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Neurophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445784/brain-potentials-predict-language-selection-before-speech-onset-in-bilinguals
#1
Yan Jing Wu, Guillaume Thierry
Studies of language production in bilinguals have seldom considered the fact that language selection likely involves proactive control. Here, we show that Chinese-English bilinguals actively inhibit the language not-to-be used before the onset of a picture to be named. Depending on the nature of a directive cue, participants named a subsequent picture in their native language, in their second language, or remained silent. The cue elicited a contingent negative variation of event-related brain potentials, greater in amplitude when the cue announced a naming trial as compared to when it announced a silent trial...
April 23, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444832/real-time-activation-of-central-cholinergic-circuits-during-recognition-memory
#2
Sonia Bonnì, Viviana Ponzo, Francesco Di Lorenzo, Carlo Caltagirone, Giacomo Koch
Short Latency Afferent Inhibition (SAI) is a paired-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) protocol that consists in the inhibition of the Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) by afferent sensory impulses. SAI is thought to be mediated by cholinergic projections over M1 and can be considered a putative marker of central cholinergic activity. It's known that memory processes are regulated by acetylcholine. Nonetheless the influence of memory tasks on SAI has not been investigated. Here we tested changes in SAI circuits in healthy subjects performing a computerized non-verbal recognition memory task (RMT) requiring to recognize previously encoded faces...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444683/-atypical-guillain-barre-syndrome-clustering-is-it-necessary-to-reconsider-the-diagnostic-criteria-and-microbiological-protocol
#3
A Dominguez-Mayoral, C Gutierrez, J M Lopez-Dominguez, S Eichau, J Abril, G Navarro-Mascarell, M A Quesada-Garcia, M Ramos, M Alvarez-Lopez, C Menendez-De Leon, G Izquierdo
INTRODUCTION: Guillain-Barre syndrome is classically defined as a symmetrical ascending acute polyradiculoneuropathy, although there are atypical variants that make diagnosis difficult. CASE REPORTS: The medical data of six patients in our hospital area are collected during the first quarter of 2013. Lumbar punctures, imaging, neurophysiological studies, ganglioside antibodies and serologies have been proposed in all cases. We focus on the atypical features as late hyporeflexia, increased frequency of asymmetry and distal paresis and initial fever...
May 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444633/distributed-representations-of-action-sequences-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-a-recurrent-neural-network-approach
#4
Danesh Shahnazian, Clay B Holroyd
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been the subject of intense debate over the past 2 decades, but its specific computational function remains controversial. Here we present a simple computational model of ACC that incorporates distributed representations across a network of interconnected processing units. Based on the proposal that ACC is concerned with the execution of extended, goal-directed action sequences, we trained a recurrent neural network to predict each successive step of several sequences associated with multiple tasks...
April 25, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443629/differences-in-peripheral-sensory-input-to-the-olfactory-bulb-between-male-and-female-mice
#5
Marley D Kass, Lindsey A Czarnecki, Andrew H Moberly, John P McGann
Female mammals generally have a superior sense of smell than males, but the biological basis of this difference is unknown. Here, we demonstrate sexually dimorphic neural coding of odorants by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), primary sensory neurons that physically contact odor molecules in the nose and provide the initial sensory input to the brain's olfactory bulb. We performed in vivo optical neurophysiology to visualize odorant-evoked OSN synaptic output into olfactory bub glomeruli in unmanipulated (gonad-intact) adult mice from both sexes, and found that in females odorant presentation evoked more rapid OSN signaling over a broader range of OSNs than in males...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442999/roles-of-multiple-globus-pallidus-territories-of-monkeys-and-humans-in-motivation-cognition-and-action-an-anatomical-physiological-and-pathophysiological-review
#6
REVIEW
Yosuke Saga, Eiji Hoshi, Léon Tremblay
The globus pallidus (GP) communicates with widespread cortical areas that support various functions, including motivation, cognition and action. Anatomical tract-tracing studies revealed that the anteroventral GP communicates with the medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, which are involved in motivational control; the anterodorsal GP communicates with the lateral prefrontal cortex, which is involved in cognitive control; and the posterior GP communicates with the frontal motor cortex, which is involved in action control...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442963/sugammadex-to-reverse-neuromuscular-blockade-and-provide-optimal-conditions-for-motor-evoked-potential-monitoring
#7
Mehdi Trifa, Senthil Krishna, Ajay D'Mello, Mumin Hakim, Joseph Drew Tobias
Sugammadex is a novel pharmacologic agent, which reverses neuromuscular blockade (NMB) via a mechanism that differs completely from acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. By encapsulating rocuronium, sugammadex can provide recovery of neuromuscular function even when there is a profound degree of NMB. We report anecdotal experience with the use of sugammadex to reverse NMB to facilitate intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (motor evoked potentials) in an adolescent with scoliosis during posterior spinal fusion...
