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Water electrolyte

Yulei Liu, Tao Yang, Lu Wang, Zhuangsong Huang, Juan Li, Haijun Cheng, Jin Jiang, Suyan Pang, Jingyao Qi, Jun Ma
Natural organic matter (NOM) ubiquitously exists in natural waters and would adsorb onto the particle surface. Previous studies showed that NOM would alleviate the toxicity of nanomaterials, while the mechanism is seldom quantitatively interpreted. Herein, the effects of humic substances [Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) and Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA)] and biomacromolecules [alginate and bovine serum albumin (BSA)] on the aggregation and antimicrobial effects of silver sulfide nanoparticles (Ag2 S-NPs) were investigated...
July 26, 2018: Water Research
Yi Huang, Xiaodan Chong, Cuibo Liu, Yu Liang, Bin Zhang
For electrocatalytic water splitting, the sluggish anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) has extremely restricted the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Therefore, developing an alternative anodic reaction with accelerating kinetics to produce value-added chemicals, especially coupled with HER, is of great importance. Here, a thermodynamically more favourable primary amine (-CH2-NH2) electrooxidation catalyzed by NiSe nanorod arrays in water is reported to replace OER for enhancing HER. The increased H2 production can be obtained at cathode, meanwhile, a variety of aromatic and aliphatic primary amines are selectively electrooxidized to nitriles with good yields at anode...
August 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Hua Lin, Wen-Zhi Li
BACKGROUND: From adolescence to menopause, hormone levels during the menstrual cycle affect various body systems, from the cardiovascular system to the water and electrolyte balance. This study investigated the effect of different phases of the menstrual cycle on circulatory function relative to changes in body position and combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia (CSEA). METHODS: Forty-six women were selected who underwent scheduled gynaecological surgery, were classified as American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) I-II, and met the test criteria...
August 17, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Wagner Barbosa de Souza, Christian Silva Abreu, Guilherme Dias Rodrigues, Aparecida Barbosa Mageste, Leandro Rodrigues de Lemos
Printed circuit boards (PCBs) make up a large part of e-waste and include high concentrations of high-value metals. Therefore, the recovery of these metals is interesting from both the environmental and economic points of view. Here, the extraction/separation of copper, nickel and silver from PCB leachate was studied using an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) formed by triblock copolymers with an electrolyte and water, which is in compliance with the principles of green chemistry. The best conditions for the selective extraction consisted of 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (3...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Hiroshi Ochiai, Eita Uenishi
A 79-year-old woman without any cerebral hernia symptoms was hospitalized with hyponatremia. After syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone induced by drugs was diagnosed and water restriction implemented, the patient became comatose during overcorrection caused by the generation of a large volume of electrolyte-free urine. Once the serum sodium concentration was immediately relowered by the administration of desmopressin and 5% glucose solution, the patient's level of consciousness improved dramatically without osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) developing...
2018: Internal Medicine
Guangmang Liu, Wei Cao, Gang Jia, Hua Zhao, Xiaoling Chen, Jing Wang
The animal gut effectively prevents the entry of hazardous substances and microbes while permitting the transfer of nutrients, such as water, electrolytes, vitamins, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals and microbial metabolites, which are intimately associated with intestinal homoeostasis. The gut maintains biological functions through its nutrient-sensing receptors, including the Ca-sensing receptor (CaSR), which activates a variety of signalling pathways, depending on cellular context. CaSR coordinates food digestion and nutrient absorption, promotes cell proliferation and differentiation, regulates energy metabolism and immune response, stimulates hormone secretion, mitigates secretory diarrhoea and enhances intestinal barrier function...
August 15, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Wei Wei, Meng-Yuan Cui, Yang Hu, Kuan Gao, Yin-Ge Xie, Ying Jiang, Jia-Yue Feng
WRKY transcription factors play a critical role in biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants, but very few WRKYs have been reported in strawberry plants. Here, a multiple stress-inducible gene, FvWRKY42, was isolated from the wild diploid woodland strawberry (accession Heilongjiang-3). FvWRKY42 expression was induced by treatment with powdery mildew, salt, drought, salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), abscisic acid (ABA), and ethylene. The protein interaction network analysis showed that the FvWRKY42 protein interacts with various stress-related proteins...
