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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936518/computational-investigation-of-proton-transfer-pka-shifts-and-ph-optimum-of-protein-dna-and-protein-rna-complexes
#1
Yunhui Peng, Emil Alexov
Protein-nucleic acid interactions play a crucial role in many biological processes. This work investigates the changes of pKa values and protonation states of ionizable groups (including nucleic acid bases) that may occur at protein-nucleic acid binding. Taking advantage of the recently developed pKa calculation tool DelphiPka, we utilize the large protein-nucleic acid interaction database (NPIDB database) to model pKa shifts caused by binding. It has been found that the protein's interfacial basic residues experience favorable electrostatic interactions while the protein acidic residues undergo proton uptake to reduce the energy cost upon the binding...
December 9, 2016: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936491/intrinsic-%C3%AE-helix-propensities-compact-hydrodynamic-radii-in-intrinsically-disordered-proteins
#2
Lance R English, Erin C Tilton, Benjamin J Ricard, Steven T Whitten
Proteins that lack tertiary stability under normal conditions, known as intrinsically disordered, exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Molecular descriptions for the biology of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) consequently rely on disordered structural models, which in turn require experiments that assess the origins to structural features observed. For example, while hydrodynamic size is mostly insensitive to sequence composition in chemically denatured proteins, IDPs show strong sequence-specific effects in the hydrodynamic radius (Rh ) when measured under normal conditions...
December 9, 2016: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936472/relaxant-effect-of-sodium-tanshinone-iia-sulphonate-on-mouse-tracheal-smooth-muscle
#3
Yi-Lin Zhang, Jia-Wen Xu, Xiong-Hao Wu, Peng-Xiao Chen, Fang Wei, Dong-Dong Gao, Xiao-Wen Chen, Yu-Li Luo, Yun-Xin Zhu, Jiehong Huang, Ya-Xia Tan, Lei Zhao, Wen-Liang Zhou
Sodium tanshinone IIA sulphonate, a water-soluble derivative of tanshinone IIA, has been proven to possess versatile biological properties, but its pharmacological effect on tracheal smooth muscle remains elusive. This paper presents a study on the relaxant effect and underlying mechanisms of sodium tanshinone IIA sulphonate on mouse tracheal smooth muscle. The relaxant effect of sodium tanshinone IIA sulphonate was evaluated in mouse tracheal rings using a mechanical recording system. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was measured in primary cultured tracheal smooth muscle cells using confocal imaging system...
December 9, 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936464/refractory-testicular-germ-cell-tumors-are-highly-sensitive-to-the-second-generation-dna-methylation-inhibitor-guadecitabine
#4
Costantine Albany, Mary P Hever-Jardine, Katherine M von Herrmann, Christina Y Yim, Janice Tam, Joshua M Warzecha, Leah Shin, Sarah E Bock, Brian S Curran, Aneeq S Chaudhry, Fred Kim, George E Sandusky, Pietro Taverna, Sarah J Freemantle, Brock C Christensen, Lawrence H Einhorn, Michael J Spinella
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common cancers of young males. A substantial portion of TGCT patients are refractory to cisplatin. There are no effective therapies for these patients, many of whom die from progressive disease. Embryonal carcinoma (EC) are the stem cells of TGCTs. In prior in vitro studies we found that EC cells were highly sensitive to the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza deoxycytidine (5-aza). Here, as an initial step in bringing demethylation therapy to the clinic for TGCT patients, we evaluated the effects of the clinically optimized, second generation demethylating agent guadecitabine (SGI-110) on EC cells in an animal model of cisplatin refractory testicular cancer...
December 7, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936457/genetic-disruption-of-nrf2-promotes-the-development-of-necroinflammation-and-liver-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-hfe-hereditary-hemochromatosis
#5
Tiago L Duarte, Carolina Caldas, Ana G Santos, Sandro Silva-Gomes, Andreia Santos-Gonçalves, Maria João Martins, Graça Porto, José Manuel Lopes
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In hereditary hemochromatosis, iron deposition in the liver parenchyma may lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Most cases are ascribed to a common mutation in the HFE gene, but the extent of clinical expression is greatly influenced by the combined action of yet unidentified genetic and/or environmental modifying factors. In mice, transcription factor NRF2 is a critical determinant of hepatocyte viability during exposure to acute dietary iron overload...
December 1, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936434/mineralocorticoid-receptor-haplotype-estradiol-progesterone-and-emotional-information-processing
#6
Danielle A Hamstra, E Ronald de Kloet, Ina Quataert, Myrthe Jansen, Willem Van der Does
BACKGROUND: Carriers of MR-haplotype 1 and 3 (GA/CG; rs5522 and rs2070951) are more sensitive to the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) and menstrual cycle phase on emotional information processing than MR-haplotype 2 (CA) carriers. We investigated whether this effect is associated with estradiol (E2) and/or progesterone (P4) levels. METHOD: Healthy MR-genotyped premenopausal women were tested twice in a counterbalanced design. Naturally cycling (NC) women were tested in the early-follicular and mid-luteal phase and OC-users during OC-intake and in the pill-free week...
