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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224223/altering-the-school-breakfast-environment-reduces-barriers-to-school-breakfast-participation-among-diverse-rural-youth
#1
Mary O Hearst, Amy Shanafelt, Qi Wang, Robert Leduc, Marilyn S Nanney
BACKGROUND: The purpose is to determine if altering school breakfast policies and the school breakfast environment will positively impact adolescent beliefs of the barriers and benefits of eating breakfast. METHODS: There were 904 adolescents from 16 rural high schools, Minnesota, in the BreakFAST Study who reported eating breakfast fewer than 4 times per week at baseline. Schools were randomized to intervention (N = 8 schools) or delayed intervention (N = 8) condition...
January 2018: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224222/chronic-pain-in-the-school-setting-the-teachers-point-of-view
#2
Ester Solé, Elena Castarlenas, Elisabet Sánchez-Rodríguez, Santiago Galán, Rocío de la Vega, Mark P Jensen, Jordi Miró
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to (1) examine the reactions of teachers and student teachers to children experiencing pain, (2) identify the most common challenges and potential resources that are associated to dealing with them, and (3) examine whether their responses differed as a function of their experience or sex. METHODS: Forty teachers and 318 student teachers completed a survey which included descriptive information, a questionnaire that assesses different responses of participants to children who experience pain, and provides a list of problems and resources that participants might encounter and implement, respectively, when dealing with these children...
January 2018: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224173/testing-the-specificity-of-executive-functioning-impairments-in-adolescents-with-adhd-odd-cd-and-asd
#3
Virginia Carter Leno, Susie Chandler, Pippa White, Andrew Pickles, Gillian Baird, Chris Hobson, Anna B Smith, Tony Charman, Katya Rubia, Emily Simonoff
Current diagnostic systems conceptualise attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as separate diagnoses. However, all three demonstrate executive functioning (EF) impairments. Whether these impairments are trans-diagnostic or disorder-specific remains relatively unexplored. Four groups of 10-16 year-olds [typically developing (TD; N = 43), individuals clinically diagnosed with ADHD (N = 21), ODD/CD (N = 26) and ASD (N = 41)] completed Go/NoGo and Switch tasks...
December 9, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224120/spontaneous-cervical-artery-dissection-is-accompanied-by-a-hypercoagulable-state-and-simultaneous-inflammatory-condition
#4
Johann Otto Pelz, Kristian Harms, Michael Metze, Dominik Michalski
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous cervical artery dissections (sCAD) are often preceded by infections. However, existing data about inflammatory parameters remained inconsistent. Remarkably, concurrent information about the coagulation system, whose affection seems also reasonable to cause ischaemic events, are still lacking in sCAD patients. Thus, this study explores the association between the inflammatory and coagulation system in patients with sCAD. METHODS: The parameters leukocyte and thrombocyte count, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, D-dimer, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time were extracted from hospital-based medical records of patients (n = 60) with sCAD and compared with those of a control group (n = 97) from a prospective observational stroke study...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224113/sex-gender-and-transgender-metabolic-impact-of-cross-hormone-therapy
#5
Roberta de Souza Santos, Aaron P Frank, Michael Douglas Nelson, Maurice M Garcia, Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Most preclinical and clinical, animal, and human research has been biased with respect to sex and even more so with respect to gender. In fact, little is known about the impact of sex and even less about the influence of gender on overall metabolic processes. The National Institutes of Health has recognized this gap in scientific knowledge and now mandates that studies be conducted in both sexes and to include gender as variables influencing physiological processes such as metabolism. It is therefore critical to understand and appreciate how to incorporate sex and gender in preclinical and clinical research in order to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms by which metabolic processes differ by sex and gender...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224111/prenatal-testosterone-programming-of-insulin-resistance-in-the%C3%A2-female-sheep
#6
Muraly Puttabyatappa, Vasantha Padmanabhan
Insulin resistance, a common feature of metabolic disorders such as obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome, is a risk factor for development of diabetes. Because sex hormones orchestrate the establishment of sex-specific behavioral, reproductive, and metabolic differences, a role for them in the developmental origin of insulin resistance is also to be expected. Female sheep exposed to male levels of testosterone during fetal life serve as an excellent translational model for delineating programming of insulin resistance...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224110/sex-differences-in-androgen-regulation-of-metabolism-in-nonhuman-primates
#7
Cadence True, David H Abbott, Charles T Roberts, Oleg Varlamov
The in-depth characterization of sex differences relevant to human physiology requires the judicious use of a variety of animal models and human clinical data. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) represent an important experimental system that bridges rodent studies and clinical investigations. NHP studies have been especially useful in understanding the role of sex hormones in development and metabolism and also allow the elucidation of the effects of pertinent dietary influences on physiology pertinent to disease states such as obesity and diabetes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224107/sex-dependent-role-of-estrogen-sulfotransferase-and-steroid-sulfatase-in-metabolic-homeostasis
#8
Wojciech G Garbacz, Mengxi Jiang, Wen Xie