October 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Dipak Aryal, Venkat Ganesan
The dynamics of ions and solvent molecules in polyelectrolyte desalination membranes is key to water purification technologies in which selective transport of the different components is desired. Recent experimental and our computational results have shown that nontrivial mechanisms underlie the transport properties of salt ions and water in charged polymer membranes. Explicitly, in polymer electrolytes, we found a reversal in the salt concentration dependence of the mobilities of Na+ , Cl- salt ions and water molecules when compared with aqueous solutions...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Yongjing Chen, Victor Barreto, Andy Woodruff, Zhongqing Lu, Yan Liu, Christopher A Pohl
The research on oligosaccharides is growing and gaining in importance at a rapid pace. The efforts to understand their bioactivity and to develop new products based on oligosaccharides in biotherapeutics and food industry require effective and reliable tools for analysis of oligosaccharides. Here we present a dual electrolytic eluent generation platform for the analysis of oligosaccharides by high performance anion-exchange liquid chromatography (HPAE) in both analytical and capillary column formats. The system consists of one eluent generator producing methanesulfonic acid (MSA) connected in series with a second eluent generator producing potassium hydroxide (KOH)...
August 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Junjie Wei, Jie Zhou, Shasha Su, Jinhua Jiang, Jing Feng, Qigang Wang
With the boom of flexible electronic products and wearable devices, flexible energy storage devices, e.g., supercapacitors with high performance, are attracting increasing interest. A flexible water-deactivated polyelectrolyte hydrogel electrolyte with good mechanical properties and high ionic conductivity was prepared using an anionic polymer CMC and a cationic monomer MAPTAC. It was then applied in a supercapacitor with flexible activated carbon electrodes. This flexible supercapacitor possesses a high operating voltage of 2...
August 13, 2018: ChemSusChem
John J Holoubek, Heng Jiang, Daniel Leonard, Yitong Qi, Galo C Bustamante, Xiulei Ji
We report an amorphous titanic acid of TiO1.85(OH)0.30·0.28H2O as a new electrode for aqueous ammonium-ion batteries, which operates in a new water-in-salt electrolyte-25 m NH4CH3COO. The titanic acid electrode exhibits a specific capacity nearly 8 times that from the crystalline TiO2 electrode. In electrochemical reactions, the amorphous titanic acid provides abundant storage sites in its disordered structure and affords strong H-bonding toward the inserted NH4+ ions.
August 14, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Sung-Young Yoon, Hyeongwon Jeon, Changho Yi, Seungil Park, Seungmin Ryu, Seong Bong Kim
This study investigated the mutual interaction between the plasma and plasma treated water (PTW). Many works have shown that the plasma treatment decreases the pH of PTW due to nitric oxide electrolyte ion but the interactions between PTW and the plasma are still largely unknown. We investigated the effect of PTW on a plasma as well as the effect of a plasma on PTW using a pin-to-liquid discharge system. It is found that PTW affects not only the chemical properties but also the physical properties of the plasma such as breakdown voltage and concentration of plasma column...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Manaki Ashida, Teruo Hinoue
We have attempted to detect electrically neutral substances by ion-transfer voltammetry at an interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES), such as an interface between water and 1,2-dichloroethane (a W/DCE interface), by irradiating the interface with ultraviolet light (200 - 300 nm). In the present work, while considering the facts that p-phenylenediamine derivatives are soluble in DCE, but insoluble in water, and that cation radicals of the derivatives are fairly stable in various media, we photoionized the derivatives in a DCE phase by ultraviolet irradiation, and after that carried out ion-transfer voltammetry at a W/DCE interface...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Jianhua Xiang, Xinbo Chen, Wei Hu, Yanci Xiang, Mingli Yan, Jieming Wang
OsHSP50.2, an HSP90 family gene up-regulated by heat and osmotic stress treatments, positively regulates drought stress tolerance probably by modulating ROS homeostasis and osmotic adjustment in rice. Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) serve as molecular chaperones for a variety of client proteins in abiotic stress response and play pivotal roles in protecting plants against stress, but the molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we report an HSP90 family gene, OsHSP50.2, which acts as a positive regulator in drought stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa)...
