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Andrea Porzionato, Veronica Macchi, Cristina Mazzarolo, Aldo Morra, Jose Sanudo, Raffaele De Caro
Differential diagnosis between normal/variant anatomy and pathological/traumatic findings represents one of the main matters of investigation of the so-called forensic clinical anatomy. In the literature, many anatomical variations of the laryngeal thyroid cartilage have been reported, with potential implications in forensic pathology. They include triticeal cartilages, foramen thyroideum, asymmetry, segmentation or agenesis of the superior thyroid horns, bone connections with the hyoid bone, absence of cricothyroid facets, hypertrophy of the inferior thyroid tubercle, and asymmetries in the thyroid notch, isthmus, or length of the inferior horn...
December 6, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Matthias Steidl, Klaus Schwarzburg, Beatriz Galiana, Thomas Kups, Oliver Supplie, Peter Kleinschmidt, Gerhard Lilienkamp, Thomas Hannappel
Dilute nitride III-V nanowires (NWs) possess great potential as building blocks in future optoelectronical and electrochemical devices. Here, we provide evidence for the growth of GaP/GaPN core-shell NWs via metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE), both on GaP(111)B and on GaP/Si(111) hetero-substrates. The NW morphology meets the common needs for use in applications, i. e. they are straight and vertically oriented to the substrate as well as homogeneous in length. Moreover, no parasitical island growth is observed...
December 4, 2018: Nanotechnology
Reinhard Maurer, Karsten Reuter
In molecular nanotechnology, a single molecule is envisioned to act as the basic building block of electronic devices. Such devices may be of special interest for organic photovoltaics, data storage, and smart materials. However, more often than not the molecular function is quenched upon contact with a conducting support. Trial-and-error-based decoupling strategies via molecular functionalisation and change of substrate have in many instances proven to yield unpredictable results. The adsorbate-substrate interactions that govern the function can be understood with the help of first-principles simulation...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Thomas C Erren, Philip Lewis
Chronotype, defined as the temporal phenotype of an organism, has been addressed in Chronobiology International in some 200 publications between 1997 and 2018. Readers may thus be interested in what roles chronotype may play in studies concerning chronobiology and health. In line with Karl Popper, our objective is to synthesize terms and concepts for falsifiable experimental, field, and ultimately epidemiological research. To this end, we offer 17 building blocks where each should follow from one or more others...
December 4, 2018: Chronobiology International
David W Lee, Christopher Huston
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of literature studying therapeutic intraarticular zygapophyseal (commonly referred to as facet) joint injections in the atraumatic patient population. As a result of this, intraarticular injections have been dismissed as a possible treatment for cervical zygapophyseal joint-mediated pain. Radiofrequency neurotomy (RFN) is currently the accepted treatment for facet joint neck pain. OBJECTIVE: This prospective observational study investigated injection response in an atraumatic population to determine treatment viability and whether injections reduce the need for RFN in neck pain patients...
November 2018: Pain Physician
Nan Chen, Bowei Dong, Xianshu Luo, Hong Wang, Navab Singh, Guo-Qiang Lo, Chengkuo Lee
A grating coupler is an essential building block for compact and flexible photonics integration. In order to meet the increasing demand of mid-infrared (MIR) integrated photonics for sensitive chemical/gas sensing, we report a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based MIR subwavelength grating coupler (SWGC) operating in the 3.7 μm wavelength range. We provide the design guidelines of a uniform and apodized SWGC, followed by numerical simulations for design verification. We experimentally demonstrate both types of SWGC...
October 1, 2018: Optics Express
Heinz-Peter Gelbke, Marcy Banton, Christian Block, Gordon Dawkins, Ralf Eisert, Edgar Leibold, Mark Pemberton, Iris Maria Puijk, Atsunobu Sakoda, Atsushi Yasukawa
Regulation EU 10/2011 requires a risk assessment of Non Intentionally Added Substances (NIAS) migrating into food for food contact plastics within the EU. Styrene oligomers are important potential components of NIAS in polystyrene used for food packaging and so far only dimers and trimers have been identified. They are not genotoxic in vitro, and there is good evidence that they are not endocrine disruptors. Hazard characterization to establish "safe" exposure levels is based on 1. The No Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 1 mg/kg bw/d in an oral rat study during pregnancy and lactation and 2...
