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Prefrontal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028974/temporal-dynamics-of-human-frontal-and-cingulate-neural-activity-during-conflict-and-cognitive-control
#1
Eleonora Bartoli, Christopher R Conner, Cihan M Kadipasaoglu, Sudha Yellapantula, Matthew J Rollo, Cameron S Carter, Nitin Tandon
Cognitive control refers to the ability to produce flexible, goal-oriented behavior in the face of changing task demands and conflicting response tendencies. A classic cognitive control experiment is the Stroop-color naming task, which requires participants to name the color in which a word is written while inhibiting the tendency to read the word. By comparing stimuli with conflicting word-color associations to congruent ones, control processes over response tendencies can be isolated. We assessed the spatial specificity and temporal dynamics in the theta and gamma bands for regions engaged in detecting and resolving conflict in a cohort of 13 patients using a combination of high-resolution surface and depth recordings...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028949/pyramidal-cell-subtypes-and-their-synaptic-connections-in-layer-5-of-rat-frontal-cortex
#2
Yasuo Kawaguchi
The frontal cortical areas make a coordinated response that generates appropriate behavior commands, using individual local circuits with corticostriatal and corticocortical connections in longer time scales than sensory areas. In secondary motor cortex (M2), situated between the prefrontal and primary motor areas, major subtypes of layer 5 corticostriatal cells are crossed-corticostriatal (CCS) cells innervating both sides of striatum, and corticopontine (CPn) cells projecting to the ipsilateral striatum and pontine nuclei...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028935/latent-profile-analysis-reveals-behavioral-and-brain-correlates-of-dopamine-cognition-associations
#3
Martin Lövdén, Nina Karalija, Micael Andersson, Anders Wåhlin, Jan Axelsson, Ylva Köhncke, Lars S Jonasson, Anna Rieckman, Goran Papenberg, Douglas D Garrett, Marc Guitart-Masip, Alireza Salami, Katrine Riklund, Lars Bäckman, Lars Nyberg, Ulman Lindenberger
Evidence suggests that associations between the neurotransmitter dopamine and cognition are nonmonotonic and open to modulation by various other factors. The functional implications of a given level of dopamine may therefore differ from person to person. By applying latent-profile analysis to a large (n = 181) sample of adults aged 64-68 years, we probabilistically identified 3 subgroups that explain the multivariate associations between dopamine D2/3R availability (probed with 11C-raclopride-PET, in cortical, striatal, and hippocampal regions) and cognitive performance (episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed)...
September 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028595/-loser-or-popular-neural-response-to-social-status-words-in-adolescents-with-major-depressive-disorder
#4
Jennifer S Silk, Kyung Hwa Lee, Rebecca Kerestes, Julianne M Griffith, Ronald E Dahl, Cecile D Ladouceur
Concerns about social status are ubiquitous during adolescence, with information about social status often conveyed in text formats. Depressed adolescents may show alterations in the functioning of neural systems supporting processing of social status information. We examined whether depressed youth exhibited altered neural activation to social status words in temporal and prefrontal cortical regions thought to be involved in social cognitive processing, and whether this response was associated with development...
September 23, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027903/functional-dichotomy-in-spinal-vs-prefrontal-projecting-locus-coeruleus-modules-splits-descending-noradrenergic-analgesia-from-ascending-aversion-and-anxiety-in-rats
#5
Stefan Hirschberg, Yong Li, Andrew Randall, Eric J Kremer, Anthony E Pickering
The locus coeruleus (LC) projects throughout the brain and spinal cord and is the major source of central noradrenaline. It remains unclear whether the LC acts functionally as a single global effector or as discrete modules. Specifically, while spinal-projections from LC neurons can exert analgesic actions, it is not known whether they can act independently of ascending LC projections. Using viral vectors taken up at axon terminals, we expressed chemogenetic actuators selectively in LC neurons with spinal (LC:(SC)) or prefrontal cortex (LC:(PFC)) projections...
October 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026986/inter-individual-differences-in-decision-making-flexible-and-goal-directed-behaviors-novel-insights-within-the-prefronto-striatal-networks
#6
Aurélie Fitoussi, Prisca Renault, Catherine Le Moine, Etienne Coutureau, Martine Cador, Françoise Dellu-Hagedorn
Inflexible behavior is a hallmark of several decision-making-related disorders such as ADHD and addiction. As in humans, a subset of healthy rats makes poor decisions and prefers immediate larger rewards despite suffering large losses in a rat gambling task (RGT). They also display a combination of traits reminiscent of addiction, notably inflexible behavior and perseverative responses. The goal of the present work was twofold: (1) to elucidate if behavioral inflexibility of poor decision-makers could be related to a lower quality of goal-directed behavior (action-outcome associations); (2) to uncover the neural basis of inter-individual differences in goal-directed behavior...
