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Colorectal Neoplasia

Carolyn M Klinge
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are regulators of intracellular and intercellular signaling in breast cancer. ncRNAs modulate intracellular signaling to control diverse cellular processes, including levels and activity of estrogen receptor α (ERα), proliferation, invasion, migration, apoptosis, and stemness. In addition, ncRNAs can be packaged into exosomes to provide intercellular communication by the transmission of microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) to cells locally or systemically. This review provides an overview of the biogenesis and roles of ncRNAs: small nucleolar RNA (snRNA), circular RNAs (circRNAs), PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), miRNAs, and lncRNAs in breast cancer...
December 12, 2018: Non-Coding RNA
Andrea Buron, Marta Román, Josep M Augé, Francesc Macià, Jaume Grau, Maria Sala, Javier Louro, Montserrat Martinez-Alonso, Cristina Alvarez-Urturi, Montserrat Andreu, Xavier Bessa, Diana Zaffalon, Antoni Castells, Maria Pellisé, Marta Aldea, Liseth Rivero, Cristina Hernández, Isabel Torá-Rocamora, Xavier Castells
INTRODUCTION: Increased values in the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) are correlated with increasingly severe colorectal neoplasia, but little attention has been given to FIT values below the cut-off point (negative FIT, nFIT). We analysed the relationship between the concentrations of two consecutive nFIT and the risk of following screen-detected advanced neoplasia and interval cancer (IC) in a population-based colorectal cancer screening program. METHODS: FIT results were categorised into non-detectable nFIT (0-3...
December 10, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Haifeng Lian, Xingfang Jia, Ning Shi, Shuyang Xie, Jian Wang, Wei Wang, Fengzhen Ma, Haiyan Liu, Aili Wang, Xiankui Cheng, Chengxia Liu
Background: Dysregulation of erythropoietin-producing hepatoma (Eph) proteins in human cancers is extensively documented but not clear in colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of Notch signaling pathway and epigenetic modification of EPHB2 and EPHB4 expression in serrated neoplasia development. Methods: The expression of EPHB2 and EPHB4 in CRC clinical specimens and cell lines were determined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and real-time PCR...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Carlos Afonso Maestri, Renato Nisihara, Hellen Weinschutz Mendes, Jens Jensenius, Stephen Thiel, Iara Messias-Reason, Newton Sérgio de Carvalho
Background: MBL-associated serine proteases (MASP-1, MASP-2, MASP-3, MAp-44, and MAp-19) are key factors in the activation of the lectin pathway of complement. Serum levels of these components have been associated with recurrence and poor survival of some types of cancer, such as colorectal and ovarian cancer. In this investigation, we determined the serum levels of MASP-1, MASP-2, MASP-3, MAp-44, and MAp-19 in patients with cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Methods: A total of 351 women who underwent screening for cervical cancer or treatment at the Erasto Gaertner Cancer Hospital in Curitiba-Brazil, were enrolled in the study...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Remi Mahmoud, Shailja C Shah, Joren R Ten Hove, Joana Torres, Erik Mooiweer, Daniel Castaneda, Jason Glass, Jordan Elman, Akash Kumar, Jordan Axelrad, Thomas Ullman, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Bas Oldenburg, Steven H Itzkowitz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) who have post-inflammatory polyps (PIPs) have an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia (CRN). European guidelines propose that patients with PIPs receive more frequent surveillance colonoscopies, despite limited evidence of this increased risk. We aimed to define the risk of CRN and colectomy in patients with IBD and PIPs. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients with IBD who underwent colonoscopic surveillance for CRN, from January 1997 through January 2017, at 5 academic hospitals and 2 large non-academic hospitals in New York or the Netherlands...
December 6, 2018: Gastroenterology
Vinod Kumar, Heather Broadley, Douglas K Rex
BACKGROUND: Excision of all visible neoplastic tissue is the goal of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of colorectal laterally spreading tumors (LSTs). Flat and fibrotic tissue can resist snaring. Ablation of visible polyps is associated with high recurrence rates. Avulsion is a technique to continue resection when snaring fails. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed colonic EMRs of 564 consecutive referred polyps between 2015 and 2017. Hot avulsion was used when snaring was unsuccessful...