November 30, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936432/the-role-of-the-water-tankers-market-in-water-stressed-semi-arid-urban-areas-implications-on-water-quality-and-economic-burden
#7
Kinda Constantine, May Massoud, Ibrahim Alameddine, Mutasem El-Fadel
Population growth and development are associated with increased water demand that often exceeds the capacity of existing resources, resulting in water shortages, particularly in urban areas, where more than 60% of the world's population resides. In many developing communities, shortages often force households to depend on water tankers amongst other potential sources for the delivery of water for domestic and/or potable use. While water tankers have become an integral part of the water supply system in many countries, the sector is often unregulated and operates with little governmental supervision...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936423/optimising-the-community-based-approach-to-healthcare-improvement-comparative-case-studies-of-the-clinical-community-model-in-practice
#8
Emma-Louise Aveling, Graham Martin, Georgia Herbert, Natalie Armstrong
Community-based approaches to healthcare improvement are receiving increasing attention. Such approaches could offer an infrastructure for efficient knowledge-sharing and a potent means of influencing behaviours, but their potential is yet to be optimised. After briefly reviewing challenges to community-based approaches, we describe in detail the clinical community model. Through exploring clinical communities in practice, we seek to identify practical lessons for optimising this community-based approach to healthcare improvement...
November 22, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936418/the-impact-of-monomer-sequence-and-stereochemistry-on-the-swelling-and-erosion-of-biodegradable-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-matrices
#9
Michael A Washington, Devin J Swiner, Kerri R Bell, Morgan V Fedorchak, Steven R Little, Tara Y Meyer
Monomer sequence is demonstrated to be a primary factor in determining the hydrolytic degradation profile of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)s (PLGAs). Although many approaches have been used to tune the degradation of PLGAs, little effort has been expended in exploring the sequence-control strategy exploited by nature in biopolymers. Cylindrical matrices and films prepared from a series of sequenced and random PLGAs were subjected to hydrolysis in a pH 7.4 buffer at 37 °C. Swelling ranged from 107% for the random racemic PLGA with a 50:50 ratio of lactic (L) to glycolic (G) units to 6% for the sequenced alternating copolymer poly LG...
November 24, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936416/antigen-recognition-triggered-drug-delivery-mediated-by-nanocapsule-functionalized-cytotoxic-t-cells
#10
R Brad Jones, Stephanie Mueller, Sudha Kumari, Vlad Vrbanac, Shy Genel, Andrew M Tager, Todd M Allen, Bruce D Walker, Darrell J Irvine
Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes (CTLs) kill pathogen-infected or transformed cells following interaction of their T-cell receptors (TCRs) with foreign (e.g. virus-derived) peptides bound to MHC-I molecules on the target cell. TCR binding triggers CTLs to secrete perforin, which forms pores in the target cell membrane, promoting target death. Here, we show that by conjugating drug-loaded lipid nanoparticles to the surface of CTLs, their lytic machinery can be co-opted to lyse the cell-bound drug carrier, providing triggered release of drug cargo upon target cell recognition...
November 25, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936405/identification-of-lipopolysaccharide-interacting-plasma-membrane-type-proteins-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#11
Cornelius S Vilakazi, Ian A Dubery, Lizelle A Piater
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an amphiphatic bacterial glycoconjugate found on the external membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. This endotoxin is considered as a microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecule and has been shown to elicit defense responses in plants. Here, LPS-interacting proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane (PM)-type fractions were captured and identified in order to investigate those involved in LPS perception and linked to triggering of innate immune responses. A novel proteomics-based affinity-capture strategy coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed for the enrichment and identification of LPS-interacting proteins...
November 30, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936392/rutin-protects-endothelial-dysfunction-by-disturbing-nox4-and-ros-sensitive-nlrp3-inflammasome
#12
Wei Wang, Qiu-Hong Wu, Yong Sui, Yan Wang, Xin Qiu
High glucose induced endothelial dysfunction is blamed for initiation of vascular complication in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Rutin has been described in possessing comprehensive pharmacological activities, but the mechanism involved in endothelial protection through regulating oxidative stress and damage is still ambiguous. In the present study, rutin was evaluated in high glucose stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and high glucose diet-treated SD rats were applied to explored the molecular mechanism in rutin counteracting oxidative stress and damage...
December 6, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936389/ethanolic-extract-of-dalbergia-sissoo-promotes-rapid-regeneration-of-cortical-bone-in-drill-hole-defect-model-of-rat
#13
Vikram Khedgikar, Priyanka Kushwaha, Naseer Ahmad, Jyoti Gautam, Padam Kumar, Rakesh Maurya, Ritu Trivedi
Leaves of Dalbergia sissoo is known to have protective actions against postmenopausal bone loss in rat. In this study, we have evaluated the fracture healing properties of ethanolic extract (EE) of Dalbergia sissoo leaves. To observe the fracture healing property in the drill-hole injury model, we randomly divided total 32 adult female Sprague Dawley rats (180±200g) into 4 groups: (i) Control operated group; (ii) EE (250mg/kg/day); (iii) EE (500mg/kg/day) and (iv) EE (1000mg/kg/day). The right femora were fractured at the mid-diaphysis region and each group of rats received their respective treatment for 15days...
