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Eva Tolmeijer, Veena Kumari, Emmanuelle Peters, Steven C R Williams, Liam Mason
Cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) involves helping patients to understand and reframe threatening appraisals of their psychotic experiences to reduce distress and increase functioning. Whilst CBTp is effective for many, it is not effective for all patients and the factors predicting a good outcome remain poorly understood. Machine learning is a powerful approach that allows new predictors to be identified in a data-driven way, which can inform understanding of the mechanisms underlying therapeutic interventions, and ultimately make predictions about symptom improvement at the individual patient level...
October 10, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Jie Jin, Hui Wang, Xiaoying Hua, Dongjian Chen, Chao Huang, Zhuo Chen
Icariin is a major active component of the traditional herb Epimedium, also known as Horny Goat Weed. It has been extensively studied throughout the past several years and is known to exert anti-oxidative, anti-neuroinflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. It is now being considered as a potential therapeutic agent for a wide variety of disorders, ranging from neoplasm to cardiovascular disease. More recent studies have shown that icariin exhibits potential preventive and/or therapeutic effects in the nervous system...
October 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Yu Zheng, Lan Bai, Yanping Zhou, Rongsheng Tong, Minghui Zeng, Jianyou Shi, Xiaofang Lib
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease occurring when the body no longer produces adequate insulin or when it cannot use the produced insulin effectively. In recent years, more and more studies have revealed that Chinese materia medica polysaccharides are the key bioactive components of Chinese herbal medicine and have significant anti-diabetic effects with almost no side effects. In this review, we summarize 10 kinds of polysaccharides from Chinese herbal medicine which have effective anti-diabetes activities and the mechanism since 2014 to now...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Paul M Williams
The prosecution of those socially irresponsible individuals who drive when they have had too much to drink - in that their breath, blood or urine alcohol level exceeds the prescribed legal limit - has been standard practice since October 1967. The forensic analysis of whichever type of specimen is taken from the suspect operates to a high degree of accuracy. Despite this a defence industry continues to operate in which specialist privately-funded legal practitioners [solicitors and counsel], in conjunction with several 'experts' whom they routinely instruct, seek to persuade the Courts that the alcohol reading on which the Crown's case depends cannot be correct as it does not accord with what their client subsequently states he had to drink...
October 11, 2018: Forensic Science International
Christian Ovesen, Jan Purrucker, Christian Gluud, Janus Christian Jakobsen, Hanne Christensen, Thorsten Steiner
BACKGROUND: Acute critical bleeding is one of the most feared complications during treatment with oral anticoagulating agents. As more patients undergo treatment with anticoagulating agents, critically bleeding episodes in patients with vitamin K antagonists, thrombin inhibitor, or factor Xa inhibitor-inducted coagulopathy will be encountered frequently by physicians. Hence, an effective treatment capable of reversing the iatrogenic coagulopathy in the acute setting is needed. In randomised clinical trials and observational studies, prothrombin complex concentrate has been reported to be superior to other acute interventions, and many guidelines recommend prothrombin complex concentrate in treatment of critically bleeding patients...
October 20, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Pei-Jiang Wang, Farhad Rikhtegar Nezami, Maysam B Gorji, Francesca Berti, Lorenza Petrini, Tomasz Wierzbicki, Francesco Migliavacca, Elazer R Edelman
Polymeric bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS), at their early stages of invention, were considered as a promising revolution in interventional cardiology. However, they failed dramatically compared to metal stents showing substantially higher incidence of device failure and clinical events, especially thrombosis. One problem is that use of paradigms inherited from metal stents ignores dependency of polymer material properties on working environment and manufacturing/deployment steps. Unlike metals, polymeric material characterization experiments cannot be considered identical under dry and submerged conditions at varying rates of operation...
