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Neurophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677324/endogenous-attention-improves-perception-in-amblyopic-macaques
#1
Amelie Pham, Marisa Carrasco, Lynne Kiorpes
Amblyopia, a developmental disorder of vision, affects many aspects of spatial vision as well as motion perception and some cognitive skills. Current models of amblyopic vision based on known neurophysiological deficiencies have yet to provide an understanding of the wide range of amblyopic perceptual losses. Visual spatial attention is known to enhance performance in a variety of detection and discrimination tasks in visually typical humans and nonhuman primates. We investigated whether and how voluntary spatial attention affected psychophysical performance in amblyopic macaques...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676287/electrophysiological-correlates-of-neurodegeneration-in-motor-and-non-motor-brain-regions-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-implications-for-brain-computer-interfacing
#2
Philipp Kellmeyer, Moritz Grosse-Wentrup, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Ulf Ziemann, Tonio Ball
For patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) who are suffering from severe communication or motor problems, brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can improve the quality of life and patient autonomy. However, current BCI systems are not as widely used as their potential and patient demand would let assume. This underutilization is a result of technological as well as user-based limitations but also of the comparatively poor performance of currently existing BCIs in patients with late-stage ALS, particularly in the locked-in state...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675471/dynamic-coding-of-predatory-information-between-the-prelimbic-cortex-and-lateral-amygdala-in-foraging-rats
#3
Eun Joo Kim, Mi-Seon Kong, Sang Geon Park, Sheri J Y Mizumori, Jeiwon Cho, Jeansok J Kim
Predation is considered a major selective pressure in the evolution of fear, but the neurophysiology of predator-induced fear is unknown. We simultaneously recorded lateral amygdala (LA) and prelimbic (PL) area neuronal activities as rats exited a safe nest to search for food in an open space before, during, and after encountering a "predator" robot programmed to surge from afar. Distinct populations of LA neurons transiently increased spiking as rats either advanced or fled the robot, whereas PL neurons showed longer-lasting spike trains that preceded and persisted beyond LA activity...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674090/oscillatory-local-field-potentials-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-the-anterior-limb-of-the-internal-capsule-in-heroin-addicts
#4
Shunnan Ge, Xinyi Geng, Xuelian Wang, Nan Li, Lei Chen, Xinjing Zhang, Yongzhi Huang, Yang Li, Yukun Chen, Shouyan Wang, Guodong Gao
OBJECTIVES: The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is known to regulate the motivation and underlie addictive behaviors, and the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) is involved in several psychiatric disorders. Our study aimed to explore the functions of NAc and ALIC electrophysiologically. METHODS: The local field potentials (LFPs) of the NAc and ALIC were recorded from 7 heroin addicts treated with deep brain stimulation. Correlation analysis was made between LFP powers in various frequency bands and the subjects' neuropsychological test scores; coherence was calculated for the LFPs in NAc and ALIC...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673479/genetic-dissection-of-neural-circuits-a-decade-of-progress
#5
REVIEW
Liqun Luo, Edward M Callaway, Karel Svoboda
Tremendous progress has been made since Neuron published our Primer on genetic dissection of neural circuits 10 years ago. Since then, cell-type-specific anatomical, neurophysiological, and perturbation studies have been carried out in a multitude of invertebrate and vertebrate organisms, linking neurons and circuits to behavioral functions. New methods allow systematic classification of cell types and provide genetic access to diverse neuronal types for studies of connectivity and neural coding during behavior...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673322/the-spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-deviance-and-target-detection-in-the-passive-and-active-auditory-oddball-paradigm-a-sloreta-study
#6
Christoph Justen, Cornelia Herbert
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have investigated the neural underpinnings of passive and active deviance and target detection in the well-known auditory oddball paradigm by means of event-related potentials (ERPs) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The present auditory oddball study investigates the spatio-temporal dynamics of passive versus active deviance and target detection by analyzing amplitude modulations of early and late ERPs while at the same time exploring the neural sources underling this modulation with standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) ...
April 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673013/postural-control-during-a-transition-task-in-haemophilic-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-haemophilic-ankle-arthropathy
#7
K Deschamps, F Staes, M Eerdekens, K Peerlinck, C Hermans, J Vandesande, S Lobet
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether young haemophilic boys with and without MRI-based signs of ankle arthropathy demonstrate reduced balance ability during a transition task with eyes open and eyes closed. METHODS: Thirty-four haemophilic bodies and 28 typically developing boys aged 6-20 years participated to this study. Structural integrity of the tarsal foot joints of all haemophilic boys was assessed with MRI. All participants performed a standard transition task from double-leg stance to single-leg stance with eyes open and eyes closed...
