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Water electrolyte

Kasey Cargill, Sunder Sims-Lucas
The mammalian kidney is a complex organ that has several metabolically active cell types to aid in waste filtration, salt-water balance, and electrolyte homeostasis in the body. These functions are done primarily through the nephron, which relies on strict regulation of various metabolic pathways. Any deviations in the metabolic profile of nephrons or their precursor cells called nephron progenitors can lead to renal pathologies and abnormal development. Metabolism encompasses the mechanisms by which cells generate intermediate molecules and energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)...
December 15, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Dipak Aryal, Venkat Ganesan
Our recent atomistic simulation studies demonstrated that the transport properties of salt ions and water in non-crosslinked polymer electrolyte membrane exhibit an intriguing dependence on salt concentration that is opposite to that seen in electrolyte solutions. Here, we extend our study to probe the influence of the degree of cross-linking of the polymer on the transport properties of salt and water in polymer electrolyte membranes. Towards this objective, we use a coarse-grained model embedded within dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) mesoscale simulations, which allows us to access time scales necessary for studying crosslinked polymer systems...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Minmin Zhang, James R T Seddon, Serge G Lemay
HYPOTHESIS: The stability of colloidal suspensions can be influenced by supersaturation of the supporting electrolyte with gas. It has been proposed that this effect can be attributed to the formation of nanobubbles on the surface of the colloidal particles, in turn influencing DLVO forces. While previous interpretations have focused primarily on van der Waals interactions, probing positively charged particles can provide complementary insight into electrostatic interactions. EXPERIMENTS: High-power water electrolysis creates an aqueous solution supersaturated with oxygen and hydrogen...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Danielle McCartney, Christopher Irwin, Gregory R Cox, Ben Desbrow
This study investigated the effect of consuming either water or a carbohydrate (CHO)-electrolyte sports beverage ('Sports Drink') ad libitum with food during a 4 h post-exercise recovery period on fluid restoration, nutrient provision and subsequent endurance cycling performance. On two occasions, 16 endurance-trained cyclists; 8 male [M] (age: 31 ± 9 y; VO2max : 54 ± 6 mL·kg-1 ·min-1 ) and 8 female [F] (age: 33 ± 8 y; VO2max : 50 ± 7 mL·kg-1 ·min-1 ); lost 2.3 ± 0.3% and 1...
December 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Xin He, Bo Yan, Xin Zhang, Zigeng Liu, Dominic Bresser, Jun Wang, Rui Wang, Xia Cao, Yixi Su, Hao Jia, Clare P Grey, Henrich Frielinghaus, Donald G Truhlar, Martin Winter, Jie Li, Elie Paillard
The continuously increasing number and size of lithium-based batteries developed for large-scale applications raise serious environmental concerns. Herein, we address the issues related to electrolyte toxicity and safety by proposing a "water-in-ionomer" type of electrolyte which replaces organic solvents by water and expensive and toxic fluorinated lithium salts by a non-fluorinated, inexpensive and non-toxic superabsorbing ionomer, lithium polyacrylate. Interestingly, the electrochemical stability window of this electrolyte is extended greatly, even for high water contents...
December 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Michi Recupero, Pierluigi Fulignati, Alessandro Naticchia, Silvia D'Alonzo, Francesca D'Ascenzo, Stefano Costanzi
ADH is a hormone secreted by neurohypophysis that plays different roles based on the target organ. At the renal level, this peptide is capable of causing electrolyte-free water absorption, thus playing a key role in the hydro-electrolytic balance. There are pathologies and disorders that jeopardize this balance and, in this field, ADH receptor inhibitors such as Vaptans could play a key role. By inhibiting the activation pathway of vasopressin, they are potentially useful in euvolemic and hypervolemic hypotonic hyponatremia...
December 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Tuo Ji, Shuzhen Li, Lujun Li, Meili Huang, Xiufeng Wang, Min Wei, Qinghua Shi, Yan Li, Biao Gong, Fengjuan Yang
BACKGROUND: Plant phospholipase D (PLD), which can hydrolyze membrane phospholipids to produce phosphatidic acid (PA), a secondary signaling molecule, has been proposed to function in diverse plant stress responses. Both PLD and PA play key roles in plant growth, development, and cellular processes. PLD was suggested to mediate the regulation of stomatal movements by abscisic acid (ABA) as a response to water deficit. In this research, we characterized the roles of the cucumber phospholipase D alpha gene (CsPLDα, GenBank accession number EF363796) in the growth and tolerance of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) to drought stress...
