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Prefrontal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211496/the-use-of-bright-and-dark-types-of-humour-is-rooted-in-the-brain
#1
Ilona Papousek, Willibald Ruch, Christian Rominger, Elisabeth Kindermann, Katharina Scheidl, Günter Schulter, Andreas Fink, Elisabeth M Weiss
The ways in which humour can be used are related to the manifold interpersonal functions humour can serve, some of which are positive, and some negative. In the present study, phasic changes in the functional coupling of prefrontal and posterior cortex (EEG coherence) during other people's auditory displays of happy and sad mood were recorded to predict people's typical use of humour in social interactions. Greater use of benevolent humour, the intentions of which are in keeping with the characteristics of "laughing-with" humour, was associated with greater decreases of prefrontal-posterior coupling during the processing of happy laughter...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211103/impaired-learning-and-memory-in-rats-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-involvement-with-the-imbalance-of-nesfatin-1-abundance-and-copine-6-expression
#2
Zheng Chen, Ya-Yun Xu, Rui Wu, Yin-Xiu Han, Yue Yu, Jin-Fang Ge, Fei-Hu Chen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease, resulting not only in liver dysfunction, glucose and lipid metabolism disorder, but also in neuropsychiatric damage. In the present study, a NAFLD rat model was established via feeding of a high-fat diet, and the behavior was observed via the open field test (OFT), the sucrose preference test (SPT), the elevated plus maze (EPM), the forced swimming test (FST), and the Morris water maze (MWM). The plasma concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected using chemiluminescence technique...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210848/prefrontal-hippocampal-coupling-by-theta-rhythm-and-by-2-5%C3%A2-hz-oscillation-in-the-delta-band-the-role-of-the-nucleus-reuniens-of-the-thalamus
#3
Alexis Roy, Frans Pettersson Svensson, Amna Mazeh, Bernat Kocsis
Rhythmic synchronizations of hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) at theta frequencies (4-8 Hz) are thought to mediate key cognitive functions, and disruptions of HC-PFC coupling were implicated in psychiatric diseases. Theta coupling is thought to represent a HC-to-PFC drive transmitted via the well-described unidirectional HC projection to PFC. In comparison, communication in the PFC-to-HC direction is less understood, partly because no known direct anatomical connection exists. Two recent findings, i...
February 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210287/the-neural-language-systems-that-support-healthy-aging-integrating-function-structure-and-behavior
#4
Michele T Diaz, Avery A Rizio, Jie Zhuang
Although healthy aging is generally characterized by declines in both brain structure and function, there is variability in the extent to which these changes result in observable cognitive decline. Specific to language, age-related differences in language production are observed more frequently than in language comprehension, although both are associated with increased right prefrontal cortex activation in older adults. The current paper explores these differences in the language system, integrating them with theories of behavioral and neural cognitive aging...
July 2016: Language and Linguistics Compass
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210217/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia-a-quantitative-review-of-cognitive-outcomes
#5
REVIEW
Joshua E Mervis, Riley J Capizzi, Elias Boroda, Angus W MacDonald
Cognitive deficits are a core and disabling feature of psychotic disorders, specifically schizophrenia. Current treatments for impaired cognition in schizophrenia remain insufficient. Recent research suggests transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex can potentiate cognitive improvements in healthy individuals and those with psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia. However, this burgeoning literature has not been quantitatively evaluated. Through a literature search and quantitative review, we identified 194 papers on tDCS, psychosis, and cognition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209980/the-contribution-of-the-human-posterior-parietal-cortex-to-episodic-memory
#6
REVIEW
Carlo Sestieri, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is traditionally associated with attention, perceptual decision making and sensorimotor transformations, but more recent human neuroimaging studies support an additional role in episodic memory retrieval. In this Opinion article, we present a functional-anatomical model of the involvement of the PPC in memory retrieval. Parietal regions involved in perceptual attention and episodic memory are largely segregated and often show a push-pull relationship, potentially mediated by prefrontal regions...
February 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209926/characterization-of-the-influence-of-age-on-gabaa-and-glutamatergic-mediated-functions-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-using-paired-pulse-tms-eeg
#7
Yoshihiro Noda, Reza Zomorrodi, Robin F H Cash, Mera S Barr, Faranak Farzan, Tarek K Rajji, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and glutamatergic neurotransmissions in the prefrontal cortex decreases with age. Further, cognitive function mediated through the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) also declines with age. Although neuroimaging studies have demonstrated decreased levels of these substances, direct neurophysiological data investigating the effect of aging in the DLPFC in human subjects is lacking. The advent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with electroencephalography (EEG) has allowed for the assessment of functional neurotransmission in vivo...
