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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790980/contrasting-patterns-of-genomic-diversity-reveal-accelerated-genetic-drift-but-reduced-directional-selection-on-x-chromosome-in-wild-and-domestic-sheep-species
#1
Ze-Hui Chen, Min Zhang, Feng-Hua Lv, Xue Ren, Wen-Rong Li, Ming-Jun Liu, Kiwoong Nam, Michael W Bruford, Meng-Hua Li
Analyses of genomic diversity along the X chromosome and of its correlation with autosomal diversity can facilitate understanding of evolutionary forces in shaping sex-linked genomic architecture. Strong selective sweeps and accelerated genetic drift on the X-chromosome have been inferred in primates and other model species, but no such insight has yet been gained in domestic animals compared with their wild relatives. Here, we analyzed X-chromosome variability in a large ovine data set, including a BeadChip array for 943 ewes from the world's sheep populations and 110 whole genomes of wild and domestic sheep...
April 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790624/effects-of-rearing-system-on-meat-quality-fatty-acid-and-amino-acid-profiles-of-hu-lambs
#2
Jianmin Chai, Qiyu Diao, Jiangchao Zhao, Haichao Wang, Kaidong Deng, Minli Qi, Mingfei Nie, Naifeng Zhang
To determine the effects of early rearing system on meat quality traits, fatty acid and amino acid profiles of meat, 48 Hu lambs were selected and randomly divided into four treatments: control lambs were ewe-reared from birth to 60 days of age (ER), while treatment lambs were segregated from their dams at 10, 20 and 30 days of age, then artificially reared with milk replacer until 60 days of age (EW10, EW20 and EW30, respectively). All lambs had no access to the milk replacer or their dams from 61 to 90 days...
May 23, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788734/neovascularization-in-ewing-s-sarcoma
#3
A F Mavrogenis, C Th Vottis, P D Megaloikonomos, G D Agrogiannis, S Theocharis
Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone malignancy in adolescents and young adults after osteosarcoma. Similar to other solid tumors, Ewing's sarcomas require an adequate vascular supply to grow and survive. The development and maintenance of vascular supply is accomplished via three main mechanisms; angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, and tumor cell vasculogenic mimicry. In addition, growth factors, parallel biochemical pathways and the tumor microenvironment are implicated in the initiation and maintenance of neovascularization...
March 14, 2018: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788119/the-effects-of-leptin-on-plasma-concentrations-of-prolactin-growth-hormone-and-melatonin-vary-depending-on-the-stage-of-pregnancy-in-sheep
#4
Malgorzata Szczesna, Katarzyna Kirsz, Tomasz Misztal, Edyta Molik, Dorota A Zieba
The effects of hyperleptinemia and leptin resistance during gestation are unclear. Leptin, an important neuroendocrine regulator, has anorexic effects, but its interactions with other metabolic hormones during pregnancy are unclear. We examined potential roles of leptin in regulating prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and melatonin plasma concentrations during pregnancy in Polish Longwool ewes. Twelve estrus-synchronized ewes carrying twins after mating were randomly assigned to receive intravenous injections of saline or recombinant ovine leptin (2...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785945/-the-molecular-mechanism-of-sheep-seasonal-breeding-and-artificial-regulatory-techniques-for-estrus-and-mating-in-anestrus
#5
Qing Xia, Qiu Yue Liu, Xiang Yu Wang, Wen Ping Hu, Chun Yan Li, Xiao Yun He, Ming Xing Chu, Ran Di
Seasonal breeding is an important factor limiting sheep production efficiency. Detailed analysis on the molecular mechanisms of seasonal breeding is the premise for improving estrus and mating rate of sheep during anestrus. Recent research showed that under long-photoperiod and short-photoperiod conditions, a series of changes in signaling molecules and cell morphology could be observed in ovine seasonal reproduction pathway. Based on the molecular mechanisms of seasonal reproduction, several technologies or methods for inducing estrus and mating of ewes in anestrus have been developed...
May 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785138/a-review-of-soft-tissue-sarcomas-translation-of-biological-advances-into-treatment-measures
#6
REVIEW
Ngoc T Hoang, Luis A Acevedo, Michael J Mann, Bhairavi Tolani
Soft-tissue sarcomas are rare malignant tumors arising from connective tissues and have an overall incidence of about five per 100,000 per year. While this diverse family of malignancies comprises over 100 histological subtypes and many molecular aberrations are prevalent within specific sarcomas, very few are therapeutically targeted. Instead of utilizing molecular signatures, first-line sarcoma treatment options are still limited to traditional surgery and chemotherapy, and many of the latter remain largely ineffective and are plagued by disease resistance...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784137/factors-influencing-the-documentation-of-fertility-related-discussions-for-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-cancer
#7
G Skaczkowski, V White, K Thompson, H Bibby, M Coory, R Pinkerton, W Nicholls, L M Orme, R Conyers, M B Phillips, M Osborn, R Harrup, A Anazodo
PURPOSE: A cancer diagnosis and treatment may have significant implications for a young patient's future fertility. Documentation of fertility-related discussions and actions is crucial to providing the best follow-up care, which may occur for many years post-treatment. This study examined the rate of medical record documentation of fertility-related discussions and fertility preservation (FP) procedures for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer in Australia. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records for 941 patients in all six Australian states...
