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astrocytes and PD

Bernd L Fiebich, Carla Ribeiro Alvares Batista, Soraya Wilke Saliba, Nizar M Yousif, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a group of receptors widely distributed in the organism. In the central nervous system, they are expressed in neurons, astrocytes and microglia. Although their involvement in immunity is notorious, different articles have demonstrated their roles in physiological and pathological conditions, including neurodegeneration. There is increasing evidence of an involvement of TLRs, especially TLR2, 4 and 9 in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Xing-Zhi Guo, Chang Shan, Yan-Fang Hou, Geng Zhu, Bei Tao, Li-Hao Sun, Hong-Yan Zhao, Guang Ning, Sheng-Tian Li, Jian-Min Liu
Osteoblasts derived osteocalcin (OCN) is recently reported to be involved in dopaminergic neuronal development. As dopaminergic neuronal injury in the substantia nigra (SN) is a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), we investigated whether OCN could exert protective effects on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD rat model. Our data showed that the OCN level in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in PD rat models was significantly lower than that in controls. Intervention with OCN could improve the behavioral dysfunction in PD rat models and reduce the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) loss in the nigrostriatal system...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Katarzyna Kuter, Łukasz Olech, Urszula Głowacka, Martyna Paleczna
Glial pathology precedes symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple other neurodegenerative diseases. Prolonged impairment of astrocytic functions could increase the vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), accelerate their degeneration and affect ability to compensate for partial degeneration at the presymptomatic stages of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the astrocyte depletion in the SN, its impact on the dopaminergic system functioning and multiple markers of energy metabolism during the early stages of neurodegeneration and compensation...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Yingjun Liu, Silvia Sorce, Mario Nuvolone, Julie Domange, Adriano Aguzzi
Prion diseases, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease (PD) are fatal degenerative disorders that share common neuropathological and biochemical features, including the aggregation of pathological protein conformers. Lymphocyte activation gene 3 (Lag3, also known as CD223) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of receptors expressed on peripheral immune cells, microglia and neurons, which serves as a receptor for α-synuclein aggregates in PD. Here we examined the possible role of Lag3 in the pathogenesis of prion diseases...
October 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Matthew Neal, Jie Luo, Dilshan S Harischandra, Richard Gordon, Souvarish Sarkar, Huajun Jin, Vellareddy Anantharam, Laurent Désaubry, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Arthi Kanthasamy
Astrocyte reactivity is disease- and stimulus-dependent, adopting either a proinflammatory A1 phenotype or a protective, anti-inflammatory A2 phenotype. Recently, we demonstrated, using cell culture, animal models and human brain samples, that dopaminergic neurons produce and secrete higher levels of the chemokine-like signaling protein Prokineticin-2 (PK2) as a compensatory protective response against neurotoxic stress. As astrocytes express a high level of PK2 receptors, herein, we systematically characterize the role of PK2 in astrocyte structural and functional properties...
September 12, 2018: Glia
Yujeong Lee, Jung-Hyun Cho, Seulah Lee, Wonjong Lee, Seung-Cheol Chang, Hae Young Chung, Hyung Ryong Moon, Jaewon Lee
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors and are considered promising therapeutic targets in several neurodegenerative diseases. A number of PPAR agonists have been shown to have neuroprotective properties in the presence of oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory response, and apoptosis in various neurodegenerative disease. MHY908 is a novel PPAR α/γ dual agonist, which has been shown to suppress inflammatory response and attenuate insulin resistance in aged rats and db/db mice...
September 28, 2018: Brain Research
Chuhyon Corwin, Anastasia Nikolopoulou, Allen L Pan, Mariela Nunez-Santos, Shankar Vallabhajosula, Peter Serrano, John Babich, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira
BACKGROUND: Prostaglandins are products of the cyclooxygenase pathway, which is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). Limited knowledge is available on mechanisms by which prostaglandins contribute to PD neurodegeneration. To address this gap, we focused on the prostaglandin PGD2/J2 signaling pathway, because PGD2 is the most abundant prostaglandin in the brain, and the one that increases the most under pathological conditions. Moreover, PGJ2 is spontaneously derived from PGD2. METHODS: In this study, we determined in rats the impact of unilateral nigral PGJ2-microinfusions on COX-2, lipocalin-type PGD2 synthase (L-PGDS), PGD2/J2 receptor 2 (DP2), and 15 hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH)...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Sujata Prasad, James R Lokensgard
Activated CD8+ lymphocytes infiltrate the brain in response to many viral infections; where some remain stationed long term as memory T cells. Brain-resident memory T cells (bTRM ) are positioned to impart immediate defense against recurrent or reactivated infection. The cytokine and chemokine milieu present within a tissue is critical for TRM generation and retention; and reciprocal interactions exist between brain-resident glia and bTRM . High concentrations of TGF-β are found within brain and this cytokine has been shown to induce CD103 (integrin αeβ7) expression...
