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regression to the mean

Duc-Phong Nguyen, Cong-Bo Phan, Seungbum Koo
Human motion during walking provides biometric information which can be utilized to quantify the similarity between two persons or identify a person. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for identifying a person using their walking motion when another walking motion under different conditions is given. This type of situation occurs frequently in forensic gait science. Twenty-eight subjects were asked to walk in a gait laboratory, and the positions of their joints were tracked using a three-dimensional motion capture system...
August 2, 2018: Forensic Science International
Giancarlo Coghe, Giuseppe Fenu, Lorena Lorefice, Erica Zucca, Micaela Porta, Giuseppina Pilloni, Federica Corona, Jessica Frau, Maria Giovanna Marrosu, Massimiliano Pau, Eleonora Cocco
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive motor interference (CMI) is performance impairment due to simultaneuous task execution and is measured using the dual task cost (DTC). No pathological feature of MS has to date been associated with CMI. AIM: To assess the relationship between brain volumes and CMI, as measured using the DTC, in a cross-sectional study. METHODS: A group of persons with MS (pwMS) and an age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) group underwent 3D gait analysis during using the dual task paradigm...
July 31, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Pin Wang, William B Goggins, Emily Y Y Chan
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relationship between Salmonella infection and meteorological parameters other than air temperature. This study aimed to explore associations of Salmonella hospitalizations with temperature, relative humidity (RH) and rainfall. METHODS: With negative binomial distribution assumed, time-series regression model adjusting for season and time trend were constructed employing distributed lag non-linear models and generalized additive models...
August 10, 2018: Environment International
Elena Raffetti, Francesco Donato, Fabrizio Speziani, Carmelo Scarcella, Alice Gaia, Michele Magoni
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been linked to the onset of cardiovascular, endocrine, and metabolic diseases, but no conclusive evidence has been provided so far. A chemical factory produced PCBs from 1938 to 1984 in Brescia (North Italy) resulting in environmental contamination and human exposure. We aimed to evaluate the association between PCB serum levels and subsequent incidence of chronic diseases through a prospective cohort study design. METHODS: Based on surveys conducted in Brescia province between 2001 and 2013, a cohort of 1331 subjects with at least one measure of PCB serum levels during the period was selected and followed longitudinally...
August 10, 2018: Environment International
Timothy W Churchill, Supriya Krishnan, Marc Weisskopf, Brandon Yates, Frank E Speizer, Jonathan H Kim, Lee E Nadler, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Ross Zafonte, Aaron L Baggish
BACKGROUND: Professional American-style football players are among the largest athletes across contemporary sporting disciplines, and weight gain during the years of football participation is common. At present, the health implications of this early-life weight gain remain incompletely understood. We sought to define weight trajectories of former professional American-style football athletes and to establish their relationship with 5 health afflictions common in this population (cardiovascular disease, cardiometabolic disease, neurocognitive impairment, sleep apnea, and chronic pain)...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
M Laubach, F Lammers, N Zacharias, I Feinkohl, T Pischon, F Borchers, A J C Slooter, S Kühn, C Spies, G Winterer
Preserved executive functioning (EF) is crucial for daily functioning in the elderly and it appears to predict dementia development. We sought to clarify the role of atrophy-corrected cortical grey matter (GM) volume as a potential brain reserve (BR) marker for EF in the elderly. In total, 206 pre-surgical subjects (72.50 ± 4.95 years; mean MMSE score 28.50) were investigated. EF was primarily assessed using the Trail Making Test B (TMT B). Global/ lobar GM volumes were acquired with T1 MP-RAGE. Adjusting for key covariates including a brain atrophy index (i...