February 16, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209774/methyl-donor-supplementation-alters-cognitive-performance-and-motivation-in-female-offspring-from-high-fat-diet-fed-dams
#8
Sarah E McKee, Nicola M Grissom, Christopher T Herdt, Teresa M Reyes
During gestation, fetal nutrition is entirely dependent on maternal diet. Maternal consumption of excess fat during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of neurologic disorders in offspring, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia. In a mouse model, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed offspring have cognitive and executive function deficits as well as whole-genome DNA and promoter-specific hypomethylation in multiple brain regions. Dietary methyl donor supplementation during pregnancy or adulthood has been used to alter DNA methylation and behavior...
February 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209317/contralateral-cerebral-hypometabolism-after-cerebellar-stroke-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#9
Kazuya Saita, Toshiyasu Ogata, Junko Watanabe, Yoshio Tsuboi, Masaki Takahara, Tooru Inoue, Takashi Morishita
INTRODUCTION: We report the changes in cortical activity evaluated using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in 2 cases with cerebellar stroke. METHODS: Using an fNIRS imaging system, changes in the oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (ΔOxy-Hb) from baseline were estimated. Design and verbal fluency tasks were conducted for evaluation of visuospatial and language functions, respectively. RESULTS: The contralateral prefrontal area showed limited activation compared with the ipsilateral one in the case with either cerebellar stroke...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208070/association-of-medial-prefrontal-resting-state-functional-connectivity-and-metacognitive-capacity-in-early-phase-psychosis
#10
Michael M Francis, Tom A Hummer, Bethany L Leonhardt, Jenifer L Vohs, Matt G Yung, Nicole F Mehdiyoun, Paul H Lysaker, Alan Breier
Metacognition refers to a range of cognitive processes that allow one to form complex ideas of self and others and to use this information to navigate psychosocial challenges. Several studies in both early-phase and prolonged schizophrenia have demonstrated not only that significant deficits in metacognitive ability are present, but importantly that they are associated with significant functional impairment and decreased quality of life. In spite of the importance of metacognitive impairment in schizophrenia, relatively little is known about the biological substrates that may contribute to this dysfunction...
February 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208013/sex-differences-in-autism-like-behavioral-phenotypes-and-postsynaptic-receptors-expression-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-tert-transgenic-mice
#11
Ki Chan Kim, Kyu Suk Cho, Sung Min Yang, Edson Luck Gonzales, Schley Valencia, Pyeong Hwa Eun, Chang Soon Choi, Darine Froy Mabunga, Ji-Woon Kim, Judy Kyoungju Noh, Hee Jin Kim, Se Jin Jeon, Seol-Heui Han, Geon Ho Bahn, Chan Young Shin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains unexplained and untreated despite the high attention of research in recent years. Aside from its various characteristics is the baffling male preponderance over the female population. Using a validated animal model of ASD which is the telomerase reverse transcriptase overexpressing mice (TERT-tg), we conducted ASD-related behavioral assessments and protein expression experiments to mark the difference between male and females of this animal model. After statistically analyzing the results, we found significant effects of TERT overexpression in sociability, social novelty preference, anxiety, nest building, and electroseizure threshold in the males but not their female littermates...
February 17, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207751/flavor-pleasantness-processing-in-the-ventral-emotion-network
#12
Jelle R Dalenberg, Liselore Weitkamp, Remco J Renken, Luca Nanetti, Gert J Ter Horst
The ventral emotion network-encompassing the amygdala, insula, ventral striatum, and ventral regions of the prefrontal cortex-has been associated with the identification of emotional significance of perceived external stimuli and the production of affective states. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating chemosensory stimuli have associated parts of this network with pleasantness coding. In the current study, we independently analyzed two datasets in which we measured brain responses to flavor stimuli in young adult men...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207733/beyond-negative-valence-2-week-administration-of-a-serotonergic-antidepressant-enhances-both-reward-and-effort-learning-signals
#13
Jacqueline Scholl, Nils Kolling, Natalie Nelissen, Michael Browning, Matthew F S Rushworth, Catherine J Harmer
To make good decisions, humans need to learn about and integrate different sources of appetitive and aversive information. While serotonin has been linked to value-based decision-making, its role in learning is less clear, with acute manipulations often producing inconsistent results. Here, we show that when the effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram) are studied over longer timescales, learning is robustly improved. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in volunteers as they performed a concurrent appetitive (money) and aversive (effort) learning task...