October 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025324/the-effects-of-head-cooling-on-brain-function-during-passive-hyperthermia-an-fmri-study
#7
Yan Xue, Li Li, Shaowen Qian, Kai Liu, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, Bo Li, Qingjun Jiang, Zhuanzhuan Wu, Lexia Du, Gang Sun
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of head-cooling on resting-state spontaneous brain activity during passive hyperthermia. METHODS: An environmental heat exposure was simulated on 16 healthy men under a normal control condition (NC) at 25°C and two hot conditions at 50°C with (HHC) and without (HOT) keeping the head cool, respectively. Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data were acquired under each condition and the values of amplitude low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and z functional connectivity (zFC) were computed to examine regional activity and functional integration, respectively...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025005/correlation-of-pain-reduction-with-fmri-bold-response-in-osteoarthritis-patients-treated-with-paracetamol-randomized-double-blind-crossover-clinical-efficacy-study
#8
Yong Yue, Agron Collaku
Objective: To assess the relationship between the analgesic efficacy of extended-release paracetamol (ER-APAP) and brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal activation in response to painful stimulation measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods: This placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover, randomized trial (N = 25) comprised three treatment periods in which patients received four doses of an eight-hour ER-APAP caplet (2 x 665 mg), four doses of matched placebo, and no treatment...
August 29, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024713/a-lack-of-glun2a-containing-nmda-receptors-confers-a-vulnerability-to-redox-dysregulation-consequences-on-parvalbumin-interneurons-and-their-perineuronal-nets
#9
Romain Cardis, Jan-Harry Cabungcal, Daniella Dwir, Kim Q Do, Pascal Steullet
The GluN2A subunit of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) plays a critical role during postnatal brain development as its expression increases while Glun2B expression decreases. Mutations and polymorphisms in GRIN2A gene, coding for GluN2A, are linked to developmental brain disorders such as mental retardation, epilepsy, schizophrenia. Published data suggest that GluN2A is involved in maturation and phenotypic maintenance of parvalbumin interneurons (PVIs), and these interneurons suffer from a deficient glutamatergic neurotransmission via GluN2A-containing NMDARs in schizophrenia...
October 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024676/perinatal-fluoxetine-prevents-the-effect-of-pre-gestational-maternal-stress-on-5-ht-in-the-pfc-but-maternal-stress-has-enduring-effects-on-mpfc-synaptic-structure-in-offspring
#10
Mary Gemmel, Nikolaos Kokras, Christina Dalla, Jodi L Pawluski
Maternal affective disorders are frequently treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs); with up to 10% of women being prescribed these medications during pregnancy. Infant development depends on the early serotonergic environment, which is altered by perinatal SSRIs, raising concern about how these medications affect neural outcomes. While clinical and preclinical research suggests an impact of SSRIs on the developing brain, more research is needed to determine the effects on neuroplasticity, the serotonergic system, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in neural regions mediating behavior...
October 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024667/parallel-but-dissociable-processing-in-discrete-corticostriatal-inputs-encodes-skill-learning
#11
David A Kupferschmidt, Konrad Juczewski, Guohong Cui, Kari A Johnson, David M Lovinger
Changes in cortical and striatal function underlie the transition from novel actions to refined motor skills. How discrete, anatomically defined corticostriatal projections function in vivo to encode skill learning remains unclear. Using novel fiber photometry approaches to assess real-time activity of associative inputs from medial prefrontal cortex to dorsomedial striatum and sensorimotor inputs from motor cortex to dorsolateral striatum, we show that associative and sensorimotor inputs co-engage early in action learning and disengage in a dissociable manner as actions are refined...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024651/implicit-and-explicit-learning-mechanisms-meet-in-monkey-prefrontal-cortex
#12
Matthew V Chafee, David A Crowe
In this issue, Loonis et al. (2017) provide the first description of unique synchrony patterns differentiating implicit and explicit forms of learning in monkey prefrontal networks. Their results have broad implications for how prefrontal networks integrate the two learning mechanisms to control behavior.
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024263/field-distribution-of-transcranial-static-magnetic-stimulation-in-realistic-human-head-model
#13
Joseph J Tharayil, Stefan M Goetz, John M Bernabei, Angel V Peterchev
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to characterize the magnetic field (B-field) that arises in a human brain model from the application of transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The spatial distribution of the B-field magnitude and gradient of a cylindrical, 5.08 cm × 2.54 cm NdFeB magnet were simulated in air and in a human head model using the finite element method and calibrated with measurements in air. The B-field was simulated for magnet placements over prefrontal, motor, sensory, and visual cortex targets...
