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insulin sensitive

Alexander J Michels, Scott W Leonard, Sandra L Uesugi, Gerd Bobe, Balz Frei, Maret G Traber
Background: Inadequate vitamin E and magnesium intakes are of concern for older adults owing to the associated incidence of age-related diseases. Objective: This study was designed to determine the extent to which a 16-wk intervention with hazelnuts alters vitamin E and magnesium status in a group of older men and women, and used a pre-post intervention design without a control group to adjust for temporal changes. Methods: Participants (n = 32 including 22 women; mean ± SD age: 63 ± 6 y) consumed hazelnuts (∼57 g/d) for 16 wk...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
M A B Melo, W Caetano, E L Oliveira, P M Barbosa, A L B Rando, M M D Pedrosa, V A F Godoi
Photodynamic therapy, by reducing pain and inflammation and promoting the proliferation of healthy cells, can be used to treat recurrent lesions, such as diabetic foot ulcers. Studies using the photosensitizer phthalocyanine, together with the nanostructured copolymeric matrix of Pluronic® and Carbopol® for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers and leishmaniosis lesions, are showing promising outcomes. Despite their topical or subcutaneous administration, these molecules are absorbed and their systemic effects are unknown...
December 3, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
D Minukhina, V Babadzhan, D Minukhin, A Krasnoyaruzhskiy, D Yevtushenko
The combination of cardiac pathology and metabolic disorders, namely type 2 diabetes mellitus, is one of the most frequent comorbid pathologies and the main cause of death from cardiovascular complications at an early stage of the disease. Despite the wide range of antithrombogenic measures, prevention of thrombotic complications of acute myocardial infarction remains an urgent problem of cardiology. The study involved examination of 73 patients with acute myocardial infarction with concomitant type 2 diabetes mellitus, who were distributed into clusters according to severity by the main indices of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism using hierarchical analysis...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
Hesheng Liu, Xiangyang Qi, Keke Yu, Anjie Lu, Kaifeng Lin, Jiajing Zhu, Min Zhang, Zhida Sun
Previous studies suggested the anti-diabetic effect of mogrosides in type 1 diabetes. To evaluate the potential effect of mogrosides in type 2 diabetes, we herein investigated the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects and the underlying mechanism of mogroside-rich extract (MGE) using a high-fat diet in combination with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic model. MGE feeding for 5 weeks did not result in any obvious impact on the body weight and energy intake, but caused a moderate decrease of organ index in diabetic mice...
December 5, 2018: Food & Function
Habib Yaribeygi, Vahid Zare, Alexandra E Butler, George E Barreto, Amirhossein Sahebkar
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is growing rapidly worldwide. This metabolic disorder affects many physiological pathways and is a key underlying cause of a multitude of debilitating complications. There is, therefore, a critical need for effective diabetes management. Although many synthetic therapeutic glucose-lowering agents have been developed to control glucose homeostasis, they may have unfavorable side effects or limited efficacy. Herbal-based hypoglycemic agents present an adjunct treatment option to mitigate insulin resistance, improve glycemic control and reduce the required dose of standard antidiabetic medications...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
A Bedford, L Beckett, K Hardin, N W Dias, T Davis, V R G Mercadante, A D Ealy, R R White
Emerging data highlighting gut microbiome influences on health support evaluation of how microbial fermentation end-products influence postabsorptive systems. This study aimed to investigate the effect of increased propionate status on progesterone profiles and insulin sensitivity in dairy heifers. Eleven Holstein heifers, synchronized in estrus, were assigned to one of two continuous, 5-day IV treatments: sodium propionate (PRO; n = 5) or saline (CON; n = 6). These infusions culminated in a hyperglycemic clamp with daily blood samples for an additional 7 days...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mette Hollensted, Claus T Ekstrøm, Oluf Pedersen, Hans Eiberg, Torben Hansen, Anette Prior Gjesing
BACKGROUND: The genetics of fetal insulin release and/or action have been suggested to affect fetal growth, adult insulin resistance and adult body composition. The genetic correlation between body composition at birth versus glycaemic regulation and body composition in adulthood have, however, not been well studied. We therefore aimed to investigate these genetic correlations in a family-based cohort. METHODS: A Danish family cohort of 434 individuals underwent an oral glucose tolerance test with subsequent calculation of surrogate measures of serum insulin response and insulin sensitivity...