November 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Christoph Thalhamer, Julia Hahne, Omer Matthijs, Peter Machacek
BACKGROUND: With a life-time prevalence of 39%, low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders. Correct diagnosis of underlying causes is commonly seen as a prerequisite for successful therapy of LBP. Currently, there is no useful, non-invasive clinical test to diagnose painful lumbar zygapophyseal joints. Clinical tests with high diagnostic accuracy are therefore desirable. Inter-rater reliability is commonly seen as a prerequisite of test validity. The objective of this pilot study was thus to evaluate inter-rater reliability of new clinical pain provocation tests for diagnosing painful lumbar zygapophyseal joints...
November 6, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Zihao Ou, Xiaohui Song, Wen Huang, Xing Jiang, Subing Qu, Qingyi Wang, Paul V Braun, Jeffrey S Moore, Xiuling Li, Qian Chen
Recent studies on the effect of particle shapes have led to extensive applications of anisotropic colloids as complex materials building blocks. Although much research has been devoted to colloids of convex polyhedral shapes, branched colloids remain largely underexplored because of limited synthesis strategies. Here we achieved the preparation of metal-organic framework (MOF) colloids in a hexapod shape, not directly from growth but from postsynthesis etching of truncated rhombic dodecahedron (TRD) parent particles...
November 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Longxiang Linghu, Jiaji Wu, Zhensen Wu, Xiaobing Wang
An efficient parallel computation using graphics processing units (GPUs) is developed for studying the electromagnetic (EM) backscattering characteristics from a large three-dimensional sea surface. A slope-deterministic composite scattering model (SDCSM), which combines the quasi-specular scattering of Kirchhoff Approximation (KA) and Bragg scattering of the two-scale model (TSM), is utilized to calculate the normalized radar cross section (NRCS in dB) of the sea surface. However, with the improvement of the radar resolution, there will be millions of triangular facets on the large sea surface which make the computation of NRCS time-consuming and inefficient...
October 28, 2018: Sensors
Sayed E Wahezi, Jocelin Jones Molina, Edward Alexeev, John S Georgy, Nogah Haramati, Stephen A Erosa, Jay M Shah, Sherry Downie
BACKGROUND: Neck pain is one of the most common causes of chronic pain and the fourth leading cause of disability worldwide; it is estimated that between 36% to 67% of this pain is due to facet arthropathy. For patients who have pain refractory to conservative treatments literature supports management with diagnostic cervical medial branch blocks (cMBBs) to identify the associated facet innervation as the source of pain followed by therapeutic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the identified nerves...
October 24, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Jiawei Zhang, Huiqi Li, Qin Kuang, Zhaoxiong Xie
Tailoring the surface structures of nanocrystals is an exciting research area on account of appealing surface-dependent properties in various applications. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, current synthetic approaches are mainly dependent upon trial and error because of the ambiguous roles of various influencing factors in complicated environments. Therefore, a general theory for predicting and guiding the rationally controlled synthesis of micro- and nanocrystallites with specific surface structures is highly desired...