October 10, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022873/adolescent-thc-exposure-in-female-rats-leads-to-cognitive-deficits-through-a-mechanism-involving-chromatin-modifications-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#14
Pamela Prini, Franceso Rusconi, Erica Zamberletti, Marina Gabaglio, Federica Penna, Mauro Fasano, Elena Battaglioli, Daniela Parolaro, Tiziana Rubino
BACKGROUND: Increasing cannabis consumption among adolescents, studies that link its early use with mental illnesses, and the political debate on cannabis legalization together call for an urgent need to study molecular underpinnings of adolescent brain vulnerability. The emerging role of epigenetic mechanisms in psychiatric diseases led us to hypothesize that epigenetic alterations could play a role in causes and subsequent development of the depressive/psychotic-like phenotype induced by adolescent, but not adult, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure in female rats...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022091/maternal-high-fat-diet-and-early-life-stress-differentially-modulate-spine-density-and-dendritic-morphology-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-and-adult-rats
#15
Marion Rincel, Amandine L Lépinay, Yoottana Janthakhin, Gwenaëlle Soudain, Sophie Yvon, Stéphanie Da Silva, Corinne Joffre, Agnès Aubert, Alexandra Séré, Sophie Layé, Vassilia Theodorou, Guillaume Ferreira, Muriel Darnaudéry
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a key area for the regulation of numerous brain functions including stress response and cognitive processes. This brain area is also particularly affected by adversity during early life. Using an animal model in rats, we recently demonstrated that maternal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) prevents maternal separation (MS)-induced gene expression alterations in the developing PFC and attenuates several long-term deleterious behavioral effects of MS. In the present study, we ask whether maternal HFD could protect mPFC neurons of pups exposed to early life stress by examining dendritic morphology and spine density in juvenile [postnatal day (PND) 21] and adult rats submitted to MS...
October 11, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022083/adolescent-cannabinoid-exposure-effects-on-natural-reward-seeking-and-learning-in-rats
#16
H Schoch, M Y Huerta, C M Ruiz, M R Farrell, K M Jung, J J Huang, R R Campbell, D Piomelli, S V Mahler
RATIONALE: Adolescence is characterized by endocannabinoid (ECB)-dependent refinement of neural circuits underlying emotion, learning, and motivation. As a result, adolescent cannabinoid receptor stimulation (ACRS) with phytocannabinoids or synthetic agonists like "Spice" cause robust and persistent changes in both behavior and circuit architecture in rodents, including in reward-related regions like medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens (NAc). OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Here, we examine persistent effects of ACRS with the cannabinoid receptor 1/2 specific agonist WIN55-212,2 (WIN; 1...
October 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021749/phase-dependent-modulation-of-signal-transmission-in-cortical-networks-through-tacs-induced-neural-oscillations
#17
Kristoffer D Fehér, Masahito Nakataki, Yosuke Morishima
Oscillatory neural activity is considered a basis of signal transmission in brain networks. However, the causal role of neural oscillations in regulating cortico-cortical signal transmission has so far not been directly demonstrated. To date, due to methodological limitations, studies on the online modulatory mechanisms of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS)-induced neural oscillations are confined to the primary motor cortex. To address the causal role of oscillatory activity in modulating cortico-cortical signal transmission, we have established a new method using concurrent tACS, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021526/anodal-tdcs-applied-during-multitasking-training-leads-to-transferable-performance-gains
#18
Hannah L Filmer, Maxwell Lyons, Jason B Mattingley, Paul E Dux
Cognitive training can lead to performance improvements that are specific to the tasks trained. Recent research has suggested that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied during training of a simple response-selection paradigm can broaden performance benefits to an untrained task. Here we assessed the impact of combined tDCS and training on multitasking, stimulus-response mapping specificity, response-inhibition, and spatial attention performance in a cohort of healthy adults. Participants trained over four days with concurrent tDCS - anodal, cathodal, or sham - applied to the left prefrontal cortex...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020651/is-negative-self-referent-bias-an-endophenotype-for-depression-an-fmri-study-of-emotional-self-referent-words-in-twins-at-high-vs-low-risk-of-depression
#19
K W Miskowiak, J E Larsen, C J Harmer, H R Siebner, L V Kessing, J Macoveanu, M Vinberg
BACKGROUND: Negative cognitive bias and aberrant neural processing of self-referent emotional words seem to be trait-marks of depression. However, it is unclear whether these neurocognitive changes are present in unaffected first-degree relatives and constitute an illness endophenotype. METHODS: Fifty-three healthy, never-depressed monozygotic or dizygotic twins with a co-twin history of depression (high-risk group: n = 26) or no first-degree family history of depression (low-risk group: n = 27) underwent neurocognitive testing and functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) as part of a follow-up cohort study...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020419/cortical-gaba-in-subjects-at-ultra-high-risk-of-psychosis-relationship-to-negative-prodromal-symptoms
#20
Gemma Modinos, Fatma Simsek, Jamie Horder, Matthijs Bossong, Ilaria Bonoldi, Matilda Azis, Jesus Perez, Matthew Broome, David J Lythgoe, James M Stone, Oliver D Howes, Declan G Murphy, Anthony A Grace, Paul Allen, Philip McGuire
Background: Whilst robust preclinical and postmortem evidence suggests that altered GABAergic function is central to the development of psychosis, little is known about whether it is altered in subjects at ultra-high risk of psychosis, or its relationship to prodromal symptoms. Methods: Twenty-one anti-psychotic naïve UHR individuals and 20 healthy volunteers underwent proton magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. GABA levels were obtained from the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) using MEGA-PRESS, and expressed as peak-area ratios relative to the synchronously-acquired creatine signal...
August 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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