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Kathryn McNamara, Christopher Peters, Igor Burstyn
Objectives: To evaluate the likelihood of exceeding the occupational exposure limit (OEL) for annual ionizing radiation doses among transient workers at the Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station, and to propose a method for forecasting exposures among transient workers in general. Methods: We obtained personal dosimeter data from the Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station for the period of January-December 2014, comprising 1955 monthly dose measurements from 498 transient workers...
August 13, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Kenneth D Royal, Suzanne A Hunt, Liara M Gonzalez, Gregory A Lewbart, Kate M Bailey
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) declares exercise to be one of the most important activities one can do to improve health. The benefits of exercise are well documented and include both physiologic and psychological health. Given the current landscape of wellness issues in veterinary medical education, it is necessary that students engage in exercise activities to manage stress and increase overall health. Therefore, to develop targeted interventions with the greatest likelihood for success, it is first necessary to understand what motivates veterinary medical students to exercise given their unique situational and environmental factors...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Jason J Bailey, Eric J Jordan, Colin Burke, Michael A Ohliger, Z Jane Wang, Katherine Van Loon, Madhulika G Varma, Thomas A Hope
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if extended PET acquisition times in the pelvis during PET/MRI increase detection rates of potentially metastatic lymph nodes in patients with rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study was approved by the institutional review board of the University of California, San Francisco. Twenty-two patients with biopsy-proven rectal cancer underwent imaging via simultaneous 3-T time-of-flight PET/MRI, with seven undergoing two separate PET/MRI examinations, for a total of 29 studies...
August 14, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Ahmed I El-Sakka
Numerous studies have highlighted the intimate association between erectile dysfunction (ED) and diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the true pathogenesis of ED among diabetic men has not yet been fully discovered. The treatment of ED in diabetic patients remains an interesting area of research. The last two decades have witnessed phenomenal advances in the management of ED with the efficacy of pharmacotherapy for ED in diabetic patients encouraging, especially with introduction of innovative conservative tools for treatment...
August 14, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Peter Setlow
The purpose of this article is to highlight some areas of research with spores of bacteria of Firmicute species in which the methodology too commonly used is not optimal and generates misleading results. As a consequence, conclusions drawn from data obtained are often flawed or not appropriate. Topics covered in the article include the following: 1) the importance of using well purified bacterial spores in studies on spore resistance, composition, killing, disinfection and germination; 2) methods for obtaining good purification of spores of various species; 3) appropriate experimental approaches to determine mechanisms of spore resistance and spore killing by a variety of agents, as well as known mechanisms of spore resistance and killing; 4) common errors made in drawing conclusions about spore killing by various agents, including failure to neutralize chemical agents before plating for viable spore enumeration, and equating correlations between changes in spore properties accompanying spore killing with causation...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Kuan Wu, Jing Zhan, Gang Xu, Chen Zhang, Dengyu Pan, Minghong Wu
MoO3 is a promising anode material for energy storage, but its electrochemical performance is still unsatisfactory. Herein, α-MoO3 nanosheets vertically grown on activated carbon fiber cloth as superior anode materials for Li- and Na-ion batteries were achieved by the method of controlled preparation. For Li-ion batteries, the resulting MoO3 array electrodes exhibit a high discharge capacity of 4.48 mA h cm-2 (1780 mA h g-1) at 0.1 mA cm-2 and outstanding cycling stability at 0.5 mA cm-2 (94% capacity retention after 200 cycles)...
