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Thyroid and ultrasound

Mohammed Bu Bshait, Hassan Alyami, Emad Al-Osail, Haytham Al Arfaj
INTRODUCTION: Hypoglossal nerve palsy (HNP) is a rare complication of airway management. Multiple factors have been postulated to contribute to its occurrence. Herein, we present a case of ipsilateral HNP following left hemithyroidectomy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old women presented complaining of left thyroid swelling for 1 year with no symptoms of compression or hormonal impairment. Ultrasound of the neck showed a 3 × 2 cm nodule in the left thyroid lobe without lymphadenopathy...
August 11, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
K Varadharajan, N Choudhury
PURPOSE: Surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism is undertaken by many specialties but predominantly endocrine and ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgeons. There is currently no consensus on the peri-operative management of primary hyperparathyroidism. We sought to determine current surgical practice and identify any inter-specialty variation in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: An online survey was disseminated to members of the British Association of Endocrine & Thyroid Surgeons (BAETS) in the UK...
August 17, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Debarghya China, Alfredo Illanes, Prabal Poudel, Michael Friebe, Pabitra Mitra, Debdoot Sheet
Ultrasound (US) is a widely used as a low-cost alternative to computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MRI) and primarily for preliminary imaging. Since speckle intensity in US images is inherently stochastic, readers are often challenged in their ability to identify the pathological regions in a volume of a large number of images. This paper introduces a generalized approach for volumetric segmentation of structures in US images and volumes. We employ an iterative random walks (IRW) solver, random forest (RF) learning model, and a gradient vector flow (GVF) based inter-frame belief propagation technique for achieving cross-frame volumetric segmentation...
August 15, 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Giorgio Grani, Livia Lamartina, Marco Biffoni, Laura Giacomelli, Marianna Maranghi, Rosa Falcone, Valeria Ramundo, Vito Cantisani, Sebastiano Filetti, Cosimo Durante
BACKGROUND: Over 50% of newly diagnosed thyroid nodules are either cytologically benign or presumed to be benign on the basis of low-suspicion sonographic findings. The strategies used for their long-term surveillance are based mainly on the estimated residual risk of malignancy calculated with various ultrasonographic classification systems (e.g., Thyroid Image Reporting and Data Systems [TIRADS]). We conducted a longitudinal study to evaluate the temporal stability of the initial risk estimates computed with five widely used systems and to determine whether risk-class increases during follow-up are indeed predictive of malignancy...
August 14, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Dengke Teng, Lei Ding, Yu Wang, Caimei Liu, Yongxu Xia, Hui Wang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficiency of microwave ablation (MWA) with low power of 20 w, respectively, in the treatment of cervical metastatic lymph node (CMLN) from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with a mean of 32-month follow-up. METHODS: Eleven patients in total with 24 cervical lymph nodes (LNs) diagnosed with CMLN from PTC underwent MWA at a power of 20 w. We recorded images of the LNs under ultrasound first before MWA and 1, 3, 6, 12, months after MWA, and then every 6 months, respectively...
August 13, 2018: Endocrine
Jaromir Vachutka, Zuzana Sedlackova, Tomas Furst, Miroslav Herman, Jan Herman, Richard Salzman, Ladislav Dolezal
Shear wave imaging is considered to be more precise and less operator dependent when compared with strain imaging. It enables quantitative and reproducible data (Young's modulus of the imaged tissue). However, results of shear wave imaging can be affected by a variety of different factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the pressure applied by the ultrasound probe during examination on the measured values of Young's modulus. The effect of the tissue compression on the results of the real-time shear wave elastography was evaluated via the gelatine phantom measurements, via the ex vivo experiments with pig liver, and via the in vivo measurements of the thyroid gland stiffness on healthy volunteers...