August 10, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Andrea B Burke, Kristie L Cheng, Jesse T Han, Jasjit K Dillon, Thomas B Dodson, Srinivas M Susarla
PURPOSE: Several studies of surgical specialties have shown disparities in measures of research productivity and academic rank between female and male surgeons. The purpose of this work was to measure the role of surgeon gender in academic success in oral and maxillofacial surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of full-time academic oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMSs) in the United States as of June 2017. The primary study variable was surgeon gender (male or female)...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Daniel J Madigan, Joachim Stoeber, Troy Culley, Louis Passfield, Andrew P Hill
Recent research found perfectionistic strivings to predict performance in a novel basketball task among novice basketball players. The current study builds on this research by examining whether this is also the case for performance in a familiar basketball training task among experienced basketball players, and whether achievement goals mediated any observed relationships. Perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, and 3 × 2 achievement goals were assessed prior to basketball training performance in 90 basketball players (mean age 20...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Eric Hamrin Senorski, Eleonor Svantesson, Kurt P Spindler, Eduard Alentorn-Geli, David Sundemo, Olaf Westin, Jon Karlsson, Kristian Samuelsson
BACKGROUND: Factors relating to the patient and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction may help to identify prognostic factors of long-term outcome after reconstruction. PURPOSE: To determine 10-year risk factors for inferior knee function after ACL reconstruction. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Prospectively collected data from the Swedish National Knee Ligament Register were extracted for patients who underwent ACL reconstruction between January 2005 and December 2006...
August 13, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Jie Chen
BACKGROUND: The prognostic impact of different distant metastases pattern in liver cancer is unexplored still now. The aim of this study is to analyze the metastasis patterns and prognosis differences for patients with stage IV liver cancers. METHODS: A SEER analysis was performed. Overall survival and cancer-specific survival were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to further analyze survival outcome and other prognostic factors...
2018: PloS One
Paige L Williams, Katharine Correia, Brad Karalius, Russell B Van Dyke, James D Wilkinson, William T Shearer, Steven D Colan, Steven E Lipshultz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate potential adverse associations of individual antiretroviral medications (ARVs) used in combination antiretroviral therapy regimens on cardiac structure and function in youth with perinatally-acquired HIV infection (PHIV). DESIGN: PHIV youth (n = 325) enrolled in a prospective multisite cohort study had a single echocardiogram at age 7-16 years to evaluate cardiac function and structure. METHODS: We applied several statistical approaches to evaluate associations between use of 18 individual ARVs with Z-scores for 11 measures of left ventricular (LV) function and structure...
August 9, 2018: AIDS
Weiye Wang, Sayoko Moroi, Kelly Bakulski, Bhramar Mukherjee, Marc G Weisskopf, Debra Schaumberg, David Sparrow, Pantel S Vokonas, Howard Hu, Sung Kyun Park
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may play an important role in the etiology of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The association between risk of POAG and lead exposure, which is an environmental source of oxidative stress, has not been fully investigated yet. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the association between bone lead-a biomarker of cumulative lead dose (tibia lead) or an endogenous source of stored lead (patella lead)-and incident POAG. METHODS: We examined a prospective cohort of 634 POAG-free men [mean baseline age=66...
August 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Christina Voukia, Ismini Voutsina, Fotini Venetsanou, Antonis Kambas
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to examine the physical activity (PA) of young children and their parents on weekdays and at the weekend, as well as possible associations between them. METHODS: Fifty-eight children (29 boys), aged 5-8 years (mean age = 6.53 years) and the parent who spent more time with them (25 fathers, 33 mothers, mean age 40.67 years) wore Omron HJ-720IT pedometers for seven consecutive days. Two ANOVAs for repeated measures were applied to examine PA differences between genders and week phases (weekdays vs...