August 11, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Keval K Sonigara, Hiren K Machhi, Jayraj V Vaghasiya, Alain Gibaud, Swee Ching Tan, Saurabh S Soni
Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated with lightweight flexible substrates have a great potential in wearable electronic devices for in situ powering. However, the poor lifespan of these DSSCs limits their practical application. Strong mechanical stresses involved in practical applications cause breakage of the electrode/electrolyte interface in the DSSCs greatly affecting their performance and lifetime. Here, a mechanically robust, low-cost, long-lasting, and environment-friendly quasi-solid-state DSSC using a smart thermoreversible water-based polymer gel electrolyte with self-healing characteristics at a low temperature (below 0 °C) is demonstrated...
August 9, 2018: Small
Qijing Bu, Shuo Li, Qiannan Wu, Lingling Bi, Dejun Wang, Xiaoxin Zou, Tengfeng Xie
Semiconductor electrodes integrated with cocatalysts are key components of photoelectrochemistry (PEC) based solar-energy conversion. However, efforts to optimize the PEC device have been limited by an inadequate understanding of the interface interactions between semiconductor-cocatalyst (sem|cat) and cocatalyst-electrolyte (cat|ele) interface. In our work, we used ferrihydrite (Fh) modified Ti-Fe2O3 as a model to explore the transfer process of photogenerated charge carriers between Ti-Fe2O3-Fh (Ti-Fe2O3|Fh) interface and Fh-electrolyte (Fh|ele) interface...
August 8, 2018: ChemSusChem
Samuel Selorm Fiati Kenston, Hong Su, Zhou Li, Lu Kong, Yafei Wang, Xin Song, Yuanliang Gu, Tabatha Barber, Joni Aldinger, Qihang Hua, Zhen Li, Min Ding, Jinshun Zhao, Xialu Lin
To explore the health effects of multi-heavy metal exposure, Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were orally given one dose of heavy metal mixtures (HMMs). The eight most common detectable heavy metals in Ningbo area are zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg). In this study, mixtures of these eight heavy metals were prepared using the compounds zinc sulfate heptahydrate, cupric sulfate, manganese dichloride, potassium dichromate, nickel dichloride, cadmium dichloride, lead acetate, and methyl mercury chloride with ion mass proportions of 1070...
May 8, 2018: Toxicology Research
Tayebeh Sharifi, Yousef Ghayeb, Tecush Mohammadi, Mohamad Mohsen Momeni
It is of great significance to develop green fuels in order to prevent the accumulation of carbon dioxide generated by the combustion of conventional fossil fuels. A potential, clean, renewable alternative fuel, which may be produced from solar energy, stored and safely transported, is hydrogen. In this work, bare CrTiO2 NTs were fabricated using an in situ anodizing process. CrTiO2 NTs were then modified with the photodeposition of noble metals (Ag and Au) at different light irradiation times (10-120 min)...
August 8, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Stefania Siracusano, Stefano Trocino, Nicola Briguglio, Vincenzo Baglio, Antonino S Aricò
Membrane⁻electrode assemblies (MEAs) designed for a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) water electrolyser based on a short-side chain (SSC) perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) membrane, Aquivion® , and an advanced Ir-Ru oxide anode electro-catalyst, with various cathode and anode noble metal loadings, were investigated. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in combination with performance and durability tests, provided useful information to identify rate-determining steps and to quantify the impact of the different phenomena on the electrolysis efficiency and stability characteristics as a function of the MEA properties...
August 7, 2018: Materials
Petr Ashcheulov, Andrew Taylor, Vincent Mortet, Aleš Poruba, Florian Le Formal, Hana Krýsová, Mariana Klementová, Pavel Hubik, Jaromír Kopeček, Jan Lorincik, Jun-Ho Yum, Irena Kratochvilova, Ladislav Kavan, Kevin Sivula
Due to its high sensitivity to corrosion, the use of Si in direct photoelectrochemical water splitting systems that convert solar energy into chemical fuels has been greatly limited. Therefore, the development of low-cost materials resistant to corrosion under oxidizing conditions is an important goal towards a suitable protection of otherwise unstable semiconductors used in photoelectrochemical cells. Here we report on the development of a protective coating based on thin and electrically conductive nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD) layers...
August 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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