August 14, 2018: Nanoscale
Natesan Anand Vijai, Palanisamy Senthilnathan, Vikram Annamaneni, Sandeep C Sabnis, Arvinder Singh Soin, Chinnusamy Palanivelu
Liver transplantation is a ray of hope for thousands of patients with end-stage liver disease but is currently challenged by the scarcity of donor organs worldwide. Unlike kidney transplantation where minimally invasive donor organ procurement has almost become a norm, laparoscopic procurement of hemi-liver from a living donor is still in the infancy of development, at least in the Indian sub-continent. Minimally invasive surgery has made its way into different procedures of hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery, but only a few centres in the world are performing pure laparoscopic donor hepatectomy...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
Jaewon Yang, Jing Liu, Florian Wiesinger, Anne Menini, Xucheng Zhu, Thomas A Hope, Youngho Seo, Peder E Z Larson
Respiratory motion causes misalignments between positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR)-derived attenuation maps (<i>μ</i>-maps) in addition to artifacts on both PET and MR images in simultaneous PET/MRI for organs such as liver that can experience motion of several centimeters. To address this problem, we developed an efficient MR-based attenuation correction (MRAC) method to generate phase-matched <i>μ</i>-maps for quiescent period PET (PET<sub>Q</sub>) in abdominal PET/MRI...
August 14, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Maria Fernanda Dominguez, Javier González-Miguel, Carlos Carmona, John P Dalton, Krystyna Cwiklinski, José Tort, Mar Siles-Lucas
Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite that causes fasciolosis in animals and humans. Fasciolosis is usually treated with triclabendazole, although drug-resistant parasites have been described in several geographical locations. An alternative to drug treatment would be the use of a vaccine, although vaccination studies that have been performed mainly in ruminants over the last 30 years, show high variability in the achieved protection and are not yet ready for commercialisation. Since F. hepatica exhibits a high degree of genomic polymorphism, variation in vaccine efficacy could be attributed, at least partially, to phenotypic differences in vaccine candidate sequences amongst parasites used in the challenge infections...
July 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Kodchanan Singhanat, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been an economic and health burden in most countries around the world. Reperfusion is a standard treatment for AMI as it can actively restore blood supply to the ischemic site. However, reperfusion itself can cause additional damage; a process known as cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Although several pharmacological interventions have been shown to reduce tissue damage during I/R injury, they usually have undesirable effects. Therefore, endogenous substances such as melatonin have become a field of active investigation...
August 13, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
M Bonsignore, C Alefelder, N Pausner, P Gastmeier, I Nachtigall
BACKGROUND: It is mandatory for hospitals in Germany to employ infection control physicians and have an external consultation. The recommended coverage has substantially increased in the last years. Typically, infection control physicians are specialists for hygiene and environmental medicine and/or for microbiology. As there is already a shortage of these specialists, a curricular educational program in infection control was developed by the German Medical Association in 2011. This program addresses specialists of different clinical disciplines...
August 13, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Mario I Fernández, Maurizio Brausi, Peter E Clark, Michael S Cookson, H Barton Grossman, Makarand Khochikar, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Bernard Malavaud, Rafael Sanchez-Salas, Mark S Soloway, Robert S Svatek, Raghunandan Vikram, Alina Vrieling, Ashish M Kamat
PURPOSE: To update current recommendations on prevention, screening, diagnosis, and evaluation of bladder cancer (BC) based on a thorough assessment of the most recent literature on these topics. METHODS: A non-systematic review was performed, including articles until June 2017. A variety of original articles, reviews, and editorials were selected according to their epidemiologic, demographic, and clinical relevance. Assessment of the level of evidence and grade of recommendations was performed according to the International Consultation on Urological Diseases grading system...
August 13, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Chandni Sinha, Samridhi Nanda, Ajeet Kumar, Poonam Kumari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Ed Stevens, Mayra Guerrero, Austin Green, Leonard A Jason
This study examined the role of hope and community in achieving and/or maintaining a successful recovery, and their relationships to quality of life for individuals in recovery. The sample included 229 participants in 42 Oxford House sober living homes in 3 locations in the United States. In this cross-sectional investigation, we assessed whether hope and sense of community were predictors of quality of life for individuals living in recovery homes. Findings indicated that both hope and sense of community were predictors supporting contextual as well as individual characteristics as possible influences on recovery trajectories...
