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Water electrolyte

Kang Wang, Dingwang Huang, Le Yu, Huaimin Gu, Shigeru Ikeda, Feng Jiang
High-quality Cu2 ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis on a Mo-coated glass substrate were used for solar water splitting in this study. Modification of a CdS layer under CZTS improved the photocatalysis efficiency by forming a pn junction between CdS and CZTS, effectively separating the photoexcited carriers without recombination. However, the photocorrosive nature of CdS induces poor stability of the CdS/CZTS photocathode. Surface protection of a CdS-covered CZTS photocathode by a ZnS layer resulted in efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting with a maximum half-cell solar to hydrogen (HC-STH) efficiency of 2...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Binbin Jiang, Tao Wang, Yafei Cheng, Fan Liao, Konglin Wu, Mingwang Shao
Nitrogen doped graphene (NG) chemically coupled with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) may facilitate the kinetics of overall electrochemical water splitting. Herein, a facile strategy is adopted to synthesize monodispersed Ir nanoparticles on g-C3N4/NG layers. Benefiting from the synergistic effect between different components of the catalyst, the optimal Ir/g-C3N4/NG catalyst with low content of Ir, (5.9 wt%) exhibits highly active for electrochemical water splitting in acidic electrolyte. Specifically, as a HER catalyst, the optimal Ir/g-C3N4/NG exhibits Tafel slope of 22 mV•dec-1...
October 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Fumiaki Amano, Hyosuke Mukohara, Ayami Shintani, Kenyou Tsurui
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water vapor splitting using n-type semiconductor electrodes with a proton exchange membrane (PEM) enabled pure hydrogen production from humidity in the ambient air. We proved a design concept that the gas-electrolyte-semiconductor triple-phase boundary on a nanostructured photoanode is important for the photoinduced gas-phase reaction. A surface coating of solid polymer electrolyte on a titania nanotube array (TNTA) macroporous electrode markedly enhanced the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) at the gas-solid interface...
October 18, 2018: ChemSusChem
Li-Zhi Huang, Mingtao Zhu, Zizheng Liu, Zongping Wang, Hans Christian B Hansen
In order to overcome the inefficiency of heterogeneous electro-Fenton process for water treatment at neutral pH, single sheet iron oxide (SSI) derived from layered Fe(II)-Fe(III) double hydroxides (green rusts) was fabricated on an indium tin oxide electrode via layer by layer assembly and used in an undivided electrolysis cell. Use of radical scavengers demonstrated the formation of oxygen radicals by electrochemical reduction of oxygen at the SSI electrode, and the key role of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and superoxide anion (O2 - ) radicals in degradation of the azo dye orange II...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Yanchao Jin, Yijun Shi, Riyao Chen, Xiao Chen, Xi Zheng, Yaoxing Liu
A reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) cathode modified by anodic polarization in 20 wt% H2 SO4 solution was used for drinking water disinfection under a neutral low electrolyte concentration (0.25 g/L Na2 SO4 ) condition. The contribution of the modified RVC anode and the Ti/RuO2 cathode to disinfection was investigated. The influences of current, initial Escherichia coli load, temperature and water volume were studied. The results show that H2 O2 generation increased to approximately three times using the modification of the RVC...
October 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Marie Lucas, Merve Yeşilbaş, Andrey Shchukarev, Jean-François Boily
Electrolyte ion binding at mineral surfaces is central to the generation of surface charge and key to electric double layer formation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of fast-frozen (-170°C) mineral wet pastes provides a means to study weakly bound electrolyte ions at the mineral/water interface. In this study, we build upon a series of articles devoted to ion binding at hematite (-Fe2O3) particle surfaces to resolve the nature of sodium halide ion binding. Measurements on mi-cron-sized hematite particles terminated by the charged and amphoteric (012) and the relatively un-charged (001) faces points to the formation of salt loadings of similar composition to those of cry-osalts of NaCl, NaBr, NaI and NaF...
October 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Roxana Maria Tudor, Christopher J Thompson
Neurohypophysial dysfunction is common in the first days following traumatic brain injury (TBI), manifesting as dysnatremia in approximately 1 in 4 patients. Both hyponatremia and hypernatremia can impair recovery from TBI and in the case of hypernatremia, there is a significant association with excess mortality. Hyponatremia secondary to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIAD) is the commonest electrolyte disturbance following TBI. Acute adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)/cortisol deficiency occurs in 10-15% of TBI patients and can present with a biochemical picture identical to SIAD...
