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Prefrontal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677620/hippocampal-fxr-plays-a-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-depression-a-preliminary-study-based-on-lentiviral-gene-modulation
#1
Wei-Guan Chen, Jia-Xuan Zheng, Xi Xu, Yu-Ming Hu, Yu-Min Ma
As a well-known bile acid receptor, the role of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in the digestive system and cardiovascular system has been widely explored. However, there are very few studies involving FXR in the central nervous system. In this study, we explored the role of FXR in the pathogenesis of depression, a serious and worldwide neuropsychiatric disease. It was found that chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) fully enhanced the protein and mRNA expressions of FXR in hippocampus, but not medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
April 10, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677606/5-hz-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-comorbid-with-major-depressive-disorder
#2
Linda L Carpenter, Christine Conelea, Audrey R Tyrka, Emma S Welch, Benjamin D Greenberg, Lawrence H Price, Matthew Niedzwiecki, Agustin G Yip, Jennifer Barnes, Noah S Philip
BACKGROUND: Standard clinical protocols for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for major depressive disorder (MDD) apply 10 Hz pulses over left prefrontal cortex, yet little is known about the effects of rTMS in more diagnostically complex depressed patients. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is commonly comorbid with MDD, and while rTMS has been shown to alleviate PTSD symptoms in preliminary studies, ideal parameters remain unclear...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676484/structural-and-metabolic-brain-correlates-of-apathy-in-huntington-s-disease
#3
Saul Martínez-Horta, Jesús Perez-Perez, Frederic Sampedro, Javier Pagonabarraga, Andrea Horta-Barba, Mar Carceller-Sindreu, Beatriz Gomez-Anson, Gloria Andrea Lozano-Martinez, Diego Alfonso Lopez-Mora, Valle Camacho, Alejandro Fernández-León, Ignasi Carrió, Jaime Kulisevsky
BACKGROUND: Apathy is the most prevalent and characteristic neuropsychiatric feature of Huntington's disease. Congruent with the main early pathological changes, apathy is primarily associated with subcortical damage in frontal-striatal circuits. However, little is known about its precise subserving mechanisms and the contribution of regions other than the basal ganglia. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to define the neural correlates of apathy in Huntington's disease based on gray matter volume and PET/CT of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose metabolism...
April 20, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675472/low-input-and-multiplexed-microfluidic-assay-reveals-epigenomic-variation-across-cerebellum-and-prefrontal-cortex
#4
Sai Ma, Yuan-Pang Hsieh, Jian Ma, Chang Lu
Extensive effort is under way to survey the epigenomic landscape of primary ex vivo tissues to establish normal reference data and to discern variation associated with disease. The low abundance of some tissue types and the isolation procedure required to generate a homogenous cell population often yield a small quantity of cells for examination. This difficulty is further compounded by the need to profile a myriad of epigenetic marks. Thus, technologies that permit both ultralow input and high throughput are desired...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674268/frequency-dependent-functional-connectivity-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-during-continuous-transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-major-depressive-disorder
#5
Zengjian Wang, Jiliang Fang, Jun Liu, Peijing Rong, Kristen Jorgenson, Joel Park, Courtney Lang, Yang Hong, Bing Zhu, Jian Kong
Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) may be a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). In this exploratory study, fMRI scans were acquired during continuous real or sham tVNS from 41 MDD patients. Then, all patients received real or sham tVNS treatment for four weeks. We investigated the functional connectivity (FC) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) at different frequency bands during real and sham tVNS and explored their associations with depressive symptom changes after one month of treatment...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674253/involvement-of-snare-complex-in-the-hippocampus-and-prefrontal-cortex-of-offspring-with-depression-induced-by-prenatal-stress
#6
Yan Jun Cao, Qiong Wang, Xing Xing Zheng, Ying Cheng, Yan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Prenatal stress (PS) exposure can cause depression-like behavior in offspring, and maladaptive responses including physiological and neurobiological changes. Glutamate neurotransmission is implicated in effects of PS and in antidepressant mechanisms; however, the mechanisms underlying its involvement remain unclear. In the synapse, the formation of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex is essential for vesicular docking and neurotransmitter release...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674194/resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-children-born-from-gestations-complicated-by-preeclampsia-a-pilot-study-cohort
#7
Lauren E Mak, B Anne Croy, Vanessa Kay, James N Reynolds, Matthew T Rätsep, Nils D Forkert, Graeme N Smith, Angelina Paolozza, Patrick W Stroman, Ernesto A Figueiró-Filho
BACKGROUND: Individuals (PE-F1s) born from preeclampsia (PE)-complicated pregnancies have elevated risks for cognitive impairment. Intervals of disturbed maternal plasma angiokines precede clinical signs of PE. We hypothesized pan-blastocyst dysregulation of angiokines underlies altered PE-F1 brain vascular and neurological development. This could alter brain functional connectivity (FC) patterns at rest. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Resting-state functional MRI datasets of ten, matched child pairs (5 boys and 5 girls aged 7-10 years of age) from PE or control pregnancies were available for study...
