortical-functions
#10
Tadashi Isa
The common marmoset is a small new world monkey and highlighted as an experimental primate model species to which the genetic engineering techniques have become applicable. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034102/new-directions-in-hypnosis-research-strategies-for-advancing-the-cognitive-and-clinical-neuroscience-of-hypnosis
#11
Mark P Jensen, Graham A Jamieson, Antoine Lutz, Giuliana Mazzoni, William J McGeown, Enrica L Santarcangelo, Athena Demertzi, Vilfredo De Pascalis, Éva I Bányai, Christian Rominger, Patrik Vuilleumier, Marie-Elisabeth Faymonville, Devin B Terhune
This article summarizes key advances in hypnosis research during the past two decades, including (i) clinical research supporting the efficacy of hypnosis for managing a number of clinical symptoms and conditions, (ii) research supporting the role of various divisions in the anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices in hypnotic responding, and (iii) an emerging finding that high hypnotic suggestibility is associated with atypical brain connectivity profiles. Key recommendations for a research agenda for the next decade include the recommendations that (i) laboratory hypnosis researchers should strongly consider how they assess hypnotic suggestibility in their studies, (ii) inclusion of study participants who score in the middle range of hypnotic suggestibility, and (iii) use of expanding research designs that more clearly delineate the roles of inductions and specific suggestions...
2017: Neuroscience of Consciousness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033807/walking-through-architectural-spaces-the-impact-of-interior-forms-on-human-brain-dynamics
#12
Maryam Banaei, Javad Hatami, Abbas Yazdanfar, Klaus Gramann
Neuroarchitecture uses neuroscientific tools to better understand architectural design and its impact on human perception and subjective experience. The form or shape of the built environment is fundamental to architectural design, but not many studies have shown the impact of different forms on the inhabitants' emotions. This study investigated the neurophysiological correlates of different interior forms on the perceivers' affective state and the accompanying brain activity. To understand the impact of naturalistic three-dimensional (3D) architectural forms, it is essential to perceive forms from different perspectives...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033799/a-critical-assessment-of-directed-connectivity-estimates-with-artificially-imposed-causality-in-the-supramammillary-septo-hippocampal-circuit
#13
Calvin K Young, Ming Ruan, Neil McNaughton
Algorithms for estimating directed connectivity have become indispensable to further understand the neurodynamics between functionally coupled brain areas. The evaluation of directed connectivity on the propagation of brain activity has largely been based on simulated data or toy models, where various hidden properties of neurophysiological data may not be fully recapitulated. In this study, directionality was unequivocally manipulated in the freely moving rat in a unique dataset, where normal oscillatory interactions between the supramammillary nucleus (SuM) and hippocampus (HPC) were attenuated by temporary medial septal (MS) inactivation, and replaced by electrical stimulation of the fornix to evaluate the performance of several directed connectivity assessment methods...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033798/self-regulatory-capacities-are-depleted-in-a-domain-specific-manner
#14
Rui Zhang, Ann-Kathrin Stock, Anneka Rzepus, Christian Beste
Performing an act of self-regulation such as making decisions has been suggested to deplete a common limited resource, which impairs all subsequent self-regulatory actions (ego depletion theory). It has however remained unclear whether self-referred decisions truly impair behavioral control even in seemingly unrelated cognitive domains, and which neurophysiological mechanisms are affected by these potential depletion effects. In the current study, we therefore used an inter-individual design to compare two kinds of depletion, namely a self-referred choice-based depletion and a categorization-based switching depletion, to a non-depleted control group...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033570/atypical-depression-current-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
Dorota Łojko, Janusz K Rybakowski
The history and present status of the definition, prevalence, neurobiology, and treatment of atypical depression (AD) is presented. The concept of AD has evolved through the years, and currently, in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fifth Edition, the specifier of depressive episode with atypical feature is present for both diagnostic groups, that is, depressive disorders and bipolar and related disorders. This specifier includes mood reactivity, hyperphagia, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis, and interpersonal rejection sensitivity...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033283/developmental-trajectory-of-mismatch-negativity-and-visual-event-related-potentials-in-healthy-controls-implications-for-neurodevelopmental-vs-neurodegenerative-models-of-schizophrenia
#16
Cheryl M Corcoran, Anastasia Stoops, Migyung Lee, Antigona Martinez, Pejman Sehatpour, Elisa C Dias, Daniel C Javitt
Sensory processing deficits are core features of schizophrenia, reflected in impaired generation of event-related potential (ERP) measures such as auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) and visual P1. To understand the potential time course of development of deficits in schizophrenia, we obtained MMN to unattended duration, intensity and frequency deviants, and visual P1 to attended LSF stimuli, in 43 healthy individuals ages 6 to 25years (mean 17), and compared results to data from 30 adult schizophrenia patients (mean age 38)...
October 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031881/beyond-variability-subjective-timing-and-the-neurophysiology-of-motor-cognition
#17
David Perruchoud, Mirta Fiorio, Paola Cesari, Silvio Ionta
BACKGROUND: Movement simulation helps increasing the chances to reach goals. A cognitive task used to study the neuro-behavioral aspects of movement simulation is mental rotation: people mentally re-orient rotated pictures of hands. However, the involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1) in mental rotation is largely controversial. HYPOTHESIS: Such inconsistency could arise from potential methodological flaws in experimental procedures and data analysis. In particular, until now, the timing of M1 activity has been computed in absolute terms: from the onset of mental rotation (onset-locked), neglecting intra- and inter-subject variability...
October 3, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031473/exploring-the-applicability-of-the-contextual-interference-effect-in-sports-practice
#18
Damian Farrow, Tim Buszard
This review will consider three key issues considered critical when determining the efficacy of the contextual interference effect when applied to sports practice. First, the issue of complexity is considered in relation to the amount of interference actually needed in the applied sports setting to create effective learning. Second, the traditional underpinning mechanism/s of contextual interference are discussed in relation to recent neurophysiological perspectives on their viability. A counter-position to these dominant theories is also presented drawing on an implicit learning framework...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031470/the-resonant-system-linking-brain-body-environment-in-sport-performance-%C3%A2
#19
Pedro Teques, Duarte Araújo, Ludovic Seifert, Vicente L Del Campo, Keith Davids
The ecological dynamics approach offers new insights to understand how athlete nervous systems are embedded within the body-environment system in sport. Cognitive neuroscience focuses on the neural bases of athlete behaviors in terms of perceptual, cognitive, and motor functions defined within specific brain structures. Here, we discuss some limitations of this traditional perspective, addressing how athletes functionally adapt perception and action to the dynamics of complex performance environments by continuously perceiving information to regulate goal-directed actions...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031467/action-skilled-observation-issues-for-the-study-of-sport-expertise-and-the-brain
#20
April Karlinsky, Karen Zentgraf, Nicola J Hodges
With a growing body of research devoted to uncovering regions of the brain implicated in action observation following various action-related experiences, including sport, we ask what we know from this research, and what we still need to know, as it pertains to sport and the brain. To do this, we review and integrate knowledge garnered from developmental work, short-term motor learning studies, and most significantly sport athletes across varying skill levels. We consider various neurophysiological methods, including TMS, fMRI, and EEG, which have been used to help uncover brain regions involved in action-skilled observation...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
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