April 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442359/emg-biofeedback-training-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-an-active-control-training
#8
Beatrix Barth, Kerstin Mayer, Ute Strehl, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at revealing neurophysiological effects induced by electromyography (EMG) based biofeedback, considered as a semi-active control condition in neurofeedback studies, in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. METHODS: 20 adult ADHD patients trained their muscle activity in the left and right supraspinatus muscle over the course of 30 EMG biofeedback sessions. Changes induced by the EMG feedback were evaluated at a clinical and neurophysiological level; additionally, the relation between changes in EEG activity recorded at the vertex over the training course and changes of symptom severity over the treatment course were assessed in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying clinical effects of EMG biofeedback...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442302/facial-twitches-in-adcy5-associated-disease-myokymia-or-myoclonus-an-electromyography-study
#9
Sinem Tunc, Norbert Brüggemann, Magdalena K Baaske, Corinna Hartmann, Karen Grütz, Ana Westenberger, Christine Klein, Alexander Münchau, Tobias Bäumer
OBJECTIVE: A clinical feature in patients with ADCY5 gene mutations are perioral muscle twitches initially described as facial myokymia. METHODS: Five patients with ADCY5-associated disease with facial twitches and truncal jerks underwent electrophysiological investigations of the orbicularis oris and trapezius muscles to delineate neurophysiological characteristics of these phenomena. RESULTS: Electromyography (EMG) recordings showed a complex electrophysiological pattern with brief bursts of less than 100 ms and longer bursts with a duration of 100-300 ms up to several seconds in keeping with myoclonus and chorea, respectively, as key findings...
April 20, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441884/targeting-neuronal-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia-with-nicotine-evidence-from-neurophysiology-to-neuroimaging
#10
Jason Smucny, Jason R Tregellas
Patients with schizophrenia self-administer nicotine at rates higher than is self-administered for any other psychiatric illness. Although the reasons are unclear, one hypothesis suggests that nicotine is a form of 'self-medication' in order to restore normal levels of nicotinic signaling and target abnormalities in neuronal function associated with cognitive processes. This brief review discusses evidence from neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies in schizophrenia patients that nicotinic agonists may effectively target dysfunctional neuronal circuits in the illness...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441570/neural-indices-of-phonemic-discrimination-and-sentence-level-speech-intelligibility-in-quiet-and-noise-a-p3-study
#11
Tess K Koerner, Yang Zhang, Peggy B Nelson, Boxiang Wang, Hui Zou
This study examined how speech babble noise differentially affected the auditory P3 responses and the associated neural oscillatory activities for consonant and vowel discrimination in relation to segmental- and sentence-level speech perception in noise. The data were collected from 16 normal-hearing participants in a double-oddball paradigm that contained a consonant (/ba/ to /da/) and vowel (/ba/ to /bu/) change in quiet and noise (speech-babble background at a -3 dB signal-to-noise ratio) conditions. Time-frequency analysis was applied to obtain inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) and event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) measures in delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands for the P3 response...
April 18, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436812/retrospective-waveform-analysis-of-transcranial-motor-evoked-potentials-mep-to-identify-early-predictors-of-impending-motor-deficits-in-spinal-surgeries
#12
Scheherazade Le, Viet Nguyen, Alexander C Ekwueme, S Charles Cho, Leslie Lee, Jaime López
PURPOSE: Although there are guidelines analyzing transcranial motor evoked potentials (MEP) waveform criteria, they vary widely and are not applied universally during intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IONM). The objective is to generate hypotheses to identify early and reliable MEP waveform characteristics prior to complete loss of MEP to predict impending motor spinal cord injuries during spinal surgeries. The ultimate goal is to enhance real-time feedback to prevent injury or detect reversible spinal cord damage...
2017: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436181/cortical-hyperexcitability-and-disease-spread-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#13
P Menon, N Geevasinga, M van den Bos, C Yiannikas, M C Kiernan, S Vucic
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by focal disease onset with a predominantly contiguous pattern of disease spread. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying disease progression in ALS have not been elucidated. Given that cortical hyperexcitability has been identified as an important pathogenic mechanism in ALS, the aim of the present study was to determine whether changes in cortical function could mediate disease spread in ALS. METHODS: Threshold-tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation was undertaken in 50 patients with sporadic ALS with recording of responses over both abductor pollicis brevis muscles, with results matched to clinical assessments and concurrent neurophysiological investigation of lower motor neuron function...