February 7, 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673858/impact-of-high-intensity-interval-exercise-on-executive-function-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-healthy-college-aged-males
#8
Aaron L Slusher, Virginia T Patterson, Charles S Schwartz, Edmund O Acevedo
Prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent executive function is enhanced immediately following high intensity interval exercise (HIIE). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is considered a biomarker associated with enhanced execute functioning capacity at rest and in response to exercise. However, the mechanisms responsible for the acute exercise-induced BDNF response in plasma and serum differ, and it is likely that the utilization of BDNF in plasma and/or serum as a biomarker of improved executive function following HIIE may be limited...
April 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673625/abnormal-target-detection-and-novelty-processing-neural-response-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#9
Pilar M Sanjuan, Chloe Andrews, Eric D Claus
Attention impairments are common symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the nature of these impairments remains elusive. Attention impairment may arise as the result of either excessive response to task-irrelevant stimuli or reduced response to task-relevant information. To test the association between PTSD and response to task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimuli, we used a 3-tone novelty auditory oddball task (AOD). We hypothesized that participants with PTSD relative to trauma controls would have less response during novelty processing in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex, as well as less response in the dlPFC and the orbitofrontal cortex during target detection...
April 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673483/training-humans-to-categorize-monkey-calls-auditory-feature-and-category-selective-neural-tuning-changes
#10
Xiong Jiang, Mark A Chevillet, Josef P Rauschecker, Maximilian Riesenhuber
Grouping auditory stimuli into common categories is essential for a variety of auditory tasks, including speech recognition. We trained human participants to categorize auditory stimuli from a large novel set of morphed monkey vocalizations. Using fMRI-rapid adaptation (fMRI-RA) and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) techniques, we gained evidence that categorization training results in two distinct sets of changes: sharpened tuning to monkey call features (without explicit category representation) in left auditory cortex and category selectivity for different types of calls in lateral prefrontal cortex...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673474/fronto-thalamic-architectures-for-cognitive-algorithms
#11
Michael M Halassa
In this issue of Neuron, Collins et al. (2018) delineate the functional circuit architecture connecting the prefrontal cortex with two major thalamic territories, the mediodorsal and ventromedial.
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672876/regional-brain-volume-changes-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals-during-short-term-and-long-term-abstinence
#12
Xiaowei Zou, Timothy C Durazzo, Dieter J Meyerhoff
BACKGROUND: Widespread brain atrophy in alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) has been consistently documented in pathological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Longitudinal MRI studies have shown that the regional brain volume losses in ALC are partially reversible during abstinence from alcohol. The goal of this study was to determine volume reductions in cortical and subcortical regions functionally important to substance use behavior and their changes during short-term (1 week to 1 month) and long-term abstinence (1 month to 7 months) from alcohol...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672741/multimodal-brain-changes-in-first-episode-mania-a-voxel-based-morphometry-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-connectivity-study
#13
José M Goikolea, Danai Dima, Ramón Landín-Romero, Imma Torres, Giuseppe DelVecchio, Marc Valentí, Benedikt L Amann, Caterina Mar Bonnín, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Sophia Frangou, Eduard Vieta
Background: Brain structural and functional changes in bipolar disorder (BD) are well-established findings, but it is uncertain whether these changes are already present in first episode mania (FEM). Methods: We compared 31 FEM subjects, with 31 healthy individuals matched for age, sex, and premorbid IQ. Whole-brain voxel-wise morphometry, functional magnetic resonance imaging during the n-back task, and a functional connectivity analysis were performed. Results: There were no volumetric differences between the 2 groups...