July 2018: Journal of Community Psychology
Steven Hope, Jessica Deighton, Nadia Micali, Catherine Law
OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether maternal mental health problems increased rates for child injury during the preschool years and mid-childhood, and the extent to which associations could be accounted for by a range of potential explanatory factors. DESIGN: We analysed the UK Millennium Cohort Study, a nationally representative sample with data collected throughout childhood. Multinomial regression was used to investigate whether two measures of maternal mental health (diagnosed depression/anxiety and psychological distress) were associated with subsequent childhood injury...
August 13, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Fatalmoudou Tandina, Ogobara Doumbo, Alpha Seydou Yaro, Sékou F Traoré, Philippe Parola, Vincent Robert
Mosquito-borne diseases cause major human diseases in almost every part of the world. In West Africa, and notably in Mali, vector control measures help reduce the impact of mosquito-borne diseases, although malaria remains a threat to both morbidity and mortality. The most recent overview article on mosquitoes in Mali was published in 1961, with a total of 88 species. Our present review focuses on mosquitoes of medical importance among which the Anopheles vectors of Plasmodium and filaria, as well as the Culex and Aedes vectors of arboviruses...
August 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Emmanuel Ugwa, Emmanuel Otolorin, Mark Kabue, Gbenga Ishola, Cherrie Evans, Adetiloye Oniyire, Gladys Olisaekee, Boniface Onwe, Amnesty E LeFevre, Julia Bluestone, Bright Orji, Gayane Yenokyan, Ugo Okoli
BACKGROUND: There is limited information from low and middle-income countries on learning outcomes, provider satisfaction and cost-effectiveness on the day of birth care among maternal and newborn health workers trained using onsite simulation-based low-dose high frequency (LDHF) plus mentoring approach compared to the commonly employed offsite traditional group-based training (TRAD). The LDHF approach uses in-service learning updates to deliver information based on local needs during short, structured, onsite, interactive learning activities that involve the entire team and are spaced over time to optimize learning...
August 13, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Anna H Davids, Kathryn J Sommese, Meredith V Roach, Samuel J Lee, Chelsea E Crose, Sarah B Khan, Alexandra P Leader
A 2009 community needs assessment highlighted the health care gap facing Hispanic residents in Hampton, Virginia, one of the major cities served by Eastern Virginia Medical School (EVMS). Survey respondents indicated the following as health care barriers: language, lack of knowledge, and lack of a community health center. EVMS students worked to bridge the health care gap between existing needs and services by establishing and maintaining the Clínica Comunitaria Esperanza, a culturally and linguistically competent student-run free clinic serving uninsured Hispanics in the Hampton Roads area...
August 13, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
John T Pierce, Prasad Kanuparthi, Brendan J Mcshane, Rachel L Welch, Paul J Marcotte, William C Welch
INTRODUCTION: Single-level open lumbar microdiscectomy surgery is one of the most straightforward and effective spinal surgeries performed by spinal surgeons today to treat disc herniation. Though a common operation, little in the literature is reported on the exact overall time, cost and effort associated with the performance of this surgery. The consistency of this operation across institutions and disciplines makes it a good starting point to accurately track the total time and effort of all phases of the surgical intervention...
August 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Longjian Huang, Shan Wang, Fei Ma, Yong Zhang, Yuchen Peng, Changhong Xing, Yipu Feng, Xiaoliang Wang, Ying Peng
Discovering effective agents to slow or stop neurodegeneration is a challenging task. Over decades, only a few drugs were approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and most ended in failure. The lessons learned have switched the strategy of drug discovery from designing highly selective ligands to a network pharmacology approach. This enables many natural products like butylphthalide (NBP) once again to be regarded as a valuable source of leads for drug discovery. In this review, we first start with the neuroprotective effects of NBPs on acute ischemic stroke, and later spread to their applications in major neurodegenerative diseases...
August 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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