September 18, 2018: Viral Immunology
Craig D Hughes, Minee L Choi, Mina Ryten, Lee Hopkins, Anna Drews, Juan A Botía, Maria Iljina, Magarida Rodrigues, Sarah A Gagliano, Sonia Gandhi, Clare Bryant, David Klenerman
Despite the wealth of genomic and transcriptomic data in Parkinson's disease (PD), the initial molecular events are unknown. Using LD score regression analysis, we show significant enrichment in PD heritability within regulatory sites for LPS-activated monocytes and that TLR4 expression is highest within human substantia nigra, the most affected brain region, suggesting a role for TLR4 inflammatory responses. We then performed extended incubation of cells with physiological concentrations of small alpha-synuclein oligomers observing the development of a TLR4-dependent sensitized inflammatory response with time, including TNF-α production...
September 17, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Hwei-Hsien Chen, Pei-Chi Chang, Shiaw-Pyng Wey, Pei-Mei Chen, Chinpiao Chen, Ming-Huan Chan
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a profound neurodegenerative disorder with gradual loss of dopamine nigrostriatal neurons linked to serious behavioral symptoms. While the current treatment strategies present limitations on halting the progression of PD, this study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of honokiol, as a partial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) mimic, on the proceeding behavioral and biochemical alterations in hemiparkinsonian mice. Results showed that unilateral striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned mice exhibited motor impairment, reflecting the contralateral rotation induced by apomorphine at 1-3 weeks post-lesion...
September 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Anne Grünewald, Kishore R Kumar, Carolyn M Sue
New discoveries providing insights into mitochondrial bioenergetics, their dynamic interactions as well as their role in cellular homeostasis have dramatically advanced our understanding of the neurodegenerative process of Parkinson's disease (PD). Respiratory chain impairment is a key feature in sporadic PD patients and there is growing evidence that links proteins encoded by PD-associated genes to disturbances in mitochondrial function. Against the backdrop of latest advances in the development of PD treatments that target mitochondria, we aim to give an overview of the literature published in the last three decades on the significance of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of PD...
September 13, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Ye Zhao, Shikara Keshiya, Farzaneh Atashrazm, Jianqun Gao, Lars M Ittner, Dario R Alessi, Glenda M Halliday, Yuhong Fu, Nicolas Dzamko
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is genetically implicated in both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, LRRK2 has emerged as a compelling therapeutic target for the treatment of PD. Consequently, there is much interest in understanding LRRK2 and its role in PD pathogenesis. LRRK2 is constitutively phosphorylated on two serines, S910 and S935, that are required for interaction of LRRK2 with members of the 14-3-3 family of scaffolding proteins. Pathogenic LRRK2 missense mutations impair the phosphorylation of LRRK2 at these sites, but whether this contributes to PD pathology is unclear...
September 5, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Elizabeth B Moloney, Alyssa Moskites, Eliza J Ferrari, Ole Isacson, Penelope J Hallett
GPNMB is a glycoprotein observed upon tissue damage and inflammation and is associated with astrocytes, microglia, and macrophages. Gene variations in GPNMB are linked with Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, and changes in protein levels of GPNMB have been found in lysosomal storage disorders, including Gaucher's disease with glucocerebrosidase (GCase) deficiency. In the current study, GPNMB increases were seen in the substantia nigra (SN) of PD patients compared to age-matched controls. Such PD patients have a decrease in GCase activity and corresponding elevation of glycosphingolipids in the SN (Rocha et al...