April 17, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672343/polygenic-risk-score-for-schizophrenia-is-not-strongly-associated-with-the-expression-of-specific-genes-or-gene-sets
#14
David Curtis
BACKGROUND: The polygenic risk score (PRS) is derived from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including those that are genome-wide significant and also including a large number of others more weakly associated with schizophrenia. Such variants are widely dispersed, though concentrated near genes expressed in the brain, and it has been proposed that these SNP associations result from impacts on cell regulatory networks that ultimately affect the expression or function of a modest number of 'core' genes...
April 18, 2018: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672301/neurobiological-mechanisms-mediating-emotion-dysregulation-as-targets-of-change-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#15
Sabine C Herpertz, Isabella Schneider, Christian Schmahl, Katja Bertsch
Emotion dysregulation is a hallmark of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Most interventions for patients with BPD, therefore, aim at the improvement of emotion regulation. In the current paper, we provide an overview of studies investigating the effects of psychotherapeutic or pharmacological interventions on neurobiological correlates of various aspects of emotion regulation. In fact, studies suggest that the prefrontal-limbic circuit may play a major role in mediating effects of clinically efficacious psychotherapeutic treatments, i...
April 19, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671217/cyproheptadine-regulates-pyramidal-neuron-excitability-in-mouse-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#16
Yan-Lin He, Kai Wang, Qian-Ru Zhao, Yan-Ai Mei
Cyproheptadine (CPH), a first-generation antihistamine, enhances the delayed rectifier outward K+ current (IK ) in mouse cortical neurons through a sigma-1 receptor-mediated protein kinase A pathway. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of CPH on neuronal excitability in current-clamped pyramidal neurons in mouse medial prefrontal cortex slices. CPH (10 µmol/L) significantly reduced the current density required to generate action potentials (APs) and increased the instantaneous frequency evoked by a depolarizing current...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671056/progressive-symptom-associated-prefrontal-volume-loss-occurs-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-but-not-in-affective-psychosis
#17
Toshiyuki Ohtani, Elisabetta Del Re, James J Levitt, Margaret Niznikiewicz, Jun Konishi, Takeshi Asami, Toshiro Kawashima, Tomohide Roppongi, Paul G Nestor, Martha E Shenton, Dean F Salisbury, Robert W McCarley
Although smaller gray matter volumes (GMV) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have been reported cross-sectionally, there are, to our knowledge, no reports of longitudinal comparisons using manually drawn, gyrally based ROI, and their associations with symptoms. The object of this study was to determine whether first-episode schizophrenia (FESZ) and first-episode affective psychosis (FEAFF) patients show initial and progressive PFC GMV reduction in bilateral frontal pole, superior frontal gyrus (SFG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and examine their symptom associations...
April 18, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670822/change-in-emotional-self-concept-following-socio-cognitive-training-relates-to-structural-plasticity-of-the-prefrontal-cortex
#18
Anna-Lena Lumma, Sofie L Valk, Anne Böckler, Pascal Vrtička, Tania Singer
Introduction: Self-referential processing is a key component of the emotional self-concept. Previous studies have shown that emotional self-referential processing is related to structure and function of cortical midline areas such as medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and that it can be altered on a behavioral level by specific mental training practices. However, it remains unknown how behavioral training-related change in emotional self-concept content relates to structural plasticity...
April 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670648/stimulating-the-healthy-brain-to-investigate-neural-correlates-of-motor-preparation-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Cécilia Neige, Hugo Massé-Alarie, Catherine Mercier
Objective: Noninvasive brain stimulation techniques can be used to selectively increase or decrease the excitability of a cortical region, providing a unique opportunity to assess the causal contribution of that region to the process being assessed. The objective of this paper is to systematically examine studies investigating changes in reaction time induced by noninvasive brain stimulation in healthy participants during movement preparation. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed in the PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Web of science databases...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670143/overcoming-bias-cognitive-control-reduces-susceptibility-to-framing-effects-in-evaluating-musical-performance
#20
Gökhan Aydogan, Nicole Flaig, Srekar N Ravi, Edward W Large, Samuel M McClure, Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis
Prior expectations can bias evaluative judgments of sensory information. We show that information about a performer's status can bias the evaluation of musical stimuli, reflected by differential activity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Moreover, we demonstrate that decreased susceptibility to this confirmation bias is (a) accompanied by the recruitment of and (b) correlated with the white-matter structure of the executive control network, particularly related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC)...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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