April 19, 2018: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672678/aberrant-occipital-dynamics-differentiate-hiv-infected-patients-with-and-without-cognitive-impairment
#8
Alex I Wiesman, Jennifer O'Neill, Mackenzie S Mills, Kevin R Robertson, Howard S Fox, Susan Swindells, Tony W Wilson
Combination antiretroviral therapies have revolutionized the treatment of HIV infection, and many patients now enjoy a lifespan equal to that of the general population. However, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain a major health concern, with between 30% and 70% of all HIV-infected patients developing cognitive impairments during their life time. One important feature of HAND is visuo-perceptual deficits, but the systems-level neural dynamics underlying these impairments are poorly understood...
April 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671647/deep-brain-stimulation-for-trigeminal-autonomic-cephalalgias
#9
Giuseppe Messina, Giovanni Broggi, Vincenzo Levi, Angelo Franzini
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the posterior hypothalamic region (pHyr) has been shown to be efficacious for more than a half of patients suffering from trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs); nonetheless, controversies about the mechanisms of action and the actual site of stimulation have arisen in recent years. Areas covered: Firstly, a review of the most recent literature on the subject is presented, stressing the critical points that could, in the future, make a difference for optimal management of patients afflicted by these life-threating diseases...
April 19, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671621/a-research-framework-to-isolate-visuospatial-from-childhood-motor-coordination-phenotypes
#10
Michele Poletti
Clinicians acknowledge the presence of developmental cognitive phenotypes mainly characterized by a specific visuospatial impairment in presence of intact verbal functioning (usually referred as Nonverbal Learning Disability: NLD) since many decades, without providing sufficient empirical evidence supporting their nosological validity and inclusion in current diagnostic manuals. This contribution suggests that the goal of including NLD in future diagnostic manuals could be achieved only be the demonstration of the validity of this hypothesized clinical category...
April 19, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671359/current-evidence-linking-diet-to-gut-microbiota-and-brain-development-and-function
#11
Florencia Ceppa, Andrea Mancini, Kieran Tuohy
The gut:brain axis is emerging as an important information highway linking the foods we eat with neurophysiological development and functions. Some gut microorganisms have shown to alleviate anxiety and depression, improve cognitive performance and play a role in brain development in early life. However, most studies were conducted in laboratory animals and these findings await confirmation in carefully designed human interventions. Similarly, little attention has been given to how diet:microbe interactions within the gut can impact on neurotransmitter production or their subsequent biological effects within the nervous system...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670817/dejerine-sottas-disease-in-childhood-genetic-and-sonographic-heterogeneity
#12
Sanne M R Hobbelink, Cain R Brockley, Rachel A Kennedy, Kate Carroll, Katy de Valle, Padma Rao, Mark R Davis, Nigel G Laing, Nicol C Voermans, Monique M Ryan, Eppie M Yiu
Introduction: The nerve sonographic features of Dejerine-Sottas disease (DSD) have not previously been described. Methods: This exploratory cross-sectional, matched, case-control study investigated differences in nerve cross-sectional area (CSA) in children with DSD compared to healthy controls and children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A). CSA of the median, ulnar, tibial, and sural nerves was measured by peripheral nerve ultrasound. The mean difference in CSA between children with DSD, controls, and CMT1A was determined individually and within each group...
April 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670503/mobile-phone-chips-reduce-increases-in-eeg-brain-activity-induced-by-mobile-phone-emitted-electromagnetic-fields
#13
Diana Henz, Wolfgang I Schöllhorn, Burkhard Poeggeler
Recent neurophysiological studies indicate that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated by mobile phone radiation can exert effects on brain activity. One technical solution to reduce effects of EMFs in mobile phone use is provided in mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones or attached to their surfaces. To date, there are no systematical studies on the effects of mobile phone chip application on brain activity and the underlying neural mechanisms. The present study investigated whether mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones reduce effects of EMFs emitted by mobile phone radiation on electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activity in a laboratory study...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669213/internalization-of-carbon-nano-onions-by-hippocampal-cells-preserves-neuronal-circuit-function-and-recognition-memory
#14
Massimo Trusel, Michele Baldrighi, Roberto Marotta, Francesca Gatto, Mattia Pesce, Marco Frasconi, Tiziano Catelani, Francesco Papaleo, Pier Paolo Pompa, Raffaella Tonini, Silvia Giordani
One area where nanomedicine may offer superior performances and efficacy compared to current strategies is in the diagnosis and treatment of Central Nervous System (CNS) diseases. However, the application of nanomaterials in such complex arenas is still in its infancy and an optimal vector for the therapy of CNS diseases has not been identified. Graphitic Carbon Nano Onions (CNOs) represent a class of carbon nanomaterials that shows promising potential for biomedical purposes. To probe the possible applications of graphitic CNOs as a platform for therapeutic and diagnostic interventions on CNS diseases, fluorescently labeled CNOs were stereotaxically injected in vivo in mice hippocampus...