February 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205609/association-of-fronto-temporal-function-with-cognitive-ability-in-schizophrenia
#14
Shenghong Pu, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Masashi Itakura, Masaaki Iwata, Izumi Nagata, Koichi Kaneko
Deficits in neuropsychological performance are common in schizophrenia, but their relationship with the fronto-temporal functional abnormalities associated with this condition remains unclear. We explored the relationship between neuropsychological performance as measured using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Social Cognition Screening Questionnaire theory of mind (ToM) subscale and fronto-temporal function in 23 patients with schizophrenia and 23 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs), using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205364/altered-neural-mechanisms-of-cognitive-control-in-patients-with-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-an-effective-connectivity-study
#15
Ekaterina Dobryakova, Maria Assunta Rocca, Paola Valsasina, John DeLuca, Massimo Filippi
Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) leads to physical and cognitive disability. Specifically, cognitive deficits in PPMS have been explained by both grey matter atrophy and white matter lesions. However, existing research still lacks in the understanding of how the brain of a patient with PPMS functions under cognitive control demands. Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine information integration in patients with PPMS using a search-based effective connectivity method. Fourteen patients with PPMS and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) performed the Stroop task, a cognitively demanding interference task that taxes neural resources required for cognitive control and response inhibition...
February 16, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204841/a-single-cocaine-exposure-disrupts-actin-dynamics-in-the-cortico-accumbal-pathway-of-adolescent-rats-modulation-by-a-second-cocaine-injection
#16
Lucia Caffino, Giuseppe Giannotti, Giorgio Racagni, Fabio Fumagalli
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Among the changes caused by repeated exposure to drugs of abuse, structural rearrangements play a critical role, setting the stage for maladaptive responses to environmental challenges and sustaining drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors. Given that adolescents are more vulnerable to drug abuse than adults and based on our recent data showing that a single exposure to cocaine during adolescence is sufficient to change the adolescent brain, we decided to investigate whether acute cocaine exposure may alter actin remodeling in reward-related brain regions...
February 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203529/reality-monitoring-impairment-in-schizophrenia-reflects-specific-prefrontal-cortex-dysfunction
#17
Jane R Garrison, Emilio Fernandez-Egea, Rashid Zaman, Mark Agius, Jon S Simons
Reality monitoring impairment is often reported in schizophrenia but the neural basis of this deficit is poorly understood. Difficulties with reality monitoring could be attributable to the same pattern of neural dysfunction as other cognitive deficits that characterize schizophrenia, or might instead represent a separable and dissociable impairment. This question was addressed through direct comparison of behavioral performance and neural activity associated with reality monitoring and working memory in patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203201/modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cortex-needs-to-understand-all-the-players
#18
REVIEW
Claire N J Meunier, Pascal Chameau, Philippe M Fossier
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in cognitive tasks such as working memory, decision making, risk assessment and regulation of attention. These functions performed by the PFC are supposed to rely on rhythmic electrical activity generated by neuronal network oscillations determined by a precise balance between excitation and inhibition balance (E/I balance) resulting from the coordinated activities of recurrent excitation and feedback and feedforward inhibition. Functional alterations in PFC functions have been associated with cognitive deficits in several pathologies such as major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202787/dysregulated-glycine-signaling-contributes-to-increased-impulsivity-during-protracted-alcohol-abstinence
#19
Cristina Irimia, Matthew W Buczynski, Luis A Natividad, Sarah A Laredo, Nathaniel Avalos, Loren H Parsons
Persons with alcoholism who are abstinent exhibit persistent impairments in the capacity for response inhibition, and this form of impulsivity is significantly associated with heightened relapse risk. Brain-imaging studies implicate aberrant prefrontal cortical function in this behavioral pathology, although the underlying mechanisms are not understood. Here we present evidence that deficient activation of glycine and serine release in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) contributes to increased motor impulsivity during protracted abstinence from long-term alcohol exposure...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202674/lrrk2-detection-in-human-biofluids-potential-use-as-a-parkinson-s-disease-biomarker
#20
REVIEW
Jean-Marc Taymans, Eugénie Mutez, Matthieu Drouyer, William Sibran, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a complex signalling protein that is a key therapeutic target, particularly in Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition, there is now evidence showing that LRRK2 expression and phosphorylation levels have potential as markers of disease or target engagement. Indeed, reports show increases in LRRK2 protein levels in the prefrontal cortex of PD patients relative to controls, suggesting that increase in total LRRK2 protein expression is correlated with disease progression. LRRK2 phosphorylation levels are reduced in experimental systems for most disease mutants, and LRRK2 is also rapidly dephosphorylated upon LRRK2 inhibitor treatment, considered potential therapeutics...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
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