Sulfonation and desulfation are two opposing processes that represent an important layer of regulation of estrogenic activity via ligand supplies. Enzymatic activities of families of enzymes, known as sulfotransferases and sulfatases, lead to structural and functional changes of the steroids, thyroids, xenobiotics, and neurotransmitters. Estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) and steroid sulfatase (STS) represent negative and positive regulation of the estrogen activity, respectively. This is because EST-mediated sulfation deactivates estrogens, whereas STS-mediated desulfation converts the inactive estrogen sulfates to active estrogens...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224106/g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-gper-and-sex-specific-metabolic-homeostasis
#9
Geetanjali Sharma, Eric R Prossnitz
Obesity and metabolic syndrome display disparate prevalence and regulation between males and females. Human, as well as rodent, females with regular menstrual/estrous cycles exhibit protection from weight gain and associated chronic diseases. These beneficial effects are predominantly attributed to the female hormone estrogen, specifically 17β-estradiol (E2). E2 exerts its actions via multiple receptors, nuclear and extranuclear estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ, and the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, previously termed GPR30)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224103/sex-differences-and-role-of-estradiol-in-hypoglycemia-associated-counter-regulation
#10
Karen P Briski, Hussain N Alhamami, Ayed Alshamrani, Santosh K Mandal, Manita Shakya, Mostafa H H Ibrahim
Vital nerve cell functions, including maintenance of transmembrane voltage and information transfer, occur at high energy expense. Inadequate provision of the obligate metabolic fuel glucose exposes neurons to risk of dysfunction or injury. Clinical hypoglycemia rarely occurs in nondiabetic individuals but is an unfortunate regular occurrence in patients with type 1 or advanced insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Requisite strict glycemic control, involving treatment with insulin, sulfonylureas, or glinides, can cause frequent episodes of iatrogenic hypoglycemia due to defective counter-regulation, including reduced glycemic thresholds and diminished magnitude of motor responses...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224100/estrogens-and-body-weight-regulation-in-men
#11
Katya B Rubinow
Our understanding of the metabolic roles of sex steroids in men has evolved substantially over recent decades. Whereas testosterone once was believed to contribute to metabolic risk in men, the importance of adequate androgen exposure for the maintenance of metabolic health has been demonstrated unequivocally. A growing body of evidence now also supports a critical role for estrogens in metabolic regulation in men. Recent data from clinical intervention studies indicate that estradiol may be a stronger determinant of adiposity than testosterone in men, and even short-term estradiol deprivation contributes to fat mass accrual...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224098/role-of-estrogens-in-the-regulation-of-liver-lipid-metabolism
#12
Brian T Palmisano, Lin Zhu, John M Stafford
Before menopause, women are protected from atherosclerotic heart disease associated with obesity relative to men. Sex hormones have been proposed as a mechanism that differentiates this risk. In this review, we discuss the literature around how the endogenous sex hormones and hormone treatment approaches after menopause regulate fatty acid, triglyceride, and cholesterol metabolism to influence cardiovascular risk.The important regulatory functions of estrogen signaling pathways with regard to lipid metabolism have been in part obscured by clinical trials with hormone treatment of women after menopause, due to different formulations, routes of delivery, and pairings with progestins...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224096/origins-and-functions-of-the-ventrolateral-vmh-a-complex-neuronal-cluster-orchestrating-sex-differences-in-metabolism-and-behavior
#13
William C Krause, Holly A Ingraham
The neuroendocrine brain or hypothalamus has emerged as one of the most highly sexually dimorphic brain regions in mammals, and specifically in rodents. It is not surprising that hypothalamic nuclei play a pivotal role in controlling sex-dependent physiology. This brain region functions as a chief executive officer or master regulator of homeostatic physiological systems to integrate both external and internal signals. In this review, we describe sex differences in energy homeostasis that arise in one area of the hypothalamus, the ventrolateral subregion of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl) with a focus on how male and female neurons function in metabolic and behavioral aspects...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224095/sex-differences-in-muscle-wasting
#14
Lindsey J Anderson, Haiming Liu, Jose M Garcia
With aging and other muscle wasting diseases, men and women undergo similar pathological changes in skeletal muscle: increased inflammation, enhanced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, satellite cell senescence, elevated apoptosis and proteasome activity, and suppressed protein synthesis and myocyte regeneration. Decreased food intake and physical activity also indirectly contribute to muscle wasting. Sex hormones also play important roles in maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis. Testosterone is a potent anabolic factor promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscular regeneration...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224094/sexual-dimorphism-and-estrogen-action-in-mouse-liver
#15
Sara Della Torre, Federica Lolli, Paolo Ciana, Adriana Maggi
Recent studies have demonstrated that in mice, the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is expressed in the liver and has a direct effect on the regulation of the hepatic genes relevant for energy metabolism and drug metabolism. The sex-related differential expression of the hepatic ERα raises the questions as to whether this receptor is responsible for the sexual differences observed in the physiopathology of the liver.
