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Colorectal Neoplasia

H Y Yang, C P Huang, M M Cao, Y F Wang, Y Liu
As a new kind of factors in regulating biological processes human cancers, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are attracting more and more attention from researchers. The lncRNA Colorectal Neoplasia Differentially Expressed (CRNDE) is transcribed from chromosome 16 on the opposite strand to the neighboring IRX5 gene. It was originally discovered to be abnormally expressed in CRC and was certified to be critical biomarker in many cancers. However, its biological function and mechanism underlying the tumorigenesis of cervical cancer are still waiting for further exploration...
September 4, 2018: Neoplasma
A W Yen, A Amato, S Cadoni, S Friedland, Y H Hsieh, J W Leung, M Liggi, J Sul, F W Leung
BACKGROUND: Underwater polypectomy (UWP) of large (≥ 20 mm) colorectal lesions is well described, but reports of UWP for lesions ≤ 20 mm in size, which account for > 95% of polyps encountered in routine clinical practice, are limited. We assessed the feasibility of UWP in routine practice across various sites for colorectal lesions ≤ 20 mm in size. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study was performed on pooled data from nine colonoscopists at 3 U...
October 17, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Yuichi Aono, Mano Horinaka, Yosuke Iizumi, Motoki Watanabe, Tomoyuki Taniguchi, Shusuke Yasuda, Toshiyuki Sakai
Sulindac sulfone is a metabolite of sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), without anti-inflammatory ability. However, sulindac sulfone has been reported to significantly reduce polyps in patients with colorectal adenomatous polyposis in clinical trials. Thus, sulindac sulfone is expected to be useful for the chemoprevention of neoplasia with few side effects related to anti-inflammatory ability. To date, the molecular targets of sulindac sulfone have not yet fully investigated. Therefore, in order to newly identify sulindac sulfone-binding proteins, we generated sulindac sulfone-fixed FG beads and purified sulindac sulfone-binding proteins from human colon cancer HT-29 cells...
October 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Takahide Shinagawa, Keisuke Hata, Teppei Morikawa, Hirotoshi Takiyama, Shigenobu Emoto, Koji Murono, Manabu Kaneko, Kazuhito Sasaki, Takeshi Nishikawa, Toshiaki Tanaka, Kazushige Kawai, Masashi Fukayama, Hiroaki Nozawa
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The appropriate site for targeted biopsy during surveillance colonoscopy for ulcerative colitis (UC) is still unclear. We aimed to clarify key endoscopic findings suggestive of neoplastic lesions for targeted biopsy in UC. METHODS: First, we created 769 stereomicroscopic pictures (509 neoplastic, 260 non-neoplastic) mimicking magnifying colonoscopic images from surgically resected specimens, including areas surrounding 25 neoplastic lesions in 15 patients with colitis-associated cancer at a single referral center...
October 13, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Le Peng, Korbinian Weigl, Daniel Boakye, Hermann Brenner
OBJECTIVES: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to summarize the available evidence on risk scores for predicting advanced colorectal neoplasia (advanced adenomas and cancer) in average-risk and asymptomatic populations undergoing screening colonoscopy. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched up to 28 March 2018. Studies that developed or validated a risk score to predict the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia were included...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Mauro Scimia, Jinwei Du, Francesco Pepe, Maria Antonia Bianco, Silvana Russo Spena, Farah Patell-Socha, Qing Sun, Michael J Powell, Umberto Malapelle, Giancarlo Troncone
Circulating cell free tumour derived nucleic acids are becoming recognised as clinically significant and extremely useful biomarkers for detection of cancer and for monitoring the progression of targeted drug therapy and immunotherapy. Screening programmes for colorectal cancer in Europe use the Fetal Immunochemical Test (FIT) test as a primary screener. FIT+ patients are referred to immediate colonoscopy and the positive predictive value (PPV) is usually 25%. In this article, we report a study employing the ColoScape assay panel to detect mutations in the APC, KRAS, BRAF and CTNNB1 genes, in order to collect preliminary performance indicators and plan a future, larger population study...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Alessandro Capo, Romina Sepe, Gianluca Pellino, Marco Milone, Umberto Malapelle, Simona Pellecchia, Francesco Pepe, Nunzio Antonio Cacciola, Michele Manigrasso, Sara Bruzzaniti, Guido Sciaudone, Giovanni Domenico De Palma, Mario Galgani, Francesco Selvaggi, Giancarlo Troncone, Alfredo Fusco, Sabato D'Auria, Pierlorenzo Pallante
Even if cancer specific biomarkers are present in peripheral blood of cancer patients, it is very difficult to detect them with conventional technology because of their low concentration. A potential cancer biomarker is the HMGA1b protein, whose overexpression is a feature of several human malignant neoplasias. By taking advantage of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon, we realized a specific nano/technology-based assay for cancer detection. More in details, anti-HMGA1b monoclonal antibodies, whose affinity was previously defined by ELISA, were immobilized onto metallic surfaces to develop a direct SPR-based assay...