August 12, 2018: Ultrasonic Imaging
Alaa Eldin Adel Elmaddawy, Alaa Eldin Mazy
Background: The thyroid gland surgery is a common and painful procedure demanding analgesia. Many regional techniques are applied for anterior neck surgeries mostly assigned in relation to the involved cervical fascia. Dexmedetomidine (Precedex) is a selective alpha 2 adrenoceptor agonist which prolongs the sensory blockade duration of local anesthetics. Our study hypothesis is that ultrasound (US)-guided bilateral superficial cervical plexus block (BSCPB) may provide longer analgesia when adding dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine-epinephrine...
July 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
Jie Chen, Xiao-Long Li, Chong-Ke Zhao, Dan Wang, Qiao Wang, Ming-Xu Li, Qing Wei, Guo Ji, Hui-Xiong Xu
The study was aimed at evaluating the correlation between central cervical lymph node metastasis (CLNM) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients and ultrasound (US) features, immunohistochemical factors and BRAFV600E mutation. A total of 225 consecutive patients (225 PTCs) who had undergone surgery were included. All PTCs were pre-operatively analysed by US with respect to size, components, echogenicity, shape, margins, microcalcification, multiple cancers or not, internal vascularity and capsule contact or involvement...
August 9, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Qinghai Peng, Chengcheng Niu, Qianrong Zhang, Meixiang Zhang, Sijie Chen, Qiang Peng
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to highlight the conventional and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) features of mummified thyroid nodules, which should help differentiate them from histologically proven papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). METHODS: Thirty-one patients with 33 mummified thyroid nodules, which showed suspicious US findings that were suggestive of malignancy, as well as 33 patients with 38 surgically confirmed PTCs were enrolled in this study...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Simone Schenke, Philipp Seifert, Michael Zimny, Thomas Winkens, Ina Binse, Rainer Goerges
Background: Thyroid nodules are a common finding, especially in iodine-deficient regions. Ultrasonographic scoring systems such as Thyroid Imaging Reporting And Data System (TIRADS) are helpful in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid nodules by offering a risk stratification model. Depending on the constellation or number of suspicious ultrasound features, a fine needle biopsy (FNB) is recommended. However, none of the previously published TIRADS considered the functional status of the nodules...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Philippe Arbeille, Didier Chaput, Kathryn Zuj, Arielle Depriester, Alain Maillet, Olivier Belbis, Patrice Benarroche, Sebastien Barde
Echography is the most appropriate imaging modality for investigating astronauts. Unfortunately, it requires a great deal of training to perform ultrasound examinations, which can be difficult and time consuming, especially if the astronaut does not have a medical background. We designed a new echography system with motorized probes that allows for the majority of exam functions to be controlled by a ground-based sonographer. Using tele-operation, the sonographer controls the orientation of the transducer (tilt, rotation) and echograph settings (gain, depth, freeze) and triggers ultrasound functions (pulsed wave color Doppler, 3-D capture, radiofrequency data collection, elastography)...
August 7, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Konstantinos Segkos, Kyle Porter, Leigha Senter, Matthew D Ringel, Fadi A Nabhan
There are limited data on the role of neck ultrasound (US) in the surveillance of patients with follicular thyroid cancer (FTC). Here, we analyze the likelihood of US to find structural disease in patients with FTC and evaluate if initial American Thyroid Association (ATA) risk stratification and the response to therapy categories [the latter based on thyroglobulin (Tg) levels] modify that likelihood. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 32 patients with FTC in our institution. We included all patients with well-differentiated FTC who underwent total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment without neck structural disease at the time of RAI and with Tg and US at least 6 months after RAI...
August 7, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
Brian Hung-Hin Lang, Yu-Cho Woo, Keith Wan-Hang Chiu
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of second high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation treatment in benign thyroid nodules that had failed to shrink by > 50% 6 months after the first treatment. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients who did not achieve 50% volume reduction at 6 months after the first HIFU treatment underwent a second HIFU treatment. Nodule volume was measured on ultrasound at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Extent of nodule shrinkage (by volume reduction ratio) (VRR) = [Baseline volume - volume at 6 months]/[Baseline volume] * 100...