October 17, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
A Schlegel, X Muller, M Kalisvaart, B Muellhaupt, Mtpr Perera, J Isaac, P-A Clavien, P Muiesan, P Dutkowski
OBJECTIVES: To provide 5-year outcome in human livers donated after circulatory death (DCD), treated by hypothermic oxygenated perfusion (HOPE). BACKGROUND: DCD liver transplantation is known for potential worse outcome due to higher rates of graft non-function or irreversible cholangiopathy. The impact of machine liver perfusion techniques on these complications remains elusive. METHODS: Fifty HOPE treated DCD liver transplants in Zurich between 2012 and 3/2017 were matched with 50 primary DBD liver transplants, and also with 50 un-treated DCD livers in Birmingham...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Liat Soudry-Kochavi, Natalya Naraykin, Rosanna Di Paola, Enrico Gugliandolo, Alessio Peritore, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Ehud Ziv, Taher Nassar, Simon Benita
One of the major disadvantages associated with macromolecules therapy is that most of them can only be administered parenterally. Exenatide, an efficient anti-diabetic drug, incretin mimetic, is currently administered subcutaneously (SC) causing compliance issues. Nanoparticles (NPs) are considered a promising solution for oral delivery of this drug. In order to overcome exenatide's inability to cross the enterocytes and to increase its stability in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, we encapsulated exenatide into a nano-in-micro delivery system...
October 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Seth Boren, Dennis Slice, Geoffrey Thomas
OBJECTIVES: The mandible can provide valuable information on both the life history and genetic makeup of Archaic human populations. The following analysis tests two hypotheses: (a) that there are significant differences in morphology in mandibular shape between the genders amongst Archaic North American Homo sapiens and (b) that there is a significant difference in variance in mandibular shape between Archaic Windover and Point Hope. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sample made from mandible specimens taken from both populations is subjected to Principal Component Analyses (PCA)...
October 20, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Takushi Fujimoto, Kenji Inaba, Hiroshi Kadokura
Formation of a disulfide bond is a critical step in the folding of numerous secretory and membrane proteins and catalyzed in vivo. A variety of mechanisms and protein structures have evolved to catalyze oxidative protein folding. Those enzymes that directly interact with a folding protein to accelerate its oxidative folding are mostly thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases that belong to the thioredoxin superfamily. The enzymes of this class often use a CXXC active-site motif embedded in their thioredoxin-like fold to promote formation, isomerization, and reduction of a disulfide bond in their target proteins...
October 19, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Fu-Min Shang, Jing Li
INTRODUCTION: Melanoma is the most dangerous skin cancer with high metastasis rate and mortality. Although the emergence of immunotherapy has brought hope for treatment, the mortality rate of melanoma is still increasing year by year. The underlying mechanism of melanoma tumor progression and metastasis is urgently needed to be clarified. Recently chemokines have been found to play an important role in tumor progression in addition to their immunocytochemical chemotaxis. METHODS: In this study, human melanoma cell lines A375 and M14 were treated with SCH-527123, a small molecule antagonist of CXCR1 and CXCR2...
October 16, 2018: Medicina Clínica
Weihua Wang, Wenling Feng, Wenliang Wang, Ping Li
To explore the potential reactivity of the methylidyne radical (CH) toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin (TCDD), the reaction mechanism between them has been systematically investigated employing the density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The relevant thermodynamic and kinetic parameters in the possible reaction pathways have been discussed as well as the IR spectra and hyperfine coupling constants (hfcc's) of the major products. Different from the reaction of the CH radical with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, CH radical can attack all the C-C bonds of TCDD to form an initial intermediate barrierlessly via the cycloaddition mechanism...
October 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Fei Xiong, Bei-Bei Yang, Jie Zhang, Li Li
The distinct pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of enantiopure sulfoxide drugs have stimulated us to systematically investigate their chiral separation, stereochemical assignment, and chiral recognition mechanism. Herein, four clinically widely-used sulfoxide drugs were chosen and optically resolved on various chiral stationary phases (CSPs). Theoretical simulations including electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation and molecular docking were adopted to assign the stereochemistry and reveal the underlying chiral recognition mechanism...