December 6, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936370/episodic-future-thinking-involving-the-nonsmoking-self-can-induce-lower-discounting-and-cigarette-consumption
#14
Wen-Bin Chiou, Wen-Hsiung Wu
OBJECTIVE: Building on recent advances showing that the engagement in episodic future thinking (EFT) rather than semantic future thinking (SFT) can induce individuals to delay gratification and that activation of the ideal self may promote goal attainment, we tested whether imagining life events after smoking cessation led to lower discounting and reduced smoking. METHOD: Ninety smokers (21 women, 69 men) with intentions to quit or reduce smoking were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental conditions: EFT, SFT, and control...
January 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936364/parent-offspring-resemblance-for-drinking-behaviors-in-a-longitudinal-twin-sample
#15
Gretchen R B Saunders, Matt McGue, William G Iacono, Irene J Elkins
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate parent-offspring resemblance for alcohol consumption and dependence symptoms, including sex-specific effects, and how these patterns change across adolescence and early adulthood. METHOD: Three cohorts of twins were assessed longitudinally at five time points between ages 14 and 29 years, with parents directly assessed at intake, using structured interviews. Twin offspring and parents from the population-based Minnesota Twin Family Study were included for a total sample size of 3,762 offspring (52% female) and their parents...
January 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936360/it-depends-on-how-you-look-at-it-the-role-of-alcohol-in-men-s-sexual-aggression-perpetration
#16
Maria Testa, Michael J Cleveland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936355/sample-size-determination-for-a-three-arm-equivalence-trial-of-poisson-and-negative-binomial-responses
#17
Yu-Wei Chang, Yi Tsong, Zhigen Zhao
Assessing equivalence or similarity has drawn much attention recently as many drug products have lost or will lose their patents in the next few years, especially certain best-selling biologics. To claim equivalence between the test treatment and the reference treatment when assay sensitivity is well-established from historical data, one has to demonstrate both superiority of the test treatment over placebo and equivalence between the test treatment and the reference treatment. Thus, there is urgency for practitioners to derive a practical way to calculate sample size for a three-arm equivalence trial...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936335/rac2-p38-mapk-dependent-nadph-oxidase-activity-is-associated-with-the-resistance-of-quiescent-cells-to-ionizing-radiation
#18
Hailong Pei, Jian Zhang, Jing Nie, Nan Ding, Wentao Hu, Junrui Hua, Ryoichi Hirayama, Yoshiya Furusawa, Cuihua Liu, Bingyan Li, Tom K Hei, Guangming Zhou
Our recent study showed that quiescent G0 cells are more resistant to ionizing radiation than G1 cells; however, the underlying mechanism for this increased radioresistance is unknown. Based on the relatively lower DNA damage induced in G0 cells, we hypothesize that these cells are exposed to less oxidative stress during exposure. As a catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (RAC2) may be involved in the cellular response to ionizing radiation. Here, we show that RAC2 was expressed at low levels in G0 cells but increased substantially in G1 cells...
December 9, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936296/antiangiogenic-and-toxic-effects-of-genistein-usnic-acid-and-their-copper-complexes-in-zebrafish-embryos-at-different-developmental-stages
#19
Heidrun Draut, Tobias Rehm, Gerrit Begemann, Rainer Schobert
Angiogenesis plays a major role in the normal embryonic development and in diseases such as cancer. Drugs that control angiogenesis are an alternative way to tackle this disease. The polyphenols usnic acid 3, genistein 5, and daidzein 6 were tested for antiangiogenic and unwanted effects in zebrafish embryos whose blood vessel system resembles that of mammals. The established tyrosine kinase inhibitors axitinib 1 and tyrphostin AG490 2 were included for comparison. All compounds except 6 caused distinct antiangiogenic effects such as a concentration-dependent reduction of intersegmental vessels, dorsal longitudinal anastomotic vessels, subintestinal veins and secondary sprouts...
December 9, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936295/variability-of-pinus-halepensis-mill-essential-oils-and-their-antioxidant-activities-depending-on-the-stage-of-growth-during-vegetative-cycle
#20
Zineb Djerrad, Abderrahmane Djouahri, Leila Kadik
The impact of growth stages during vegetative cycle (B0 -B5 ) on chemical composition and antioxidant activities of Pinus halepensis Mill. needles essential oils was investigated for the first time. GC and GC-MS analyses pointed to a quantitative variability of components; terpene hydrocarbons derivatives, represented by α-pinene (8.5-12.9%), myrcene (17.5-21.6%), p-cymene (7.9-11.9%) and (Z)-β-caryophyllene (17.3-21.2%) as major components, decreased from 88.9% at B0 growth stage to 66.9% at B5 growth stage, whereas oxygenated derivatives, represented by caryophyllene oxide (5...
December 9, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
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