October 8, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Ignasi Puig, María López-Cerón, Anna Arnau, Òria Rosiñol, Miriam Cuatrecasas, Alberto Herreros-de-Tejada, Ángel Ferrández, Miquel Serra-Burriel, Óscar Nogales, Francesc Vida, Luisa de Castro, Jorge López-Vicente, Pablo Vega, Marco A Álvarez-González, Jesús González-Santiago, Marta Hernández-Conde, Pilar Díez-Redondo, Liseth Rivero Sánchez, Antonio Z Gimeno-García, Aurora Burgos, Francisco Javier García-Alonso, Marco Bustamante-Balén, Eva Martínez-Bauer, Beatriz Peñas, Maria Pellise
BACKGROUND & AIMS: T1 colorectal polyps with at least 1 risk factor for metastasis to lymph node should be treated surgically and are considered endoscopically unresectable. Optical analysis, based on the narrow-band imaging international colorectal endoscopic (NICE) classification system, is used to identify neoplasias with invasion of the submucosa that require endoscopic treatment. We assessed the accuracy of the NICE classification, along with other morphologic characteristics, in identifying invasive polys that are endoscopically unresectable (have at least 1 risk factor for metastasis to lymph node)...
October 5, 2018: Gastroenterology
Georg E Luebeck, William D Hazelton, Kit Curtius, Sean K Maden, Ming Yu, Kelly T Carter, Wynn Burke, Paul D Lampe, Christopher I Li, Cornelia M Ulrich, Polly A Newcomb, Maria Westerhoff, Andrew M Kaz, Yanxin Luo, John M Inadomi, William M Grady
Many normal tissues undergo age-related drift in DNA methylation, providing a quantitative measure of tissue age. Here we identify and validate 781 CpG-islands (CGI) that undergo significant methylomic drift in 232 normal colorectal tissues and show that these CGI continue to drift in neoplasia while retaining significant correlations across samples. However, compared with normal colon, this drift advanced (~3-4 fold) faster in neoplasia, consistent with increased cell proliferation during neoplastic progression...
October 5, 2018: Cancer Research
Manuel Zorzi, Cesare Hassan, Giulia Capodaglio, Elena Narne, Anna Turrin, Maddalena Baracco, Antonella Dal Cin, Annarita Fiore, Giancarla Martin, Alessandro Repici, Douglas Rex, Massimo Rugge
Background: Short-term studies have reported that the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is less accurate in detecting proximal than distal colorectal neoplasia. Objective: To assess the long-term detection rates for advanced adenoma and colorectal cancer (CRC), according to anatomical location. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Population-based, organized screening program in the Veneto region of Italy. Participants: Persons aged 50 to 69 years who completed 6 rounds of FIT screening...
October 2, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Jeremy P Brown, Kate Wooldrage, Ines Kralj-Hans, Suzanne Wright, Amanda J Cross, Wendy S Atkin
Objective To investigate the outcomes of biennial guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) screening after once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) screening. Methods Between 1994 and 1999, as part of the UK FS Screening Trial (UKFSST), adults aged 55-64 were randomly allocated to an intervention group (offered FS screening) or a control group (not contacted). From 2006, a subset of UKFSST participants (20,895/44,041 intervention group; 41,497/87,149 control group) were invited to biennial gFOBT screening by the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
June L Chan, Shaoguang Wu, Abby L Geis, Gabrielle V Chan, Talles A M Gomes, Sarah E Beck, Xinqun Wu, Hongni Fan, Ada J Tam, Liam Chung, Hua Ding, Hao Wang, Drew M Pardoll, Franck Housseau, Cynthia L Sears
Polysaccharide A (PSA), an immunogenic capsular component of non-toxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (NTBF) strain NCTC 9343, is reported to promote mucosal immune development and suppress colitis. Contrastingly, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) is highly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC), rapidly inducing IL-17-dependent murine colitis and tumorigenesis. In specific-pathogen-free (SPF) C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and multiple intestinal neoplasia (MinApc716+/- ) mice, we show that sequential treatment of the NTBF strain, 9343, followed by the ETBF strain, 86-5443-2-2 (86), diminished colitis and tumorigenesis...