April 24, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435127/neural-impact-of-low-level-alcohol-use-on-response-inhibition-an-fmri-investigation-in-young-adults
#14
Taylor Hatchard, Ola Mioduszewski, Carley Fall, Aziza Byron-Alhassan, Peter Fried, Andra M Smith
It is widely known that alcohol consumption adversely affects human health, particularly in the immature developing brains of adolescents and young adults, which may also have a long-lasting impact on executive functioning. The present study investigated the neural activity of 28 young adults from the Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study (OPPS) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The purpose of this study was to discover the impact of regular low-level alcohol consumption on response inhibition as the participants performed a Go/No-Go task...
April 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434862/consequences-of-the-oculomotor-cycle-for-the-dynamics-of-perception
#15
Marco Boi, Martina Poletti, Jonathan D Victor, Michele Rucci
Much evidence indicates that humans and other species process large-scale visual information before fine spatial detail. Neurophysiological data obtained with paralyzed eyes suggest that this coarse-to-fine sequence results from spatiotemporal filtering by neurons in the early visual pathway. However, the eyes are normally never stationary: rapid gaze shifts (saccades) incessantly alternate with slow fixational movements. To investigate the consequences of this oculomotor cycle on the dynamics of perception, we combined spectral analysis of visual input signals, neural modeling, and gaze-contingent control of retinal stimulation in humans...
April 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434551/neuromuscular-fatigue-during-exercise-methodological-considerations-etiology-and-potential-role-in-chronic-fatigue
#16
REVIEW
Rosie Twomey, Saied Jalal Aboodarda, Renata Kruger, Susan Nicole Culos-Reed, John Temesi, Guillaume Y Millet
The term fatigue is used to describe a distressing and persistent symptom of physical and/or mental tiredness in certain clinical populations, with distinct but ultimately complex, multifactorial and heterogenous pathophysiology. Chronic fatigue impacts on quality of life, reduces the capacity to perform activities of daily living, and is typically measured using subjective self-report tools. Fatigue also refers to an acute reduction in the ability to produce maximal force or power due to exercise. The classical measurement of exercise-induced fatigue involves neuromuscular assessments before and after a fatiguing task...
April 20, 2017: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434153/machine-learning-xgboost-analysis-of-language-networks-to-classify-patients-with-epilepsy
#17
L Torlay, M Perrone-Bertolotti, E Thomas, M Baciu
Our goal was to apply a statistical approach to allow the identification of atypical language patterns and to differentiate patients with epilepsy from healthy subjects, based on their cerebral activity, as assessed by functional MRI (fMRI). Patients with focal epilepsy show reorganization or plasticity of brain networks involved in cognitive functions, inducing 'atypical' (compared to 'typical' in healthy people) brain profiles. Moreover, some of these patients suffer from drug-resistant epilepsy, and they undergo surgery to stop seizures...
April 22, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433649/chronic-nicotine-attenuates-behavioral-and-synaptic-plasticity-impairments-in-a-streptozotocin-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Esteves Im, Lopes-Aguiar C, Rossignoli Mt, Ruggiero Rn, Broggini Acs, Bueno-Junior Ls, Kandratavicius L, Monteiro Mr, Romcy-Pereira Rn, Leite Jp
Brain glucose metabolism is altered in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD), whose pathologies are reproduced in rodents by intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of streptozotocin (STZ) in subdiabetogenic doses. The icv-STZ model also culminates in central cholinergic dysfunctions, which in turn are known to underlie both the sAD cognitive decline, and synaptic plasticity impairments. Considering the cognitive-enhancing potential of chronic nicotine (Nic), we investigated whether it attenuates icv-STZ-induced impairments in recognition memory and synaptic plasticity in a cognition-relevant substrate: the hippocampal CA1-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pathway...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432693/multimodal-neurophysiological-monitoring-in-healthy-infants-born-at-term-normative-continuous-somatosensory-evoked-potentials-data
#19
Silvia Lori, Simonetta Gabbanini, Maria Bastianelli, Giovanna Bertini, Iuri Corsini, Carlo Dani
AIM: To describe accurate, standardized 1h-multimodal neurophysiological monitoring (1h-MNM), while simultaneously recording VEEG, aEEG, and SEP-C bilaterally from median nerves, and to collect neonatal normative SEP-C data related to behavioural states. METHOD: Twenty healthy, term newborn infants (13 males, 7 females; gestational age 37-42wks; mean 39.6wks, standard deviation [SD] 1.3wks) underwent 1h-MNM within 2 days of life, with focus on recording of the SEP-C (band-pass setting 1-100 Hz, rate of stimulation 1...
April 22, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431843/on-the-complex-interaction-between-mathematics-and-the-sciences-of-living-systems-comment-on-move-me-astonish-me-delight-my-eyes-and-brain-the-vienna-integrated-model-of-top-down-and-bottom-up-processes-in-art-perception-vimap-and-corresponding-affective-evaluative
#20
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