June 2018: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782348/renal-ewing-sarcoma-treated-with-apatinib
#8
Yang Zhao, Ye Chen, Ke Cheng, Zhi-Ping Li, Hao Zeng, Ji-Yan Liu
Renal Ewing sarcoma (RES) is an extremely rare disease. The standard treatment for this disease is lacking, and clinical experience needs to be accumulated. Here, we report a case of RES that rapidly developed to metastatic disease and was refractory to radiotherapy and chemotherapy; however, the case obtained a partial response based on Choi criteria by orally taking antiangiogenic drug apatinib. Our case suggests that apatinib may be a therapeutic option for RES.
May 18, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782347/current-questions-in-bone-sarcomas
#9
Sandra J Strauss, Jeremy S Whelan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, the most common primary bone tumours in young people, are curable in most patients. However, these tumours remain a significant challenge due to the complexity and intensity of treatment and its long-term morbidity and the significant proportion of patients in whom treatment is unsuccessful. This review addresses questions about current management and emerging therapeutic targets for patients with osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma and chondrosarcoma, the commonest bone sarcoma but more common in older patients...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782160/novel-method-of-quantifying-radioactive-cesium-rich-microparticles-csmps-in-the-environment-from-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant
#10
Ryohei Ikehara, Mizuki Suetake, Tatsuki Komiya, Genki Furuki, Asumi Ochiai, Shinya Yamasaki, William R Bower, Gareth T W Law, Toshihiko Ohnuki, Bernd Grambow, Rodney C Ewing, Satoshi Utsunomiya
Highly radioactive cesium-rich microparticles (CsMPs) were released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) to the surrounding environment at an early stage of the nuclear disaster in March of 2011; however, the quantity of released CsMPs remains undetermined. Here, we report a novel method to quantify the number of CsMPs in surface soils at or around Fukushima and the fraction of radioactivity they contribute, which we call "quantification of CsMPs" (QCP) and is based on autoradiography...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781685/detection-referral-and-control-of-diabetes-and-hypertension-in-the-rural-eastern-cape-province-of-south-africa-by-community-health-outreach-workers-in-the-rural-primary-healthcare-project-health-in-every-hut
#11
Angela A Morris-Paxton, Paul Rheeder, Rose-Marie G Ewing, Dillon Woods
BACKGROUND:  Non-communicable diseases, mainly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases, are responsible for approximately 63% of all deaths occurring worldwide in any given year. The majority of these deaths have occurred in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The latest World Health Organization (WHO) report shows that the increase in diabetes is also most pronounced in the LMICs. The South African Labour and Development Research Unit estimated a 9% prevalence within the adult population in 2016...
April 11, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780156/the-successful-treatment-of-metastatic-extraosseous-ewing-sarcoma-with-pazopanib
#12
Yoshinori Mori, Shiori Kinoshita, Takashi Kanamori, Hiromi Kataoka, Takashi Joh, Shinsuke Iida, Masashi Takemoto, Masahiro Kondo, Junko Kuroda, Hirokazu Komatsu
The clinical efficacy and outcomes of pazopanib treatment for metastatic extraosseous Ewing sarcoma remain unclear. We herein report a case of heavily pre-treated metastatic extraosseous Ewing sarcoma in which pazopanib treatment achieved a significant improvement. A 17-year-old girl was referred to our hospital due to metastatic extraosseous Ewing sarcoma. The initial cytotoxic chemotherapy was temporarily effective, however, her disease eventually progressed, and she was subsequently treated with pazopanib...
May 18, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776413/the-cxcr4-antagonist-plerixafor-amd3100-promotes-proliferation-of-ewing-sarcoma-cell-lines-in-vitro-and-activates-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-signaling
#13
Philipp Berning, Christiane Schaefer, Dagmar Clemens, Eberhard Korsching, Uta Dirksen, Jenny Potratz
BACKGROUND: The CXCR4 receptor antagonist plerixafor (AMD3100) is raising interest as an anti-cancer agent that disrupts the CXCL12-CXCR4 chemokine - receptor interaction between neoplastic cells and their microenvironment in tumor progression and metastasis. Here, we investigated plerixafor for anti-cancer activity in Ewing sarcoma, a rare and aggressive cancer of bone and soft tissues. METHODS: We used a variety of methods such as cell viability and migration assays, flow cytometry, phospho-tyrosine arrays and western blotting to determine plerixafor effects on five characterized Ewing sarcoma cell lines and a low-passage culture in vitro...