October 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Junhao Chen, Jiawei Zhang, Meigui Lin, Wei Dong, Xinyue Guo, Yang Dong, Zhengjia Wang, Liangsheng Zhang, Fei Chen
Maca (Lepidium meyenii), a Brassicaceae herb plant originated from Andean mountains, has attracted wide interests due to its unique health benefits in reproduction and fertility. Because of its adaptation to the 4000 m high-altitude harsh environment, maca is attracting more and more attention from both crop breeders and basic biologists. After our previous release of the maca genome sequence, there's a growing need to store, query, analyze and integrate various maca resources efficiently. Here, we created Maca Genome Hub (MGH), a genomics and genetics database of maca...
January 1, 2018: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Jacqueline C Pflieger, Cynthia A LeardMann, Hope S McMaster, Carrie J Donoho, Lyndon A Riviere
There has been conflicting research regarding direct association between deployments and marital quality, particularly from the military spouse's perspective. In the current study, we sought to extend past research by examining the direct association between both military and nonmilitary experiences and military spouse marital quality using 2011-2013 baseline data from the Millennium Cohort Family Study, a large sample of military couples representing all U.S. service branches and components. Military experiences were assessed using electronic deployment records to capture the number and length of deployments since 2001, and service members reported combat experience and symptoms indicative of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Hirofumi Iitsuka, Keiichi Koizumi, Akiko Inujima, Mikiko Suzaki, Yusuke Mizuno, Yoshiki Takeshita, Takeshi Eto, Yoshiki Otsuka, Ryo Shimada, Mengxin Liu, Keisuke Ikeda, Minoru Nakano, Ryo Suzuki, Kazuo Maruyama, Yue Zhou, Hiroaki Sakurai, Naotoshi Shibahara
Herbal medicine is mainly prepared from boiling herbal water extracts. Many epoch-making immunosuppressant drugs, such as glycyrrhizic acid (old example) and FTY720 (current example), were developed from herbal secondary metabolites in the boiling water extract by partition with organic solvents. However, few immunostimulants have been discovered by this method. Instead of the usual method, we aimed to find a novel immunostimulant component by two unique methods in the research of herbal medicine: ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Anthony D'Auria, Taylor Wiseman, Anjali Varghese, Eduardo D Espiridion
This is a case report of delusional parasitosis in a 70-year-old woman. Delusional parasitosis, or delusional infestation, is a rare disorder typified by the false belief that an individual is infected with insects or parasites. Management focuses on developing a strong, caring relationship with the patient. It is widely debated whether health care providers should agree or disagree with the patient's delusions. Due to the rarity of this disorder, our hope in presenting this incidence is to motivate more research for treatment...
August 8, 2018: Curēus
Georgia Kaklamani, Diana Kazaryan, James Bowen, Fabrice Iacovella, Spiros H Anastasiadis, George Deligeorgis
Hydrogels have been extensively used in the field of biomedical applications, offering customizable natural, synthetic or hybrid materials, particularly relevant in the field of tissue engineering. In the bioelectronics discipline, hydrogels are promising mainly as sensing platforms with or without encapsulated cells, showing great potential in healthcare and medicine. However, to date there is little data in the literature which characterizes the electrical properties of tissue engineering materials which are relevant to bioelectronics...
October 2018: Regenerative Biomaterials
Kine Gjesdal, Elin Dysvik, Bodil Furnes
Aim: To explore the experiences with healthcare received by people living with chronic nonmalignant pain in Norway. Design: A descriptive and explorative qualitative design. Methods: A total of 18 individual semistructured interviews was conducted in 2015. Qualitative content analysis was applied. Results: The findings revealed challenges related to a multifaceted pain condition. Participants described interactions with a supportive health care where being listened to, believed in and experiencing mutual trust were emphasized...
October 2018: Nursing Open
Anne-Grethe Talseth, Fredricka L Gilje
Aim: Several nursing studies focus on suicidal persons; yet, a synthesis of such research is unavailable. The aim of this review was to give an inclusive understanding of responses of persons at risk for suicide that guides clinical nursing practice and research. Design: A reflexive and iterative study design was used in this study. Method: A qualitative content analysis and a systematic review of literature guided the six-phase Critical Interpretive Synthesis ...
October 2018: Nursing Open
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