December 14, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Natalie L Benbow, Jessie L Webber, Piotr Pawliszak, Damien A Sebben, Tracey T M Ho, Jitraporn Vongsvivut, Mark J Tobin, Marta Krasowska, David A Beattie
Soft polymer films, such as polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs), are useful coatings in materials science. The properties of PEMs often rely on the degree of hydration, and therefore the study of these films in a hydrated state is critical to allow links to be drawn between their characteristics and performance in a particular application. In this work, we detail the development of a novel soft contact cell for studying hydrated PEMs (poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)/poly(allylamine hydrochloride)) using FTIR microspectroscopy...
December 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xinbo Wang, Yanhua Xu, Jingjing Li, Yongzhe Ren, Zhiqiang Wang, Zeyu Xin, Tongbao Lin
Drought is a major adversity that limits crop yields. Further exploration of wheat drought tolerance-related genes is critical for the genetic improvement of drought tolerance in this crop. Here, comparative proteomic analysis of two wheat varieties, XN979 and LA379, with contrasting drought tolerance was conducted to screen for drought tolerance-related proteins/genes. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology was used to verify the functions of candidate proteins. A total of 335 differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) were exclusively identified in the drought-tolerant variety XN979...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Qiang He, Xiaomin Wang, Li He, Lei Yang, Shengwang Wang, Yurong Bi
Alternative respiration pathway is involved in the response of highland barley to salt stress. The response of two barley seedlings to salt stress was investigated. Results showed that the growth of highland barley (Kunlun 14) and barley (Ganpi 6) had no obvious difference under low concentrations (50, 100 and 200 mM) of NaCl treatment. However, high concentrations of NaCl treatment (300 and 400 mM) severely affected the growth of two barley cultivars. Under 300 mM NaCl treatment, the fresh weight, relative water content (RWC), pigments and K+ content reduced more in Ganpi 6 than in Kunlun 14...
December 12, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Song Yi Yeon, Jeongse Yun, Sun-Heui Yoon, Dahye Lee, Woohyuk Jang, Seok Hee Han, Chung Mu Kang, Taek Dong Chung
A novel pump-free miniaturized reverse electrodialysis (RED) system was designed to provide lasting power transduced from salinity gradients, named solid salt RED (ssRED), and this quasi-battery uses a solid salt instead of electrolyte solution for streamlined usage. It is portable, flexible, comparable in size to a universal serial bus flash drive, and easily activated with a small amount of water. It maintains a constant ionic concentration gradient through precipitation reactions between a pair of different salts...
November 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Yunfei Xue, Ljiljana Rajic, Long Chen, Shuguang Lyu, Akram N Alshawabkeh
The in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) for water treatment is more practical than the use of liquid H2 O2 , which is costly to store and transport. Calcium peroxide (CaO2 ), a solid carrier of H2 O2 , can release H2 O2 on dissolution in water. However, the constant H2 O2 release rate of CaO2 has been a bottleneck constraining its wider application. In this study, a practical electrochemical method using a divided cell is developed to control the rate of release of H2 O2 from CaO2 . The results show that the rate of H2 O2 release from CaO2 is enhanced in the anolyte...
August 2018: Electrochemistry Communications
Amir Taqieddin, Michael R Allshouse, Akram N Alshawabkeh
Electrochemically gas-evolving systems are utilized in alkaline water electrolysis, hydrogen production, and many other applications. To design and optimize these systems, high-fidelity models must account for electron-transfer, chemical reactions, thermodynamics, electrode porosity, and hydrodynamics as well as the interconnectedness of these phenomena. Further complicating these models is the production and presence of bubbles. Bubble nucleation naturally occurs due to the chemical reactions and impacts the reaction rate...
2018: Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Jun Zhao, Yu He, Zelin Chen, Xuerong Zheng, Xiaopeng Han, Dewei Rao, Cheng Zhong, Wenbin Hu, Yida Deng
Clarifying and controlling the surface catalytic active sites is at the heart of developing low-cost effective bifunctional oxygen catalysts to replace precious metals for metal-air batteries. Herein, a shape-control of hexagon nickel cobalt oxide spinel nanosheets was reported to engineer the surface metal active sites for enhanced electrocatalysis of oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction reactions (OER/ORR). Specifically, through simply tuning annealing temperature, different Ni3+/Ni2+ and Co3+/Co2+ atomic configurations on nickel cobalt oxide surface were controllably synthesized...