May 18, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775297/factor-xia-inhibitors-as-new-anticoagulants
#14
Mimi L Quan, Donald J P Pinto, Joanne M Smallheer, William R Ewing, Karen A Rossi, Joseph M Luettgen, Dietmar A Seiffert, Ruth R Wexler
With the introduction of thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors to the oral anticoagulant market, significant improvements in both efficacy and safety have been achieved. Early clinical and preclinical data suggest that inhibitors of factor XIa can provide a still safer alternative, with expanded efficacy for arterial indications. This Perspective provides an overview of target rationale and details of the discovery and development of inhibitors of factor XIa as next generation antithrombotic agents.
May 18, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773510/implications-of-the-abcd-study-for-developmental-neuroscience
#15
Sarah W Feldstein Ewing, James M Bjork, Monica Luciana
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD) will capture a breadth of multi-faceted biobehavioral, environmental, familial, and genetic longitudinal developmental open-access data from over 11,000 9-10 year olds throughout the United States of America (USA) for an envisioned ten-year span. This will subsequently represent the largest study ever attempted with this level of brain phenotypic detail. This study holds the opportunity for exciting advances in the understanding of typical adolescent neurodevelopment, discovery of neurodevelopmental underpinnings of mental illness, as well as the neurodevelopmental influences of (and on) social factors, substance use, and critically - their interaction...
May 14, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773243/impact-of-diabetes-and-increasing-body-mass-index-category-on-left-ventricular-systolic-and-diastolic-function
#16
Arnold C T Ng, Francesca Prevedello, Giulia Dolci, Cornelis J Roos, Roxana Djaberi, Matteo Bertini, See Hooi Ewe, Christine Allman, Dominic Y Leung, Nina Ajmone Marsan, Victoria Delgado, Jeroen J Bax
BACKGROUND: Diabetes and obesity are both worldwide growing epidemics, and both are independently associated with increased risk for heart failure and death. The aim of this study was to examine the additive detrimental effect of both diabetes and increasing body mass index (BMI) category on left ventricular (LV) myocardial systolic and diastolic function. METHODS: The present retrospective multicenter study included 653 patients (337 with type 2 diabetes and 316 without diabetes) of increasing BMI category...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772265/administration-of-low-dose-triclosan-to-pregnant-ewes-results-in-placental-uptake-and-reduced-estradiol-sulfotransferase-activity-in-fetal-liver-and-placenta
#17
Erin N Jackson, Laura Rowland-Faux, Margaret O James, Charles E Wood
Sulfonation is a major pathway of estrogen biotransformation with a role in regulating estrogen homeostasis in humans and sheep. Previous in vitro studies found that triclosan is an especially potent competitive inhibitor of ovine placental estrogen sulfotransferase, with Kic of <0.1 nM. As the placenta is the main organ responsible for estrogen synthesis in pregnancy in both women and sheep, and the liver is another site of estrogen biotransformation, this study examined the effects of triclosan exposure of pregnant ewes on placental and hepatic sulfotransferase activity...
May 14, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772054/oxycodone-pharmacokinetics-and-fetal-exposure-after-intravenous-or-epidural-administration-to-the-ewe
#18
Mari Kinnunen, Hannu Kokki, Heidi Hautajärvi, Heikki Huhta, Veli-Pekka Ranta, Juha Räsänen, Hanna-Marja Voipio, Merja Kokki
INTRODUCTION: There are limited data of oxycodone pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and on fetal exposure after maternal administration. The present study describes the pharmacokinetics of intravenous oxycodone in pregnant sheep and fetal exposure after intravenous and epidural administration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 10 pregnant sheep received 0.1 mg·kg-1 oxycodone intravenously -bolus, and blood samples were collected up to 24 hours. Seven days later, the ewes were randomized to receive 0...
May 17, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767781/adolescent-condom-use-and-connectivity-in-the-social-planful-brain
#19
Justin D Caouette, Karen A Hudson, Angela D Bryan, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
Objective: To reduce rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancy among adolescents, it is critical to investigate brain connectivity that may underlie adolescents' sexual health decision-making in the context of intercourse. This study explored relationships between adolescent condom use frequency and the brain's resting-state functional connectivity, to identify differential patterns of social-affective processing among sexually active youth. Methods: In this study, N = 143 sexually active adolescents (68...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767143/okara-as-a-protein-supplement-affects-feed-intake-and-milk-composition-of-ewes-and-growth-performance-of-lambs
#20
Laura B Harthan, Debbie J R Cherney
Evaluating the feeding value of wet okara as a protein supplement for lactating ewes with twin lambs was the objective. A 4 × 4 Latin square replicated 2× (4 sheep, 4 treatments, 4 periods per square; 2 squares) was conducted to examine the influence of concentrate mix (okara or not) and type of forage (silage or hay) on ewe milk composition and growth of their lactating lambs. Treatment periods were 14 days (7 days adaptation and 7 days collection). Ewes (55 to 74.8 kg BW) were fed 1 of 4 diets: wheat middling and corn concentrate with mixed grass hay (TSH), okara and corn with mixed grass hay (OSH), soybean and wheat middlings with hay crop silage (TSS), and okara and corn with hay crop silage (OSS)...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
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