October 22, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Kousik Bhunia, Moumita Chandra, Debabrata Pradhan
This review focuses on the recent progress in shape-controlled synthesis and exposed facets-dependent catalytic properties of widely used nanostructured noble metals (Pd, Pt, and Au), bimetallic alloys involving one noble metal, and oxides of first row d-block elements such as titanium oxide (TiO₂), vanadium oxide (V₂O5 ), chromium oxide (Cr₂O₃), manganese oxide (MnO₂), iron oxide (Fe₂O₃), cobalt oxide (Co₃O₄), nickel oxide (NiO), copper oxide (Cu₂O), and zinc oxide (ZnO). The major emphasis is given on the role of shape-controlling agents and experimental parameters to control the exposed facets of the nanocrystals...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Sebastian Ludyga, Uwe Pühse, Markus Gerber, Christian Herrmann
BACKGROUND: Although accumulating evidence suggests that motor and cognitive development is interrelated, only a few studies have investigated links between executive function and motor control. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study examined the relationship between motor competences and core components of executive functioning, including inhibitory control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. METHODS: In 89 preadolescent children, motor competences were assessed using the MOBAK-5 test battery...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Zhanguo Li, Mingming Jiang, Yuzhou Sun, Zhenzhong Zhang, Binghui Li, Haifeng Zhao, Chongxin Shan, Dezhen Shen
Semiconducting micro/nanostructures possessing naturally optical waveguiding behaviors and Fabry-Perot (F-P) like resonances are emerging as versatile building blocks for the assembly of photonic and optoelectronic devices, such as photodetectors, light-emitting diodes, lasers and so on. Individual ZnO micro/nanowires with a rectangular cross-section, such as microwires and microbelts possessing naturally smooth facets along both sides for good optical feedback, can be employed as an underlying F-P mode microcavity whilst as the gain medium for light amplification...
October 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Genevieve Z Steiner, Alan Bensoussan, Jianxun Liu, Mark I Hohenberg, Dennis H Chang
BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a syndrome characterised by a decline in cognition but relatively intact activities of daily living. People with MCI have an increased risk of developing dementia, and MCI is often referred to as a transitional stage between healthy ageing and dementia. Currently, there are no pharmaceutical therapies approved by the US Federal Drug Administration for MCI. Randomised controlled trials on the two major classes of anti-dementia pharmaceuticals, cholinesterase inhibitors and glutamate receptor antagonists, have produced poor results in MCI cohorts...
September 25, 2018: Trials
Michael Amlang, Hans Zwipp, Martin Pompach, Stefan Rammelt
Introduction: Less invasive restoration of joint congruity and calcaneal shape in displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures via a sinus tarsi approach followed by percutaneous internal fixation with an interlocking nail results in a low rate of soft-tissue complications and good short-term outcomes1 (Video 1). Indications & Contraindications: <AbstractText Label="Step 1 Patient Placement" NlmCategory="UNASSIGNED">Place the patient in the lateral decubitus position, supporting the involved extremity with a soft radiolucent pillow, flex the contralateral knee, check with fluoroscopy before draping, and obtain lateral radiographs...
December 28, 2017: JBJS Essential Surgical Techniques
Yasutaka Nagaoka, Rui Tan, Ruipeng Li, Hua Zhu, Dennis Eggert, Yimin A Wu, Yuzi Liu, Zhongwu Wang, Ou Chen
The assembly of uniform nanocrystal building blocks into well ordered superstructures is a fundamental strategy for the generation of meso- and macroscale metamaterials with emergent nanoscopic functionalities1-10 . The packing of spherical nanocrystals, which frequently adopt dense, face-centred-cubic or hexagonal-close-packed arrangements at thermodynamic equilibrium, has been much more widely studied than that of non-spherical, polyhedral nanocrystals, despite the fact that the latter have intriguing anisotropic properties resulting from the shapes of the building blocks11-13 ...
September 2018: Nature
Riccardo Rastelli, Nial Friel
In cluster analysis interest lies in probabilistically capturing partitions of individuals, items or observations into groups, such that those belonging to the same group share similar attributes or relational profiles. Bayesian posterior samples for the latent allocation variables can be effectively obtained in a wide range of clustering models, including finite mixtures, infinite mixtures, hidden Markov models and block models for networks. However, due to the categorical nature of the clustering variables and the lack of scalable algorithms, summary tools that can interpret such samples are not available...
2018: Statistics and Computing
W R Marchand, W Klinger, K Block, S VerMerris, T S Herrmann, C Johnson, E Shubin, S Sheppard
OBJECTIVES: Many Veterans suffer from substance use disorders (SUDs). Treatment challenges include poor treatment engagement and high relapse rates. Complementary interventions have the potential to enhance both. This study was a preliminary evaluation of sailing adventure therapy (SAT) for this population. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. Participants in the intervention were 22 Veterans (20 male, 2 female) aged 22-65 who entered a Veterans Administration residential SUD treatment program...
October 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
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