December 4, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
Shipeng Li, Jianling Sun, Wenchao Hu, Yan Liu, Dan Lin, Haiping Duan, Fengting Liu
OBJECTIVE: Adropin, a newly identified regulatory protein encoded by Enho gene, is correlated with insulin sensitivity and diabetes. The aim of this study is to determine whether serum and vitreous adropin concentrations are correlated with the presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: A population of 165 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [52 without DR, 69 with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and 44 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR)] was enrolled in this study...
December 4, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Paola Simeone, Rossella Liani, Romina Tripaldi, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, Maria Teresa Guagnano, Armando Tartaro, Riccardo C Bonadonna, Virginia Federico, Francesco Cipollone, Agostino Consoli, Francesca Santilli
Thromboxane (TX)-dependent platelet activation and lipid peroxidation, as reflected in vivo by the urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TXB₂ and 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F2α , play a key role in atherothrombosis in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) since the earlier stages. Thirty-five metformin-treated obese subjects with prediabetes or newly-diagnosed T2DM were randomized to the glucagon-like peptide receptor agonist (GLP-RA) liraglutide (1.8 mg/day) or lifestyle counseling until achieving a comparable weight loss (-7% of initial body weight), to assess whether changes in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue distribution (MRI), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda Index) and beta-cell performance (multiple sampling OGTT beta-index), with either intervention, might affect TX-dependent platelet activation, lipid peroxidation and inflammation...
December 2, 2018: Nutrients
Denise Hoch, Martin Gauster, Sylvie Hauguel-de Mouzon, Gernot Desoye
Early pregnancy is characterized by a series of complex and tightly regulated events to ultimately establish implantation and early placental development. One of the key events is the opening of the decidual spiral arteries into the intervillous space. It leads to a rise in oxygen tension in the intervillous space and the placenta and will induce transcriptional and translational changes of oxygen-sensitive molecules including antioxidants. Diabetes and/or obesity ('diabesity') are associated with changes in the maternal environment, which can affect any of the distinct developmental processes ensuing modifications of onset or magnitude of oxygen tension changes...
December 1, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Shujuan Ma, Shimin Hu, Huiling Liang, Yanni Xiao, Hongzhuan Tan
This study was undertaken to provide comprehensive analyses of current research developments in the field of breastfeed (BF) and metabolic-related outcomes among women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Database PubMed, Embase, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Science and Cochrane Library were searched through 3 December 2017. Odds ratio (OR) and weighted mean difference (WMD), with 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled by random-effects model using Stata version 12.0. Twenty-three observational studies were included in quantitative synthesis...
December 4, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Y E Lentferink, C A J Knibbe, M M J van der Vorst
BACKGROUND: Obesity and its related complications are increasing health issues. Since generally only minor weight loss is obtained with lifestyle intervention, additional pharmacological therapies such as metformin are often used. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to provide an overview of the efficacy of ≥ 6 months of metformin treatment in children and adults with respect to weight, insulin resistance, and progression toward type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
December 3, 2018: Drugs
Dana M Niedowicz, Sabire Özcan, Peter T Nelson
Sulfonylureas are a class of antidiabetes medications prescribed to millions of individuals worldwide. Rodents have been used extensively to study sulfonylureas in the laboratory. Here, we report the results of studies treating mice with a sulfonylurea (glimepiride) in order to understand how the drug affects glucose homeostasis and tolerance. We tested the effect of glimepiride on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion, using glimepiride sourced from a local pharmacy. We also examined the effect on glucagon, gluconeogenesis, and insulin sensitivity...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Stella Maris Honoré, Maria Virginia Grande, Jorge Gomez Rojas, Sara Serafina Sánchez
Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), a native plant of South America, was observed to improve lipid profile in rodents and humans. This study aimed to investigate the antiobesity properties of yacon roots in a high-fat-diet (HFD) model and the underlying mechanisms. A total of 30 Wistar male rats were divided into five groups ( n =6): the standard chow diet (SD) group was fed a SD; the HFD group was fed a HFD; and the HFD Y340 and HFD Y680 groups were fed a HFD plus yacon flour (340 and 680 mg FOS/kg b. w./day, respectively)...
