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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244640/cross-frequency-phase-amplitude-coupling-as-a-mechanism-for-temporal-orienting-of-attention-in-childhood
#1
Giovanni Mento, Duncan E Astle, Gaia Scerif
Temporal orienting of attention operates by biasing the allocation of cognitive and motor resources in specific moments in time, resulting in the improved processing of information from expected compared with unexpected targets. Recent findings have shown that temporal orienting operates relatively early across development, suggesting that this attentional mechanism plays a core role for human cognition. However, the exact neurophysiological mechanisms allowing children to attune their attention over time are not well understood...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244636/event-related-electroencephalographic-lateralizations-mark-individual-differences-in-spatial-and-nonspatial-visual-selection
#2
Iris Wiegand, Natan Napiorkowski, Thomas Töllner, Anders Petersen, Thomas Habekost, Hermann J Müller, Kathrin Finke
Selective attention controls the distribution of our visual system's limited processing resources to stimuli in the visual field. Two independent parameters of visual selection can be quantified by modeling an individual's performance in a partial-report task based on the computational theory of visual attention (TVA): (i) top-down control α, the relative attentional weighting of relevant over irrelevant stimuli, and (ii) spatial bias wλ, the relative attentional weighting of stimuli in the left versus right hemifield...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242823/processing-of-natural-echolocation-sequences-in-the-inferior-colliculus-of-seba-s-fruit-eating-bat-carollia-perspicillata
#3
M Jerome Beetz, Sebastian Kordes, Francisco García-Rosales, Manfred Kössl, Julio C Hechavarría
For the purpose of orientation, echolocating bats emit highly repetitive and spatially directed sonar calls. Echoes arising from call reflections are used to create an acoustic image of the environment. The inferior colliculus (IC) represents an important auditory stage for initial processing of echolocation signals. The present study addresses the following questions: (1) how does the temporal context of an echolocation sequence mimicking an approach flight of an animal affect neuronal processing of distance information to echo delays? (2) how does the IC process complex echolocation sequences containing echo information from multiple objects (multiobject sequence)? Here, we conducted neurophysiological recordings from the IC of ketamine-anaesthetized bats of the species Carollia perspicillata and compared the results from the IC with the ones from the auditory cortex (AC)...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242310/approaches-to-neuromodulation-for-schizophrenia
#4
REVIEW
Judith M Gault, Rachel Davis, Nicola G Cascella, Elyn R Saks, Iluminada Corripio-Collado, William S Anderson, Ann Olincy, John A Thompson, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Akira Sawa, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Nir Lipsman, Aviva Abosch
Based on the success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treating movement disorders, there is growing interest in using DBS to treat schizophrenia (SZ). We review the unmet needs of patients with SZ and the scientific rationale behind the DBS targets proposed in the literature in order to guide future development of DBS to treat this vulnerable patient population. SZ remains a devastating disorder despite treatment. Relapse, untreated psychosis, intolerable side effects and the lack of effective treatment for negative and cognitive symptoms contribute to poor outcome...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241172/neurophysiological-monitoring-and-awake-craniotomy-for-resection-of-intracranial-gliomas
#5
Taiichi Saito, Manabu Tamura, Mikhail F Chernov, Soko Ikuta, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takashi Maruyama
Aggressive resection of intracranial gliomas has a positive impact on patients' prognosis, but is associated with a risk of neurological complications. For preservation of brain functions and avoidance of major postoperative morbidity various methods of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring have been introduced into clinical practice. At present, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), visual evoked potentials (VEP), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP), and electrocorticography (ECoG) are used routinely during neurosurgical procedures...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240021/differences-in-seizure-expression-between-magnetic-seizure-therapy-and-electroconvulsive-shock
#6
Yael M Cycowicz, Stefan B Rowny, Bruce Luber, Sarah H Lisanby
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that magnetic seizure therapy (MST) results in fewer side effects than electroconvulsive treatment, both in humans treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as well as in the animal preclinical model that uses electroconvulsive shock (ECS). Evidence suggests that MST results in fewer cognitive side effects than ECT. Although MST offers enhanced control over seizure induction and spread, little is known about how MST and ECT seizures differ. Seizure characteristics are associated with treatment effect...
December 12, 2017: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239138/greater-reward-related-neuronal-response-to-hedonic-foods-in-women-compared-with-men
#7
Kristina T Legget, Marc-Andre Cornier, Daniel H Bessesen, Brianne Mohl, Elizabeth A Thomas, Jason R Tregellas
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to identify how sex influences neurobiological responses to food cues, particularly those related to hedonic eating, and how this relates to obesity propensity, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: Adult men and women who were either obesity resistant (OR) or obesity prone (OP) underwent fMRI while viewing visual food cues (hedonic foods, neutral foods, and nonfood objects) in both fasted and fed states...