June 2018: Central European Journal of Public Health
Stine Hangaard, Henrik Gudbergsen, Cecilie L Daugaard, Henning Bliddal, Janus Damm Nybing, Miika T Nieminen, Victor Casula, Carl-Johan Tiderius, Mikael Boesen
BACKGROUND: Early cartilage changes in knee osteoarthritis (OA) can be assessed by both intravenous (i.v.) and intra-articular (i.a.) delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC). PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between i.a. dGEMRIC and delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of menisci (dGEMRIM), and to investigate if the approach can be used to assess the morphological degeneration of menisci in obese patients with knee OA. STUDY TYPE: Cross-sectional...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Fraser M Callaghan, Paul Bannon, Edward Barin, David Celemajer, Richmond Jeremy, Gemma Figtree, Stuart M Grieve
BACKGROUND: Abnormal flow dynamics play an early and causative role in pathologic changes of the ascending aorta. PURPOSE: To identify: 1) the changes in flow, shape, and size that occur in the ascending aorta with normal human ageing and 2) the influence of these factors on aortic flow dynamics. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. SUBJECTS: In all, 247 subjects (age range 19-86 years, mean 49 ± 17.7, 169 males) free of aortic or aortic valve pathology were included in this study...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Sigmund Ytre-Hauge, Julie A Dybvik, Arvid Lundervold, Øyvind O Salvesen, Camilla Krakstad, Kristine E Fasmer, Henrica M Werner, Balaji Ganeshan, Erling Høivik, Line Bjørge, Jone Trovik, Ingfrid S Haldorsen
BACKGROUND: Improved methods for preoperative risk stratification in endometrial cancer are highly requested by gynecologists. Texture analysis is a method for quantification of heterogeneity in images, increasingly reported as a promising diagnostic tool in various cancer types, but largely unexplored in endometrial cancer. PURPOSE: To explore whether tumor texture parameters from preoperative MRI are related to known prognostic features (deep myometrial invasion, cervical stroma invasion, lymph node metastases, and high-risk histological subtype) and to outcome in endometrial cancer patients...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Eivind Rørvik, Lars Fredrik Fjæra, Tordis J Dahle, Jon Espen Dale, Grete May Engeseth, Camilla Hanqvuist Stokkevåg, Sara Thörnqvist, Kristian Smeland Ytre-Hauge
The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons varies with multiple physical and biological factors. Phenomenological RBE models have been developed to include such factors in the estimation of a variable RBE, in contrast to the clinically applied constant RBE of 1.1. In this study, eleven published phenomenological RBE models and two plan-based models were explored and applied to simulated patient cases.
 Method and Materials: All models were analysed with respect to the distribution and range of linear energy transfer (LET) and reference radiation fractionation sensitivity ((α/β)<sub>x</sub>) of their respective experimental databases...
August 13, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Daniela Gregolin Giannotti, Samir Abdallah Hanna, Giovanni Guido Cerri, Jose Luiz Barbosa Bevilacqua
PURPOSE: Residual breast tissue (RBT) after mastectomy represents an unknown risk for local recurrence or development of a new cancer and affects decisions regarding adjuvant radiation therapy. This study used breast magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the frequency of RBT and provide average thickness skin flap measurements in patients with total mastectomy, skin-sparing mastectomy, and nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) followed by breast reconstruction. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We carried out a retrospective analysis of 7432 consecutive postoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging examinations performed between August 2008 and July 2013, selecting 367 women (mean ± standard deviation age, 46...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Daniel J Lee, Daniel A Barocas, Zhiguo Zhao, Li-Ching Huang, Matthew J Resnick, Tatsuki Koyoma, Ralph Conwill, Dan McCollum, Matthew R Cooperberg, Michael Goodman, Sheldon Greenfield, Ann S Hamilton, Mia Hashibe, Sherrie H Kaplan, Lisa E Paddock, Antoinette M Stroup, Xiao-Cheng Wu, David F Penson, Karen E Hoffman
PURPOSE: To compare patient-reported disease-specific functional outcomes after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and EBRT combined with low-dose-rate brachytherapy prostate boost (EB-LDR) among men with localized prostate cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The prospective, population-based Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation study enrolled men with localized prostate cancer in 2011 to 2012. The 26-item Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite measured patient-reported disease-specific function at baseline and at 6, 12, and 36 months...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Yuma Saito, Yu Kume, Ayuto Kodama, Kotaro Sato, Megumi Yasuba
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available on the relationship between sleep disturbances during nighttime and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in older nursing-home residents. However, a few reports on the association between the circadian rest-activity rhythm and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in older residents have been published. The main objective of the present study was to examine the association among the circadian rest-activity rhythm, behavioral and psychological symptoms, and the cognitive function status among older individuals living in facilities...
August 13, 2018: Chronobiology International
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