December 5, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Thomas B Piper, Lars N Jørgensen, Jesper Olsen, Knud T Nielsen, Gerard Davis, Julia S Johansen, Ib Jarle Christensen, Hans J Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Blood-based, cancer-associated biomarkers may detect subjects at risk of having neoplastic diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether elevated serological protein biomarker levels may identify adenoma patients, who are at increased risk of being diagnosed with subsequent primary malignancy. METHODS: Levels of CEA, CA19-9, TIMP-1 and YKL-40 were determined in blood samples collected prior to diagnostic bowel endoscopy due to symptoms of colorectal neoplasia...
December 7, 2018: Acta Oncologica
Dongyang Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Zengjun Li, Jianjun Han, Yongsheng Gao, Ming Chen, Yanqing Li
Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) promotes tumor growth in various types of cancer, but its function has not been investigated in the context of colorectal adenoma. Here, we report that FGF19 expression was greater in colorectal adenoma than in normal tissues, as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemistry. FGF19 expression was also elevated in a subset of human colon cancer cell lines. Moreover, FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4), the cognate receptor for FGF19, was upregulated in colorectal adenoma tissues...
December 5, 2018: Digestive Diseases
F Yuan, W Wang, J Xu
The novel colorectal neoplasia differentially expressed lncRNA (CRNDE) has been discovered in many solid tumors. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to illuminate the function of CRNDE in cancer. Published articles were identified by electronic search of PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE using the keywords "cancer or carcinoma or neoplasm or tumor" and "long noncoding RNA CRNDE or noncoding RNA CRNED or CRNDE". Hazard ratios (HRs), standard errors (SEs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from study survival curves...
August 9, 2018: Neoplasma
Clasine M de Klerk, Els Wieten, Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Patrick M Bossuyt, Manon Cw Spaander, Evelien Dekker
BACKGROUND: Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) are recommended for colorectal cancer screening. Two frequently used FIT methods (FOB-Gold, Sentinel Diagnostics, Milan, Italy and OC-Sensor, Eiken Chemical, Tokyo, Japan) perform similarly in detecting advanced neoplasia (ie, colorectal cancer and advanced adenoma) at a fixed positivity cutoff for faecal haemoglobin concentration. It is unclear whether the performance of the two methods is also comparable at other thresholds. We compared the accuracy of the two assays in detecting advanced neoplasia across various thresholds...
November 26, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Jose María Huguet, Patrícia Suárez, Luis Ferrer-Barceló, Isabel Iranzo, Javier Sempere
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (commonly known as IBD) have a greater risk of colorectal cancer than the general population. Therefore, they are included in special programs for screening and follow-up. Chromoendoscopy, which has a high diagnostic yield in the detection of neoplasia, is generally the recommended endoscopy technique. However, this procedure does have some disadvantages (long examination time, need for optimal bowel preparation, specialist training), which increase its cost. How then can we overcome these barriers? First, it is necessary to educate hospital managers and directors of the advantages of chromoendoscopy in patients with IBD...
November 16, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
David Niederseer, Isabelle Bracher, Andreas Stadlmayr, Ursula Huber-Schönauer, Martin Plöderl, Slayman Obeid, Christian Schmied, Sabrina Hammerl, Felix Stickel, Dieter Lederer, Wolfgang Patsch, Elmar Aigner, Christian Datz
Several studies have shown site-specific differences in colorectal cancer (CRC) with respect to the risk factors. CRC was shown to be associated with cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors, but site-specific variations have not been investigated so far. This study aimed to assess the associations between the prevalence and subsite-specific differences of colorectal neoplasia and established CVR scores or known coronary artery disease (CAD) in a large asymptomatic European screening cohort ( N = 2098). Participants underwent simultaneous screening colonoscopy and CVR evaluation, using the Framingham Risk Score and Heart Score...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Mark A Hull, Kirsty Sprange, Trish Hepburn, Wei Tan, Aisha Shafayat, Colin J Rees, Gayle Clifford, Richard F Logan, Paul M Loadman, Elizabeth A Williams, Diane Whitham, Alan A Montgomery
BACKGROUND: The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and aspirin both have proof of concept for colorectal cancer chemoprevention, aligned with an excellent safety profile. Therefore, we aimed to test the efficacy of EPA and aspirin, alone and in combination and compared with a placebo, in individuals with sporadic colorectal neoplasia detected at colonoscopy. METHODS: In a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial trial, patients aged 55-73 years who were identified during colonoscopy as being at high risk in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP; ≥3 adenomas if at least one was ≥10 mm in diameter or ≥5 adenomas if these were <10 mm in diameter) were recruited from 53 BCSP endoscopy units in England, UK...