December 13, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238394/physical-exercise-as-stabilizer-for-alzheimer-s-disease-cognitive-decline-current-status
#8
Sergio Machado, Alberto Souza de Sá Filho, Matheus Wilbert, Gabriela Barbieri, Victor Almeida, Alexandre Gurgel, Charles V Rosa, Victor Lins, Alexandre Paixão, Kamila Santana, Gabriel Ramos, Geraldo Maranhão Neto, Flá Paes, Nuno Rocha, Eric Murillo-Rodriguez
Introduction: Mental health decline is one of the main responsible factors for augments in health care costs, and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some studies stated physical exercise is useful for reduction in cognitive decline and AD. Moreover, a recent review argued that evidence are scarce due to few studies published and lack of configuration information of exercise protocol, such as intensity and duration of exercise, number of sessions and other relevant data, to allow appropriate assessment...
2017: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238295/audio-visual-integration-in-a-redundant-target-paradigm-a-comparison-between-rhesus-macaque-and-man
#9
Peter Bremen, Rooholla Massoudi, Marc M Van Wanrooij, A J Van Opstal
The mechanisms underlying multi-sensory interactions are still poorly understood despite considerable progress made since the first neurophysiological recordings of multi-sensory neurons. While the majority of single-cell neurophysiology has been performed in anesthetized or passive-awake laboratory animals, the vast majority of behavioral data stems from studies with human subjects. Interpretation of neurophysiological data implicitly assumes that laboratory animals exhibit perceptual phenomena comparable or identical to those observed in human subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237486/transplantation-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-improves-long-term-diabetic-polyneuropathy-together-with-improvement-of-nerve-morphometrical-evaluation
#10
Maiko Omi, Masaki Hata, Nobuhisa Nakamura, Megumi Miyabe, Shogo Ozawa, Hitoshi Nukada, Masami Tsukamoto, Kazunori Sango, Tatsuhito Himeno, Hideki Kamiya, Jiro Nakamura, Jun Takebe, Tatsuaki Matsubara, Keiko Naruse
BACKGROUND: Although previous reports have revealed the therapeutic potential of stem cell transplantation in diabetic polyneuropathy, the effects of cell transplantation on long-term diabetic polyneuropathy have not been investigated. In this study, we investigated whether the transplantation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) ameliorated long-term diabetic polyneuropathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Forty-eight weeks after STZ injection, we transplanted DPSCs into the unilateral hindlimb skeletal muscles...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237165/distraction-versus-intensity-the-importance-of-exercise-classes-on-cognitive-performance-in-school
#11
Petra Wollseiffen, Tobias Vogt, Heiko Strüder, Stefan Schneider
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the influence of a class of aerobic exercise and an arts class on brain cortical activity and possible effects on cognitive performance. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Electroencephalography was used to record the electro cortical activity of sixteen (16) school children (8-10 years) before and after an aerobic exercise class, and an arts class. Performance in a standardized assessment of educational attainment (VERA-3) was assessed following both classes...
December 13, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236604/intraoperative-neuromonitoring-alarms-relationship-of-the-surgeon-s-decision-to-intervene-or-not-and-clinical-outcomes-in-a-subset-of-spinal-surgical-patients-with-a-new-postoperative-neurological-deficit
#12
Arvydas Tamkus, Kent S Rice, Howard L Kim
BACKGROUND: The goal of intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IONM) is to minimize neurologic injury during surgery, yet patients still emerge with postoperative deficits. Few studies focus on outcomes relative to IONM alarms and interventions in this population. The authors sought to analyze the influence of IONM alarms with and without surgical intervention on patient outcome in spinal surgical patients who suffered immediate postoperative neurologic deficits. METHODS: Of 62,038 spinal surgeries with multimodality IONM, 90 patients with new or worsened postoperative neurologic deficits and whose outcomes were reported immediate to the surgery and at discharge were analyzed...
2017: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236600/benefit-of-intraoperative-neurophysiological-monitoring-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-spinal-dysmorphism-split-cord-malformation-and-scoliosis
#13
Faisal R Jahangiri, Samir Al Sayegh, Moutasem Azzubi, Abdulrahman M Alrajhi, Monerah M Annaim, Shmoukh A Al Sharif, Tanweer Aziz, Sami Al Eissa
Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) consists of a group of neurodiagnostic techniques that assess the nervous system's functional integrity during surgical operations. A retrospective analysis of a pediatric female patient was conducted who underwent 12 operations for the correction of scoliosis, tethered cord, and split spinal cord wherein IONM played an important role. From age 3 to 6, she underwent six procedures including a release of the tethered cord, resection of the filum terminale, removal of a T11-T12 bony spur, release of L3 adhesions, repair of subcutaneous meningocele, and correction of scoliosis with a vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rod (VEPTR) technique without the use of IONM...