October 2, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Dennis Yang, Mohamed Othman, Peter V Draganov
Endoscopic resection has become the first-line therapy for the management of superficial neoplasia throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are established yet distinct techniques for the treatment of superficial gastrointestinal neoplasia. EMR is simpler and faster but is limited by its ability to resect large lesions en-bloc. Limitations of piecemeal EMR of large lesions include a high rate of recurrence and a less than ideal tissue specimen for accurate histologic evaluation...
September 26, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
James L Alexander, Alasdair J Scott, Anna L Pouncey, Julian Marchesi, James Kinross, Julian Teare
Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a major cause of worldwide mortality. Epidemiological evidence of markedly increased risk in populations that migrate to Western countries, or adopt their lifestyle, suggests that CRC is a disease whose aetiology is defined primarily by interactions between the host and his environment. The gut microbiome sits directly at this interface and is now increasingly recognised as a modulator of colorectal carcinogenesis. Bacteria such as Fusobacterium nucleatum and Escherichia coli ( E...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
Vasilios Papastergiou, Zacharias P Tsiamoulos, Ioannis Stasinos, Brian P Saunders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Endoscopy
Taweesak Tongtawee, Theeraya Simawaranon, Wareporn Wattanawongdon
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Helicobacter pylori infection is a risk factor for gastric cancer and colorectal cancer (CRC). MDM2 SNP309 G/G homozygosity is known to be the genetic background that influences the severity of inflammation in the gastric mucosa, and it corresponds to CRC development. We examined the role of screening colonoscopy in H. pylori-related chronic gastritis and the association of patients who have MDM2 SNP309 G/G homozygosity and advanced colorectal neoplasia (CRN) susceptibility...
September 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
Shunsuke Yoshii, Tomofumi Akasaka, Yoshito Hayashi, Yoshiki Tsujii, Kengo Nagai, Koji Higashino, Ryu Ishihara, Hideki Iijima, Tetsuo Takehara
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in therapeutic strategy and instrumentation in colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), adverse events sometimes occur. Further advancements in available techniques are required to improve procedural success rates and safety. We developed a novel method for ESD in saline, referred to as "underwater" ESD (UESD). UESD involves using a bipolar needle knife and aims to enable complete resection while minimizing thermal damage to the muscle layer...
September 26, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Libin Xu, Yu Zhang, Zhenguo Zhao, Zhengju Chen, Zheng Wang, Songfeng Xu, Xinxin Zhang, Ting Liu, Shengji Yu
Melanoma was the most malignant skin neoplasm with an increasing morbidity around the world. Although new immunotherapies and targeted therapies have emerged recently, the long-term survival of melanoma patients still remains low. To reveal effective diagnostic methods and therapeutic strategies, the potential mechanism of melanoma is urgently needed to be studied. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have become an important regulatory factor in the occurrence and development of cancer, and it can be used as a new prognostic and diagnostic marker...
September 27, 2018: Cell Cycle
Mathias Mertz-Petersen, Thomas B Piper, Jakob Kleif, Linnea Ferm, Ib Jarle Christensen, Hans J Nielsen
Implementation of population screening for colorectal cancer by direct colonoscopy or follow-up colonoscopy after a positive fecal blood test has challenged the overall capacity of bowel examinations. Certain countries are facing serious colonoscopy capacity constraints, which have led to waiting lists and long-time latency of follow-up examinations. Various options for improvement are considered, including increased cut-off values of the fecal blood tests. Results from major clinical studies of blood-based, cancer-associated biomarkers have led to focus, however, on a triage concept for improved selection to colonoscopy...
October 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Myeongsook Seo, Dong-Hoon Yang, Jihun Kim, Eun Mi Song, Gwang Un Kim, Sung Wook Hwang, Sang Hyoung Park, Kyung-Jo Kim, Byong Duk Ye, Jeong-Sik Byeon, Seung-Jae Myung, Suk-Kyun Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We aimed to investigate the factors associated with piecemeal resection of colorectal neoplasia (CRN), in spite of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the retrospective data for colorectal ESD cases from January 2005 to April 2014. We also reviewed the piecemeal endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) for CRNs ≥20 mm, performed over the same period. RESULTS: En bloc resection was possible in 648 (85...
July 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
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