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224093/sex-effects-at-the-ramparts-nutrient-and-microbe-mediated-regulation-of-the-immune-metabolic-interface
#16
Nyrie Israelian, Jayne S Danska
The relationships between dietary compounds, derivative metabolites, and host metabolism and immunity are controlled by diverse molecular mechanisms. Essential contributions to these dynamics come from the community of microbes (the microbiome) inhabiting the human digestive tract. The composition and function of the microbiome are shaped by available nutrients, and reciprocally, these organisms produce an as yet poorly defined repertoire of molecules that communicate with the epithelial barrier and the mucosal immune system...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224092/sex-differences-in-leptin-control-of-cardiovascular-function-in-health-and-metabolic-diseases
#17
Eric J Belin de Chantemèle
Leptin, the adipocyte-derived hormone identified in 1994 for its major role in the control of satiety and body weight regulation, is an adipokine secreted in a sex-specific manner. Although it has clearly been established that females secrete three to four times more leptin than males and that this sexual dimorphism in leptin secretion is exacerbated with overweight and obesity, the origin and the physiological consequences of this sexual dimorphism remain ill-defined. The adipose tissue is the major site of leptin secretion; however, leptin receptors are ubiquitously expressed, conferring to leptin, and indirectly to the adipose tissue, a potential role in the control of numerous physiological functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224091/the-role-of-sex-and-sex-hormones-in-regulating-obesity-induced-inflammation
#18
Mita Varghese, Cameron Griffin, Kanakadurga Singer
Metabolic and non-metabolic complications due to obesity are becoming more prevalent, yet our understanding of the mechanisms driving these is not. This is due to individual risk factor variability making it difficult to predict disease outcomes such as diabetes and insulin resistance. Gender is a critical factor in obesity outcomes with women having more adiposity but reduced metabolic complications compared to men. The role of immune system activation during obesity is an emerging field that links adiposity to metabolic syndrome...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224090/men-are-from-mars-women-are-from-venus-sex-differences-in-insulin-action-and-secretion
#19
Ananda Basu, Simmi Dube, Rita Basu
Sex difference plays a substantial role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in healthy glucose-tolerant humans. The factors which may contribute to the sex-related differences in glucose metabolism include differences in lifestyle (diet and exercise), sex hormones, and body composition. Several epidemiological and observational studies have noted that impaired glucose tolerance is more common in women than men. Some of these studies have attributed this to differences in body composition, while others have attributed impaired insulin sensitivity as a cause of impaired glucose tolerance in women...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224089/cellular-mechanisms-driving-sex-differences-in-adipose-tissue-biology-and-body-shape-in-humans-and-mouse-models
#20
Kalypso Karastergiou, Susan K Fried
Sex differences in adipose tissue distribution and the metabolic, endocrine, and immune functions of different anatomical fat depots have been described, but they are incompletely documented in the literature. It is becoming increasingly clear that adipose depots serve distinct functions in males and females and have specific physiological roles. However, the mechanisms that regulate the size and function of specific adipose tissues in men and women remain poorly understood. New insights from mouse models have advanced our understanding of depot differences in adipose growth and remodeling via the proliferation and differentiation of adipose progenitors that can expand adipocyte number in the tissue or simply replace dysfunctional older and larger adipocytes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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