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Pediatric new antiepileptic drug

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095015/comorbidity-of-migraine-and-epilepsy-in-pediatrics-a-review
#1
Jasna Jancic, Vesna Djuric, Boris Hencic, John N van den Anker, Janko Samardzic
Migraine and epilepsy are classified as chronic paroxysmal neurologic disorders sharing many clinical features, as well as possible treatment options. This review highlights the similarities between migraine and epilepsy in pediatrics, focusing on epidemiologic, pathophysiological, genetic, clinical, and pharmacologic aspects. Despite the fact that several syndromes share symptoms of both migraine and epilepsy, further research is needed to clarify the pathophysiological and genetic basis of their comorbidity...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898974/practice-guideline-update-summary-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-the-new-antiepileptic-drugs-ii-treatment-resistant-epilepsy-report-of-the-guideline-development-dissemination-and-implementation-subcommittee-of-the-american-academy-of-neurology-and-the-american
#2
Andres M Kanner, Eric Ashman, David Gloss, Cynthia Harden, Blaise Bourgeois, Jocelyn F Bautista, Bassel Abou-Khalil, Evren Burakgazi-Dalkilic, Esmeralda Llanas Park, John Stern, Deborah Hirtz, Mark Nespeca, Barry Gidal, Edward Faught, Jacqueline French
OBJECTIVE: To update the 2004 American Academy of Neurology guideline for managing treatment-resistant (TR) epilepsy with second- and third-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). METHODS: 2004 criteria were used to systemically review literature (January 2003 to November 2015), classify pertinent studies according to the therapeutic rating scheme, and link recommendations to evidence strength. RESULTS: Forty-two articles were included. RECOMMENDATIONS: The following are established as effective to reduce seizure frequency (Level A): immediate-release pregabalin and perampanel for TR adult focal epilepsy (TRAFE); vigabatrin for TRAFE (not first-line treatment); rufinamide for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) (add-on therapy)...
July 10, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898971/practice-guideline-update-summary-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-the-new-antiepileptic-drugs-i-treatment-of-new-onset-epilepsy-report-of-the-guideline-development-dissemination-and-implementation-subcommittee-of-the-american-academy-of-neurology-and-the-american
#3
Andres M Kanner, Eric Ashman, David Gloss, Cynthia Harden, Blaise Bourgeois, Jocelyn F Bautista, Bassel Abou-Khalil, Evren Burakgazi-Dalkilic, Esmeralda Llanas Park, John Stern, Deborah Hirtz, Mark Nespeca, Barry Gidal, Edward Faught, Jacqueline French
OBJECTIVE: To update the 2004 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline for treating new-onset focal or generalized epilepsy with second- and third-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). METHODS: The 2004 AAN criteria were used to systematically review literature (January 2003-November 2015), classify pertinent studies according to the therapeutic rating scheme, and link recommendations to evidence strength. RESULTS: Several second-generation AEDs are effective for new-onset focal epilepsy...
July 10, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753573/impact-of-prior-authorization-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-children-with-epilepsy
#4
Elaine C Wirrell, Alexander J Vanderwiel, Lauren Nickels, Saskia L Vanderwiel, Katherine C Nickels
OBJECTIVE: We assessed how commonly prior authorization results in treatment delay or missed doses in children with epilepsy. METHODS: Parents of 462 children followed in a pediatric epilepsy clinic were surveyed regarding prior authorization in the preceding year. Epilepsy and insurance details were collected. If prior authorization was required, parents were asked whether it resulted in (1) delayed initiation of a newly-prescribed antiepileptic drug, and/or (2) lapse in coverage of a current medication...
June 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616471/a-review-of-the-new-antiepileptic-drugs-for-focal-onset-seizures-in-pediatrics-role-of-extrapolation
#5
REVIEW
Alexis Arzimanoglou, O'Neill D'Cruz, Douglas Nordli, Shlomo Shinnar, Gregory L Holmes
Most antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) receive regulatory approval for children years after the drug is available in adults, encouraging off-label use of the drug in children and hindering attempts to obtain quality pediatric data in controlled trials. Extrapolating adult efficacy data to pediatrics can reduce the time between approval in adults and that in children. To extrapolate efficacy from adults to children, several assumptions must be supported, such as (1) a similar disease progression and response to interventions in adults and children, and (2) similar exposure response in adults and children...
June 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574705/a-comprehensive-approach-to-identifying-repurposed-drugs-to-treat-scn8a-epilepsy
#6
Talia A Atkin, Chani M Maher, Aaron C Gerlach, Bryant C Gay, Brett M Antonio, Sonia C Santos, Karen M Padilla, JulieAnn Rader, Douglas S Krafte, Matthew A Fox, Gregory R Stewart, Slavé Petrovski, Orrin Devinsky, Matthew Might, Steven Petrou, David B Goldstein
OBJECTIVE: Many previous studies of drug repurposing have relied on literature review followed by evaluation of a limited number of candidate compounds. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of a more comprehensive approach using high-throughput screening to identify inhibitors of a gain-of-function mutation in the SCN8A gene associated with severe pediatric epilepsy. METHODS: We developed cellular models expressing wild-type or an R1872Q mutation in the Nav 1.6 sodium channel encoded by SCN8A...