August 7, 2018: European Radiology
Krzysztof Kaliszewski, Dorota Diakowska, Beata Wojtczak, Zdzisław Forkasiewicz
Background and objective: The risk of malignancy from "atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance" (AUS/FLUS) is estimated to lie between 5% and 15%; however, some authors suggest that the risk of malignancy in AUS/FLUS depends upon specific clinical situations. This was a retrospective study which aimed to determine the incidence and risk of thyroid cancer (TC) based upon selected ultrasound features from patients with thyroid nodules (TN) classified as AUS/FLUS...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Alessandro Mantovani, Fabio Nascimbeni, Amedeo Lonardo, Giacomo Zoppini, Enzo Bonora, Christos S Mantzoros, Giovanni Targher
BACKGROUND: It is currently uncertain whether primary hypothyroidism is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We performed a meta-analysis of relevant studies to quantify the magnitude of association between primary hypothyroidism and risk of NAFLD. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases from January 2000 to March 2018 using predefined keywords to identify observational cross-sectional, case-control and longitudinal studies in which NAFLD was diagnosed by imaging or biopsy...
August 7, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Yasemin Aydoğan, Mustafa Altay, Oktay Ünsal, Veysel Kaplanoğlu, Yavuz Çağır, Canan Yıldız, Esin Beyan, Selma Uysal Ramadan
OBJECTIVES: Publications suggesting that thyroid nodule might be associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are quite interesting. There is a need for studies assessing the relationship between nodule presence and cardiovascular risk in individuals with non-functioning nodular goiter. The purpose of the present study is to reveal whether or not insulin resistance, nodule presence, and nodule stiffness affect arterial stiffness, which is a reliable and valid cardiovascular risk indicator, in individuals with euthyroid nodular goiter using the pulse wave analysis (PWA)...
August 6, 2018: Endocrine
Soo Chin Kim, Inseon Ryoo, Hye Young Sun
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of thyroid incidentaloma with hypersignal intensity on the time of flight magnetic resonance (TOF-MR) angiography and correlation with ultrasound (US). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 3,505 non-contrast TOF-MR angiography performed at our institution between September 2014 and May 2017. Two radiologists correlated the thyroid incidentalomas detected on TOF-MR angiography with US features that were obtained within a three-month interval between MR and US examinations in consensus...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Bora Kahramangil, Emin Kose, Mustafa Donmez, Husnu Aydin, Daniel El-Dabh, Vikram Krishnamurthy, Judy Jin, Joyce Jung Mee Shin, Allan Siperstein, Eren Berber
BACKGROUND: Although the concept of surgeon-performed fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodules is established, experience with surgeon-performed lymph node fine needle aspiration is scant. We aimed to study the efficacy of surgeon-performed lymph node fine needle aspiration in patients with thyroid pathologic conditions. METHODS: This is an institutional review board-approved study of patients with thyroid pathologic conditions who underwent surgeon-performed lymph node fine needle aspiration between 2002 and 2017...
July 30, 2018: Surgery
Kevin C Choong, Amer Khiyami, Stephen W Tamarkin, Christopher R McHenry
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend either ultrasound-guided or palpation-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy for evaluation of a thyroid nodule. However, it has been suggested that ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy should be used routinely in all patients to reduce the rate of nondiagnostic and false negative results. The purpose of this study was to determine whether any difference exists in nondiagnostic and false negative rates between the two methods of fine-needle aspiration biopsy at our institution...
July 30, 2018: Surgery
Arpana, Om Biju Panta, Ghanashyam Gurung, Sunil Pradhan
Introduction: Ultrasound (USG) can be a good screening tool to identify high-risk nodule requiring fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). The study aimed to assess the association of USG characteristic of thyroid nodule with malignancy. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed from August 2011 to July 2012 at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Patients referred for USG of the neck with thyroid nodule more than 10 mm were offered FNAC and included in the study after taking informed consent...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Ultrasound
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