October 17, 2018: Pituitary
Carmen Esposito, Andreas Vitalis
Transfer properties and partition coefficients for individual ions are relevant in a variety of scientific and engineering contexts, such as predicting the effects of different electrolytes on biomacromolecules in a preferential interaction sense or predicting the distribution of heavy metal ions in soils, rivers, etc. Computer simulations allow free energies of transfer to be estimated by considering single ions explicitly. When the two media under consideration are similar to each other regarding ion solvation, the resultant free energies are small in absolute magnitude...
October 17, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Stephanie Chua, Ruopian Fang, Zhenhua Sun, Mingjie Wu, Zi Gu, Yuzuo Wang, Judy Hart, Neeraj Sharma, Da-Wei Wang, Feng Li
Solid polymer electrolytes are of rapidly increasing importance for the research and development of future safe batteries with extraordinary energy density. The diversified chemistry and structures of polymers allow the utilization of a wide range of soft structures for all-polymer solid-state electrolytes. With equal importance is the hybrid solid-state electrolytes consisting of both 'soft' polymeric structure and 'hard' inorganic nanofillers. The recent emergence of the re-discovery of many two-dimensional layered materials has stimulated the booming of advanced research in energy storage fields, such as batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells...
October 16, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Nicolò Dossi, Rosanna Toniolo, Fabio Terzi, Nicola Sdrigotti, Franco Tubaro, Gino Bontempelli
A simple and sensitive device is presented based on the use of pencil-drawn paper based electrochemical detector placed at the end of a cotton thread fluidic channel in wall-jet configuration. This innovative and fast responding electroanalytical system can be adopted for both single and dual electrode electrochemical detection, this last achieved by applying two different potentials at two independent working electrodes drawn on the opposite faces of the paper based detector. Its performance was preliminarily optimized by adopting hexacyanoferrate(II) as probe species undergoing reversible electrochemical processes...
December 21, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
I Ruiz-Ascacibar, P Stoll, G Bee, P Schlegel
Mineral composition and relative deposition rates in the pig's body are used to assess the mineral net requirements for growth and input-output balances. The study aimed to examine the dynamics of changes in mineral composition and deposition rates in the empty body (EB) from birth to 140 kg BW depending on dietary protein supply. In the experiment, 66 entire male, 58 castrated and 66 female Swiss Large White pigs were used to determine body composition at birth, 10, 20 kg and at 20 kg intervals from 40 to 140 kg BW...
October 16, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Yan-Tong Xu, Zi-Ming Ye, Jia-Wen Ye, Li-Ming Cao, Rui-Kang Huang, Jun-Xi Wu, Dong-Dong Zhou, Xue-Feng Zhang, Chun-Ting He, Jie-Peng Zhang, Xiao-Ming Chen
Cobalt imidazolate frameworks are classical electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) but suffer from the relatively low activity. Here, we report a non-3d metal modulation strategy for enhancing the OER activity of cobalt imidazolate frameworks. Two isomorphous frameworks [Co4(MO4)(eim)6] (M = Mo or W, Heim = 2-ethylimidazole) having Co(eim)3(MO4) units, as well as high water stabilities, were designed and synthesized. In different neutral medias, the Mo-modulated framework coated on glassy carbon electrode shows the best OER performances (e...
October 15, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Qimeng Ning, Zhihong Yin, Yunguo Liu, Xiaofei Tan, Guangming Zeng, Luhua Jiang, Shaobo Liu, Sirong Tian, Ni Liu, Xiaohua Wang
Fe⁻Mn binary oxide nanoparticles (FMBON) were reported to be high performance as adsorbent for pollutants removal from aqueous solution. However, there are still limitations in practice application due to the FMBON tend to aggregate into the micro millimeter level. In order to avoid the agglomeration of nanoparticles, this work synthesized the stabilized Fe⁻Mn binary oxide nanoparticles (CMC-FMBON) by using water-soluble carboxymethyl celluloses (CMC) as the stabilizer. The characteristics of CMC-FMBON and FMBON were measured by using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Zeta potential...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mengjuan Li, Yanyan Li, Jing Lu, Xiaoqiang Li, Yang Lu
This work is aimed at electrochemical decolorization of real waste liquid which obtained in the PET depolymerization process. Firstly, PET fabrics were glycolysized by utilizing excess ethylene glycol (EG). Then, the glycolysis product was mixed with water and purified through repeated crystallization to get bis(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET) crystal. At last, the waste liquid of the depolymerization process was electrochemical decolorized by utilizing chitosan/Fe3 O4 nanoparticles as the dispersed electrodes under a DC voltage...