2017: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234300/temporal-discrimination-mechanisms-and-relevance-to-adult-onset-dystonia
#14
REVIEW
Antonella Conte, Eavan M McGovern, Shruti Narasimham, Rebecca Beck, Owen Killian, Sean O'Riordan, Richard B Reilly, Michael Hutchinson
Temporal discrimination is the ability to determine that two sequential sensory stimuli are separated in time. For any individual, the temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the minimum interval at which paired sequential stimuli are perceived as being asynchronous; this can be assessed, with high test-retest and inter-rater reliability, using a simple psychophysical test. Temporal discrimination is disordered in a number of basal ganglia diseases including adult-onset dystonia, of which the two most common phenotypes are cervical dystonia and blepharospasm...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233831/the-efficacy-of-the-proprioceptive-neuromuscular-facilitation-pnf-approach-in-stroke-rehabilitation-to-improve-basic-activities-of-daily-living-and-quality-of-life-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#15
Francesc Xavier Guiu-Tula, Rosa Cabanas-Valdés, Mercè Sitjà-Rabert, Gerard Urrútia, Natàlia Gómara-Toldrà
INTRODUCTION: Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is a widely used rehabilitation concept, although its efficacy has not yet been demonstrated in stroke survivors. The aim of this systematic review is to identify, assess and synthesise the potential benefits of using PNF to improve the activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life (QoL) of individuals with stroke. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic electronic search will be conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL and PEDro...
December 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233801/getting-to-the-root-of-fine-motor-skill-performance-in-dentistry-brain-activity-during-dental-tasks-in-a-virtual-reality-haptic-simulation
#16
Suzanne Perry, Susan M Bridges, Frank Zhu, W Keung Leung, Michael F Burrow, Jamie Poolton, Rich Sw Masters
BACKGROUND: There is little evidence considering the relationship between movement-specific reinvestment (a dimension of personality which refers to the propensity for individuals to consciously monitor and control their movements) and working memory during motor skill performance. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) measuring oxyhemoglobin demands in the frontal cortex during performance of virtual reality (VR) psychomotor tasks can be used to examine this research gap. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the potential relationship between the propensity to reinvest and blood flow to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices of the brain...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233537/life-threatening-parkinsonism-hyperpyrexia-syndrome-following-bilateral-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus
#17
Mehmet Osman Akçakaya, Nihan Hande Akçakaya, Mustafa Ömür Kasımcan, Talat Kırış
Parkinsonism-hyperpyrexia syndrome (PHS), or neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), is a neurophysiologic reaction to the acute withdrawal/decrease of central dopamine levels. It is a severe complication characterized by rigidity, change in consciousness level, fever, hypertension, and autonomic instability, that can be fatal. To the best of our knowledge, PHS following deep brain stimulation (DBS) of subthalamic nucleus (STN) surgery due to anti-Parkinson drug discontinuation has been previously reported only six times...
December 6, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233473/changes-in-the-electrocorticogram-after-implantation-of-intracranial-electrodes-in-humans-the-implant-effect
#18
Felice T Sun, Sharanya Arcot Desai, Thomas K Tcheng, Martha J Morrell
OBJECTIVE: Subacute and long-term electrocorticographic (ECoG) changes in ambulatory patients with depth and cortical strip electrodes were evaluated in order to determine the length of the implant effect. METHODS: ECoG records were assessed in patients with medically intractable epilepsy who had depth and/or strip leads implanted in order to be treated with brain-responsive stimulation. Changes in total spectral power, band-limited spectral power, and spike rate were assessed...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230561/neurophysiological-variability-masks-differences-in-functional-neuroanatomical-networks-and-their-effectiveness-to-modulate-response-inhibition-between-children-and-adults
#19
Benjamin Bodmer, Moritz Mückschel, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Executive functions are well-known to undergo developmental changes from childhood to adulthood. Considerable efforts have been made to elucidate the affected system neurophysiological mechanisms. But while it is well-known that developmental changes affect intra-individual variability, this potential bias has largely been neglected when investigating the neurophysiology underlying developmental differences between children and adults. We hypothesize that due to differences in intra-individual variability of neural processes between children and adults, reliable group differences will only be evident after accounting for intra-individual variability in neurophysiological processes...
December 11, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230189/structural-covariance-of-sensory-networks-the-cerebellum-and-amygdala-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Garrett J Cardon, Susan Hepburn, Donald C Rojas
Sensory dysfunction is a core symptom of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and abnormalities with sensory responsivity and processing can be extremely debilitating to ASD patients and their families. However, relatively little is known about the underlying neuroanatomical and neurophysiological factors that lead to sensory abnormalities in ASD. Investigation into these aspects of ASD could lead to significant advancements in our general knowledge about ASD, as well as provide targets for treatment and inform diagnostic procedures...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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