December 11, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Antonella Calzone, Alessandra Podda, Giacomo Lorenzini, Bianca Elena Maserti, Elisa Carrari, Elena Deleanu, Yasutomo Hoshika, Matthew Haworth, Cristina Nali, Ovidiu Badea, Elisa Pellegrini, Silvano Fares, Elena Paoletti
Plants are exposed to a broad range of environmental stresses, such as salinity and ozone (O3 ), and survive due to their ability to adjust their metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological and biochemical adjustments adopted by pomegranate (Punica granatum L. cv. Dente di cavallo) under realistic field conditions. One-year-old saplings were exposed to O3 [two levels denoted as ambient (AO) and elevated (EO) O3 concentrations] and salinity [S (salt, 50 mM NaCl)] for three consecutive months...
November 28, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zhuo Min, Runyu Li, Li Chen, Yang Zhang, Ziyu Li, Min Liu, Yanlun Ju, Yulin Fang
Drought is one of the major abiotic stress factors that affect grape growth and yield, which in turn negatively affects the grape and wine production industry. Developing effective approaches to improve grapevine tolerance to drought stress is a priority for viticulture. Strigolactones, a newly discovered class of carotenoid-derived phytohormones, have been found to participate in various physiological processes. Herein, the effect of strigolactones (SLs) on grape seedlings under drought stress was investigated...
December 3, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Ka-Young Park, You-Dong Kim, John-In Lee, Muhammad Saqib, Ji-Seop Shin, Yongho Seo, Jung Hyun Kim, Hyung Tae Lim, Jun-Young Park
To develop reliable and durable protonic ceramic fuel cells (PCFCs), the impacts of the operation protocols of PCFCs on the cell durability are investigated through analyses of the main degradation mechanisms. We herein propose three appropriately designed control protocols, including cathode air-depletion, shunt current, and fuel cell/electrolysis cycling, to fully circumvent the operating-induced degradation of PCFCs. For this purpose, anode-supported cells, comprised of a NiO-BaCe0.7Zr0.1Y0.1Yb0.1O3-δ anode, BaCe0...
December 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Juanjuan Han, Jing Pan, Chen Chen, Ling Wei, Yu Wang, Qiyun Pan, Nian Zhao, Bo Xie, Li Xiao, Juntao Lu, Lin Zhuang
Recent studies demonstrated that the chemical stability of alkaline polymer electrolytes (APEs) could be improved by reducing the inductive effect between cations and backbones. Therefore, pendent cations were recommended. However, micro-phase separated morphologies would be generated by elongating the spacer between cations and backbones, which have a significant influence on the chemical stability of APEs too. In order to analyze how the patterns of micro-morphology affect the chemical stability of the materials, in the present work, four APEs ( a1 -QAPS, a3 -QAPS, a5 -QAPS and a7 -QAPS) with different lengths of side chain between polysulfone and quaternary ammonium are synthesized...
December 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sung-Jin Kang, Hyeonji Kim, Sunwook Hwang, Minsang Jo, Minchul Jang, Changhun Park, Seung-Tae Hong, Hochun Lee
Most electrolytes for rechargeable Mg batteries require time-consuming conditioning or pre-cycling process to achieve fully reversible Mg deposition/dissolution, which hinders the normal operation of Mg batteries. This study details a simple and effective method for eliminating this conditioning behavior using heptamethyldisilazane (HpMS) as an electrolyte additive. It was found that the HpMS additive greatly increases the current density and Coulombic efficiency of Mg deposition/dissolution from the initial cycles in various sulfone and glyme solutions containing MgCl2 or Mg(TFSI)2 ...
December 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ryan Kisslinger, Abdelrahman Mostafa Askar, Ujwal Kumar Thakur, Saralyn Riddell, Darren Dahunsi, Yun Zhang, Sheng Zeng, Ankur Goswami, Karthik Shankar
Anodically formed TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) constitute an optoelectronic platform that is being studied for use as a photoanode in photoelectrocatalytic cells, as an electron transport layer (ETL) in solar cells and photodetectors, and as an active layer for chemiresistive and microwave sensors. For optimal transport of charge carriers in these one-dimensional polycrystalline ordered structures, it is desirable to introduce a preferential texture with the grains constituting the nanotube walls aligned along the transport direction...
October 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
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