2018: Journal of Obesity
Da Zhou, Yuan-Wen Chen, Ze-Hua Zhao, Rui-Xu Yang, Feng-Zhi Xin, Xiao-Lin Liu, Qin Pan, Huiping Zhou, Jian-Gao Fan
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has a broad spectrum of biological activity by regulating metabolic processes via both the direct activation of the class B family of G protein-coupled receptors and indirect nonreceptor-mediated pathways. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have significant therapeutic effects on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis (NASH) in animal models. However, clinical studies indicated that GLP-1 treatment had little effect on hepatic steatosis in some NAFLD patients, suggesting that GLP-1 resistance may occur in these patients...
December 3, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Zhixiong Ying, Xiaoke Ge, Hao Zhang, Weipeng Su, Yue Li, Le Zhou, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of methionine restriction (MR) on growth performance, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic and muscle glucose metabolism in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) pigs at 49 and 105 days of age. At weaning (day 21), 30 female normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were fed control diets with adequate methionine (NBW-CON), whereas 60 female IUGR piglets were fed either the control diets (IUGR-CON) or MR diets which were 30% reduced in methionine (IUGR-MR) (n=6 replicates (pens) with 5 piglets/replicate)...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Ira J Goldberg, M Mahmood Hussain
Lipins play important roles in adipogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and gene regulation, and mutations in these genes cause lipodystrophy, myoglobinuria, and inflammatory disorders. While all lipins (lipin 1, 2, and 3) act as phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzymes, which are required for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis from glycerol 3-phosphate, lipin 1 has been the focus of most of the lipin-related research. In the current issue of the JCI, Zhang et al. show that while lipin 2 and 3 are expendable for the incorporation of dietary fatty acids into triglycerides, lipin 2/3 PAP activity has a critical role in phospholipid homeostasis and chylomicron assembly in enterocytes...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Benjamin Kramer, Lucas Martins França, Youhua Zhang, Antonio Marcus de Andrade Paes, A Martin Gerdes, Maria Alicia Carrillo-Sepulveda
Overconsumption of a diet rich in fat and carbohydrates, called the Western diet, is a major contributor to the global epidemic of cardiovascular disease. Despite previously documented cardiovascular protection exhibited in female rats, this safeguard may be lost under certain metabolic stressors. We hypothesized that female Wistar rats challenged by a Western diet composed of 21% fat and 50% carbohydrate (34.1% sucrose) for 17 wk would develop endothelial dysfunction via endothelial Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling...
December 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Fatemeh Hassani, Shahrbanoo Oryan, Poopak Eftekhari-Yazdi, Masood Bazrgar, Ashraf Moini, Nahid Nasiri, Ali Sharifi-Zarchi
Objective: The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the cumulus oocyte complex (COC) is composed of several molecules that have different roles during follicle development. This study aims to explore gene expression profiles for ECM and cell adhesion molecules in the cumulus cells of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients based on their insulin sensitivity following controlled ovarian stimulation (COS). Materials and Methods: In this prospective case-control study enrolled 23 women less than 36 years of age who participated in an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) program...
January 2019: Cell Journal
Candida J Rebello, Frank L Greenway, Frank H Lau, Yuan Lin, Jacqueline M Stephens, William D Johnson, Ann A Coulter
OBJECTIVE: Naringenin, a citrus flavonoid, prevents diet-induced weight gain and improves glucose and lipid metabolism in rodents. There is evidence that naringenin activates brown fat and increases energy expenditure in mice, but little is known about its effects in humans. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of naringenin on energy expenditure in adipose tissue. METHODS: Human white adipocyte cultures (hADSC) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (pWAT) were treated with naringenin for 7 to 14 days...
December 2, 2018: Obesity
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