November 19, 2018: Lancet
Chan Hyuk Park, Nam Hee Kim, Jung Ho Park, Dong Il Park, Chong Il Sohn, Yoon Suk Jung
BACKGROUND: There are no established guidelines on screening strategies for persons with a family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Korea. We aimed to evaluate the age-specific risk of colorectal neoplasia according to family history of CRC. METHODS: Participants who underwent screening colonoscopy were included. Age-specific prevalence of non-advanced adenoma (NAA) and advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACRN) was calculated according to family history of CRC. RESULTS: Among 35,997 participants, 1,339 (3...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Takashi Murakami, Yoichi Akazawa, Noboru Yatagai, Takafumi Hiromoto, Noriko Sasahara, Tsuyoshi Saito, Naoto Sakamoto, Akihito Nagahara, Takashi Yao
BACKGROUND: Colorectal sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) are considered early precursor lesions in the serrated neoplasia pathway. Recent studies have shown associations of SSA/Ps with lost MLH1 expression, a CpG island methylator phenotype, and BRAF mutations. However, the molecular biological features of SSA/Ps with early neoplastic progression have not yet been fully elucidated, owing to the rarity of cases of SSA/P with advanced histology such as cytologic dysplasia or invasive carcinoma...
November 20, 2018: Diagnostic Pathology
Marco J Tomassi, Janos Taller, Robert Yuhan, Joseph Ruan, Daniel Klaristenfeld
BACKGROUND: Given the significant perioperative risks and costs of total mesorectal excision, minimally invasive transanal surgical approaches have grown in popularity for early rectal cancer and rectal polyps. This article discusses a transanal robotic surgery technique to perform full-thickness resections of benign and malignant rectal neoplasms. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe an initial experience with robotic transanal minimally invasive surgery...
November 15, 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Liying Zhu, Nenghong Yang, Guiqin Du, Chengcheng Li, Guoqi Liu, Shengju Liu, Yongjie Xu, Yanan Di, Wei Pan, Xing Li
Colorectal neoplasia differentially expressed (CRNDE) is a significantly upregulated long noncoding RNA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). CRNDE could promote cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, while its molecular mechanisms were still largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of CRNDE. CRNDE was significantly upregulated in tumor tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. In vitro, we revealed that knockdown of CRNDE inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and cell invasion capacities in HCC...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Jing Qian, Kaja Tikk, Korbinian Weigl, Yesilda Balavarca, Hermann Brenner
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence that inflammation and metabolism play a crucial role in colorectal carcinogenesis, there have been few studies on the association of inflammatory and metabolic protein biomarkers in various stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: Ninety-two inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers were measured in plasma samples of participants of screening colonoscopy. Markers identified to be significantly associated with the presence of advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACN) in a discovery set (n = 204) were validated in an independent replication set (n = 422)...
November 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Liying Zhu, Yuyang Liu, Qiuxu Chen, Gangfeng Yu, Juan Chen, Ke Chen, Nenghong Yang, Tao Zeng, Shaoying Yan, Ailong Huang, Hua Tang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The long-noncoding RNA colorectal neoplasia differentially expressed (CRNDE) gene was first found to be activated in colorectal neoplasia. Now, it also has been found to be upregulated in many other solid tumors. Whether CRNDE affects tumorigenesis remains unknown. METHODS: We conducted bioinformatics, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot analysis, cell proliferation assay, colony formation assay, wound healing assay, cell migration and invasion assays, RNA immunoprecipitation, and reporter vector construction and luciferase assays...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Carl-Fredrik Rönnow, Noriya Uedo, Ervin Toth, Henrik Thorlacius
Background and study aims  Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) allows en bloc resection of large colorectal lesions but ESD experience is limited outside Asia. This study evaluated implementation of ESD in the treatment of colorectal neoplasia in a Western center. Patients and methods  Three hundred and one cases of colorectal ESD (173 rectal and 128 colonic lesions) were retrospectively evaluated in terms of outcome, learning curve and complications. Results  Median size was 4 cm (range 1 - 12...
November 2018: Endoscopy International Open
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