October 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Temitope Jolaolu Abodunrin, Adenike Omotunde Boyo, Mojisola Rachael Usikalu
In this work, data on the effect of porphyrin characteristic of UV/VIS absorption of Thaumatococcus daniellii ( T. daniellii ) dye-sensitized solar cells sensitized with different electrolytes were presented. The influence of dopants from 1 g/100 ml electrolyte: distilled water and applied time difference of 3 min is observed on the photovoltaic characteristics and performance of the deposited thin film. The output efficiency and incident photon to conversion efficiency of T. daniellii dye-sensitized solar cells was acquired and could be further used as a model for designing dye-sensitized solar models as substitute for silicon solar cells...
October 2018: Data in Brief
Thriveni G Anjali, Madivala G Basavaraj
Solid stabilized emulsions commonly known as Pickering emulsions offer unique benefits such as superior stability and controlled permeability compared to conventional surfactant stabilized emulsions. In this article, the effect of pH, electrolyte and particle concentration, homogenization speed and volume fraction of oil on the formation, stability and the microstructure of emulsion droplets stabilized by micron size peanut shaped hematite particles are investigated. The influence of surface charge of particles on emulsification is studied by varying the pH of the dispersing medium, the addition of an electrolyte or a combination of both...
October 10, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Chunxia Tang, Stewart Spinney, Zengqian Shi, Juntao Tang, Baoliang Peng, Jianhui Luo, Kam C Tam
Sulfated cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) with high surface charge density are inadequate for stabilizing oil-water emulsions, which limits their applications as interfacial stabilizers. We performed end-group modification by introducing hydrophobic chains (polystyrene) to CNC. Results showed that the modified CNC are more effective in emulsifying toluene and hexadecane than pristine CNC. Various parameters were investigated, such as concentration of particles, electrolytes, and polarity of solvents on the characteristics of the emulsions...
October 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ammar Tatlisu, Zhifeng Huang, Ruiyong Chen
Symmetric aqueous high voltage supercapacitors up to 3 V have been demonstrated using concentrated aqueous 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMImCl), namely, "water-in-imidazolium chloride", as working electrolytes, and graphene nanoplatelets coated carbon paper as electrodes. Performance enhancement was further achieved either through adding redox species such as 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (4hT) into the electrolytes (110 Wh kg-1- for a 20 m BMImCl/H2O with 0.1 M 4hT) or by pre-inserting ClO4- anions into the graphene platelets...
October 9, 2018: ChemSusChem
Chunyan Ma, Aatto Laaksonen, Chang Liu, Xiaohua Lu, Xiaoyan Ji
Ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been suggested as eco-friendly alternatives to organic solvents. A trace amount of water is often unavoidable as impurity, and water is also added on purpose to reduce their problematically high viscosity and lower their high price. Understanding the distinct effects of water on the properties of ILs/DESs is highly important. In this review, we collect published experimental and theoretical results for IL/DES-H2O systems at varied water concentrations and analyze them...
October 9, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Robert Kun, Frederieke Langer, Massimo Delle Piane, Saneyuki Ohno, Wolfgang G Zeier, Michael Gockeln, Lucio Colombi Ciacchi, Matthias Busse, István Fekete
Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) and related compounds are considered as promising candidates for future all-solid-state Li-ion battery applications. Still, the processing of those materials into thin membranes with the right stoichiometry and crystal structure is difficult and laborious. The sensitivity of the Li-ion conductive garnets against moisture and the associated Li+/H+ cation exchange makes their processing even more difficult. Formulation of suitable polymer/ceramic hybrid solid state electrolytes could be a prosperous way to the future large scale production of solid state Li-ion batteries...
October 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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