August 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Bridget Martinez, Philip V Peplow
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease for which the characteristic motor symptoms emerge after an extensive loss of dopamine containing neurons. The cell bodies of these neurons are present in the substantia nigra, with the nerve terminals being in the striatum. Both innate and adaptive immune responses may contribute to dopaminergic neurodegeneration and disease progression is potentially linked to these. Studies in the last twenty years have indicated an important role for neuroinflammation in PD through degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway...
September 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Xu Jiang, Palanivel Ganesan, Thamaraiselvan Rengarajan, Dong-Kug Choi, Palanisamy Arulselvan
Pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is undoubtedly a multifactorial phenomenon, with diverse etiological agents. Pro-inflammatory mediators act as a skew that directs disease progression during neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding the dynamics of inflammation and inflammatory mediators in preventing or reducing disease progression has recently gained much attention. Inflammatory neuro-degeneration is regulated via cytokines, chemokines, lipid mediators and immune cell subsets; however, individual cellular phenotypes in the Central Nervous System (CNS) acts in diverse ways whose persistent activation leads to unresolving inflammation often causing unfavorable outcomes in neurodegenerative disease like PD...
October 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Katriana A Popichak, Sean L Hammond, Julie A Moreno, Maryam F Afzali, Donald S Backos, Richard D Slayden, Stephen Safe, Ronald B Tjalkens
Inflammatory activation of glial cells promotes loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson disease. The transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF- κ B) regulates the expression of multiple neuroinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in activated glial cells that are damaging to neurons. Thus, inhibition of NF- κ B signaling in glial cells could be a promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention of neuroinflammatory injury. Nuclear orphan receptors in the NR4A family, including NR4A1 (Nur77) and NR4A2 (Nurr1), can inhibit the inflammatory effects of NF- κ B, but no approved drugs target these receptors...
October 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
Eoin O'Neill, Andrew Harkin
Degeneration of the locus coeruleus noradrenergic system is thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas pharmacological approaches to increase noradrenaline bioavailability may provide neuroprotection. Noradrenaline inhibits microglial activation and suppresses pro-inflammatory mediator production (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β & inducible nitric oxide synthase activity), thus limiting the cytotoxicity of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in response to an inflammatory stimulus...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Atsushi Fujita, Hiroo Yamaguchi, Ryo Yamasaki, Yiwen Cui, Yuta Matsuoka, Ken-Ichi Yamada, Jun-Ichi Kira
BACKGROUND: The first pathology observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) is 'dying back' of striatal dopaminergic (DA) terminals. Connexin (Cx)30, an astrocytic gap junction protein, is upregulated in the striatum in PD, but its roles in neurodegeneration remain elusive. We investigated Cx30 function in an acute PD model by administering 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to wild-type (WT) and Cx30 knockout (KO) mice. METHODS: On days 1 and 7 after MPTP administration, we evaluated changes in astrocytic Cx30, Cx43, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and ionised calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 expression by immunostaining and biochemical analysis...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Changyoun Kim, Brian Spencer, Edward Rockenstein, Hodaka Yamakado, Michael Mante, Anthony Adame, Jerel Adam Fields, Deborah Masliah, Michiyo Iba, He-Jin Lee, Robert A Rissman, Seung-Jae Lee, Eliezer Masliah
BACKGROUND: Synucleinopathies of the aging population are an heterogeneous group of neurological disorders that includes Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and are characterized by the progressive accumulation of α-synuclein in neuronal and glial cells. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), a pattern recognition immune receptor, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies because TLR2 is elevated in the brains of patients with PD and TLR2 is a mediator of the neurotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects of extracellular α-synuclein aggregates...
August 9, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Simoneide Souza Titze de Almeida, Camila Hillesheim Horst, Cristina Soto-Sánchez, Eduardo Fernandez, Ricardo Titze de Almeida
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level by triggering RNA interference. In such a sense, aberrant expressions of miRNAs play critical roles in the pathogenesis of many disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Controlling the level of specific miRNAs in the brain is thus a promising therapeutic strategy for neuroprotection. A fundamental need for miRNA regulation (either replacing or inhibition) is a carrier capable of delivering oligonucleotides into brain cells. This study aimed to examine a polymeric magnetic particle, Neuromag® , for delivery of synthetic miRNA inhibitors in the rat central nervous system...
July 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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