April 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669030/the-efficacy-of-intraoperative-neurophysiological-monitoring-to-detect-postoperative-neurological-deficits-in-transforaminal-lumbar-interbody-fusion-surgery
#15
Joung Heon Kim, Svetlana Lenina, Grace Mosley, Joshua Meaike, Benjamin Tran, Jun S Kim, Samuel K Cho
BACKGROUND: Despite the extensive use of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) in spinal procedures, there is no standard guideline for what types of IONM tests should be monitored during lumbar procedures with instrumentation. Moreover, the efficacy of IONM during transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) surgery in detecting postoperative neurological deficits has not been well described. OBJECTIVE: To analyze waveform changes from individual IONM tests (somatosensory evoked potentials [SSEP], motor evoked potentials [MEP], and electromyography [EMG]) during TLIF and compare the sensitivity and specificity of these tests in order to determine the best combination to detect postoperative neurological deficits...
April 13, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668383/neural-mechanisms-of-speed-accuracy-tradeoff-saccade-vigor-the-origin-of-targeting-errors-and-comparison-of-superior-colliculus-and-frontal-eye-field
#16
Thomas R Reppert, Mathieu Servant, Richard P Heitz, Jeffrey D Schall
Balancing the speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) is necessary for successful behavior. Using a visual search task with interleaved cues emphasizing speed or accuracy, we recently reported diverse contributions of frontal eye field (FEF) neurons instantiating salience evidence and response preparation. Here we report replication of visual search SAT performance in two macaque monkeys, new information about variation of saccade dynamics with SAT, extension of the neurophysiological investigation to describe processes in the superior colliculus, and description of the origin of search errors in this task...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667095/can-postoperative-deltoid-weakness-after-cervical-laminoplasty-be-prevented-by-using-intraoperative-neurophysiological-monitoring
#17
Muneharu Ando, Tetsuya Tamaki, Takuji Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Maio, Masatoshi Teraguchi, Noboru Takiguchi, Hiroki Iwahashi, Makiko Onishi, Yukihiro Nakagawa, Hiroshi Iwasaki, Shunji Tsutsui, Masanari Takami, Hiroshi Yamada
Laminoplasty, frequently performed in patients with cervical myelopathy, is safe and provides relatively good results. However, motor palsy of the upper extremities, which occurs after decompression surgery for cervical myelopathy, often reduces muscle strength of the deltoid muscle, mainly in the C5 myotome. The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively whether postoperative deltoid weakness (DW) can be predicted by performing intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) during cervical laminoplasty and to clarify whether it is possible to prevent palsy using IONM...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666567/the-neural-correlates-of-grasping-in-left-handers-when-handedness-does-not-matter
#18
Chiara Begliomini, Luisa Sartori, Maria G Di Bono, Sanja Budisavljević, Umberto Castiello
Neurophysiological studies showed that in macaques, grasp-related visuomotor transformations are supported by a circuit involving the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus, the ventral and the dorsal region of the premotor area. In humans, a similar grasp-related circuit has been revealed by means of neuroimaging techniques. However, the majority of "human" studies considered movements performed by right-handers only, leaving open the question of whether the dynamics underlying motor control during grasping is simply reversed in left-handers with respect to right-handers or not...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666363/altered-function-and-maturation-of-primary-cortical-neurons-from-a-22q11-2-deletion-mouse-model-of-schizophrenia
#19
Ziyi Sun, Damian J Williams, Bin Xu, Joseph A Gogos
Given its high penetrance, clearly delineated and evolutionary conserved genomic structure, mouse models of the 22q11.2 deletion provide an ideal organism-based and cell-based model of this well-established disease mutation for schizophrenia. In this study we examined the development of changes in intrinsic properties, action potential firing and synaptic transmission using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of cultured embryonic cortical neurons from Df(16)A +/- and WT mice at DIV7 and DIV14, respectively. Compared to neurons from the WT littermates, significantly increased input resistance and decreased rising rate of action potential was observed in Df(16)A +/- mice at DIV7 but not at DIV14 indicative of delayed neuronal maturation...
April 18, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665982/oscillatory-activity-and-cortical-coherence-of-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#20
Muhammad Nazmuddin, D L Marinus Oterdoom, J Marc C van Dijk, Jonathan C van Zijl, Anne K Kampman, Gea Drost, Teus van Laar, Martijn Beudel
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) is a new potential treatment for Parkinson's Disease dementia (PDD) and other types of dementia. To get a better understanding of this structure, its local neurophysiological properties and cortical connectivity patterns were studied. METHODS: We simultaneously recorded DBS local field potentials (LFPs) and electroencephalography (EEG) in two patients with PDD. Both patients had DBS electrodes in the internal globus pallidus (GPi) with one or more distal contacts close to or inside the NBM...
March 28, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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