April 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422636/childhood-epilepsy-and-adhd-comorbidity-in-an-indian-tertiary-medical-center-outpatient-population
#7
Anita Choudhary, Sheffali Gulati, Rajesh Sagar, Naveen Sankhyan, Kam Sripada
This study aimed to assess the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its characteristics and risk factors in children with epilepsy at a tertiary medical center in New Delhi. Children with active epilepsy, aged 6 to 12 years, were assessed for ADHD using DSM-IV-TR criteria. Epilepsy and psychiatric characteristics, sociodemographic indicators, and use of antiepileptic drugs were analyzed for differences between the ADHD and non-ADHD groups. Among the 73 children with epilepsy, 23% (n = 17) had comorbid ADHD, of whom 59% (n = 10) had predominantly inattentive type, 35% (n = 6) combined type, and 6% (n = 1) predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114859/antiepileptic-drug-behavioral-side-effects-and-baseline-hyperactivity-in-children-and-adolescents-with-new-onset-epilepsy
#8
Shanna M Guilfoyle, Katherine Follansbee-Junger, Aimee W Smith, Angela Combs, Shannon Ollier, Brooke Hater, Avani C Modi
OBJECTIVE: To examine baseline psychological functioning and antiepileptic drug (AED) behavioral side effects in new onset epilepsy and determine, by age, whether baseline psychological functioning predicts AED behavioral side effects 1 month following AED initiation. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted between July 2011 and December 2014 that included youths with new onset epilepsy. As part of routine interdisciplinary care, caregivers completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition: Parent Rating Scale to report on baseline psychological functioning at the diagnostic visit and the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire to identify AED behavioral side effects at the 1-month follow-up clinic visit following AED initiation...
January 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755452/extrapolating-evidence-of-antiepileptic-drug-efficacy-in-adults-to-children-%C3%A2-2-years-of-age-with-focal-seizures-the-case-for-disease-similarity
#9
REVIEW
John M Pellock, Alexis Arzimanoglou, O'Neill D'Cruz, Gregory L Holmes, Douglas Nordli, Shlomo Shinnar
Expediting pediatric access to new antiseizure drugs is particularly compelling, because epileptic seizures are the most common serious neurological symptom in children. Analysis of antiepileptic drug (AED) efficacy outcomes of randomized controlled trials, conducted during the past 20 years in different populations and a broad range of study sites and countries, has shown considerable consistency for each drug between adult and pediatric populations. Historically, the majority of regulatory approvals for AEDs have been for seizure types and not for specific epilepsy syndromes...
October 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202262/cognitive-and-behavioral-effects-of-new-antiepileptic-drugs-in-pediatric-epilepsy
#10
REVIEW
Romina Moavero, Marta Elena Santarone, Cinzia Galasso, Paolo Curatolo
BACKGROUND: In pediatric epilepsy, neurodevelopmental comorbidities could be sometimes even more disabling than seizures themselves, therefore it is crucial for the clinicians to understand how to benefit these children, and to choose the proper antiepileptic drug for the treatment of epilepsy associated to a specific neurodevelopmental disorder. Aim of this paper is to discuss the potential impact on cognition and behavior of new and newest AEDs and to guide the choice of the clinicians for a targeted use in epilepsy associated with specific neurodevelopmental disorders...
June 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141738/new-insights-into-the-mechanisms-of-the-ketogenic-diet
#11
REVIEW
Detlev Boison
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets have been used for almost a century for the treatment of epilepsy. Used traditionally for the treatment of refractory pediatric epilepsies, in recent years the use of ketogenic diets has experienced a revival to include the treatment of adulthood epilepsies as well as conditions ranging from autism to chronic pain and cancer. Despite the ability of ketogenic diet therapy to suppress seizures refractory to antiepileptic drugs and reports of lasting seizure freedom, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876395/massive-lamotrigine-poisoning-a-case-report
#12
Salvatore Grosso, Silvia Ferranti, Carla Gaggiano, Elisabetta Grande, Barbara Loi, Rosanna Di Bartolo
Lamotrigine (LTG) represents the most commonly prescribed of the so-called new generation antiepileptic drugs. We describe a child who was admitted to the emergency room because of generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus followed by a complex neurological picture with hyperkinesia and acute ataxia as a result of a LTG intoxication. The experience on acute LTG intoxication is very limited in pediatrics. The present case provides information on the clinical picture related to LTG overdose and confirms that drug intoxications should be considered in the differential diagnosis strategy when severe and polymorphic neurological symptoms occur acutely...
April 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773903/efficacy-of-potassium-bromide-in-the-treatment-of-drug-resistant-epilepsy-a-case-of-new-onset-refractory-status-epilepticus
#13
Jun Takei, Ran Takei, Satoshi Nozuma, Keiichi Nakahara, Osamu Watanabe, Hiroshi Takashima
A 40-year-old man presented with a series of generalized tonic-clonic seizures after febrile illness. He developed status epilepticus and required mechanical ventilation with anesthetics. Steroid pulse, intravenous immunoglobulin, and immunoadsorption therapy were administrated, and the status epilepticus improved; however, drug-resistant seizures remained. Despite the use of several antiepileptic drugs, seizures frequently occurred. Additional administration of potassium bromide resulted in significant suppression of seizures...
November 29, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686587/risk-of-recurrence-after-a-first-unprovoked-seizure-in-children
#14
Catarina Maia, Ana Raquel Moreira, Tânia Lopes, Cecília Martins
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the first episode of unprovoked epileptic seizure in children and assess recurrence risk factors. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study, based on the analysis of medical records of patients admitted between 2003 and 2014, with first epileptic seizure, at the pediatric service of a secondary hospital. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 program. RESULTS: Of the 103 patients, 52...
May 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544474/emerging-antiepileptic-drugs-for-severe-pediatric-epilepsies
#15
REVIEW
Basanagoud Mudigoudar, Sarah Weatherspoon, James W Wheless
The medical management of the epilepsy syndromes of early childhood (eg, infantile spasms, Dravet syndrome, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome) is challenging; and requires careful evaluation, classification, and treatment. Pharmacologic therapy continues to be the mainstay of management for these children, and as such it is important for the clinician to be familiar with the role of new antiepileptic drugs. This article reports the clinical trial data and personal experience in treating the severe epilepsies of childhood with the recently Food and Drug Administration-approved new antiepileptic drugs (vigabatrin, rufinamide, perampanel, and clobazam) and those in clinical trials (cannabidiol, stiripentol, and fenfluramine)...
May 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500721/refractory-status-epilepticus-in-children-intention-to-treat-with-continuous-infusions-of-midazolam-and-pentobarbital
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Robert C Tasker, Howard P Goodkin, Iván Sánchez Fernández, Kevin E Chapman, Nicholas S Abend, Ravindra Arya, James N Brenton, Jessica L Carpenter, William D Gaillard, Tracy A Glauser, Joshua Goldstein, Ashley R Helseth, Michele C Jackson, Kush Kapur, Mohamad A Mikati, Katrina Peariso, Mark S Wainwright, Angus A Wilfong, Korwyn Williams, Tobias Loddenkemper
OBJECTIVE: To describe pediatric patients with convulsive refractory status epilepticus in whom there is intention to use an IV anesthetic for seizure control. DESIGN: Two-year prospective observational study evaluating patients (age range, 1 mo to 21 yr) with refractory status epilepticus not responding to two antiepileptic drug classes and treated with continuous infusion of anesthetic agent. SETTING: Nine pediatric hospitals in the United States...
October 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475280/ketogenic-diet-treatment-for-pediatric-super-refractory-status-epilepticus
#17
Brian Appavu, Lisa Vanatta, John Condie, John F Kerrigan, Randa Jarrar
PURPOSE: We aimed to study whether ketogenic diet (KD) therapy leads to resolution of super-refractory status epilepticus in pediatric patients without significant harm. METHOD: A retrospective review was performed at Phoenix Children's Hospital on patients with super-refractory status epilepticus undergoing ketogenic diet therapy from 2011 to 2015. RESULTS: Ten children with super-refractory status epilepticus, ages 2-16 years, were identified...
October 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307737/update-on-the-role-of-eslicarbazepine-acetate-in-the-treatment-of-partial-onset-epilepsy
#18
REVIEW
Renato Tambucci, Claudia Basti, Maria Maresca, Giangennaro Coppola, Alberto Verrotti
Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a once daily new third generation antiepileptic drug that shares the basic chemical structure of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine - a dibenzazepine nucleus with the 5-carboxamide substituent, but is structurally different at the 10,11-position. ESL is a pro-drug metabolized to its major active metabolite eslicarbazepine. Despite the fact that the exact mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated, it is thought to involve inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC)...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27249542/advancing-pharmacologic-treatment-options-for-pharmacologic-treatment-options-for-children-with-epilepsy
#19
REVIEW
Stéphane Auvin
INTRODUCTION: The pharmacological management of epilepsy is continually modified by the increase in our knowledge about the efficacy and the safety on antiepileptic drugs. AREAS COVERED: This review covers the published data (2010-2015) on the pharmacological management of epilepsy in children and adolescent. We review the data from the most recent randomized controlled and open-label trials. EXPERT OPINION: Even if there is an increasing number of antiepileptic drugs approved for focal seizure in children and adolescent with epilepsy, each new approval would be considered as a significant addition to the current therapeutic options...
August 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27179191/attention-and-executive-functions-in-the-early-course-of-pediatric-epilepsy
#20
Gitta Reuner, Navah Esther Kadish, Jan Henje Doering, Doreen Balke, Susanne Schubert-Bast
OBJECTIVE: Our prospective study aimed at exploring attention and executive functions in children with new-onset epilepsy prior to and during the early course of antiepileptic treatment. Sociodemographic and epilepsy-related factors were analyzed as potential predictors both of impaired cognitive functions as well as for changes in cognitive functioning in the early course of illness. METHODS: From a total group of 115 children aged six to 17years without major disabilities, 76 children were assessed longitudinally with a screening tool for attention and executive functions (EpiTrack Junior®)...
July 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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