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Prefrontal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471293/neonatal-stress-has-a-long-lasting-sex-dependent-effect-on-anxiety-like-behavior-and-neuronal-morphology-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus
#1
Silvana Regina de Melo, Caren Tatiane de David Antoniazzi, Shakhawat Hossain, Bryan Kolb
The long-lasting effects of early stress on brain development have been well studied. Recent evidence indicates that males and females respond differently to the same stressor. We examined the chronic effects of daily maternal separation (MS) on behavior and cerebral morphology in both male and female rats. Cognitive and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated, and neuroplastic changes in 2 subregions of the prefrontal cortex (dorsal agranular insular cortex [AID] and cingulate cortex [Cg3]) and hippocampus (CA1 and dentate gyrus) were measured in adult male and female rats...
February 22, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471261/regulation-of-cortical-and-peripheral-gch1-expression-and-biopterin-levels-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#2
James D Clelland, Laura L Read, Jennifer Smeed, Catherine L Clelland
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4 ) is an essential cofactor for dopamine, serotonin and nitric oxide synthesis. Deficits of plasma total biopterin (a measure of BH4 ) have been described in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. GCH1 encodes the first and rate-limiting enzyme in BH4 synthesis. Peripheral GCH1 expression is lower in first episode psychosis patients versus controls, and we hypothesized that a GCH1 promoter polymorphism associated with psychiatric illness, contributes to regulation of both GCH1 expression and BH4 levels...
February 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471082/anhedonic-behavior-and-%C3%AE-amino-butyric-acid-during-a-sensitive-period-in-female-rats-exposed-to-early-adversity
#3
Jodi L Lukkes, Shirisha Meda, Kevin J Norman, Susan L Andersen
Early life adversity increases depressive behavior that emerges during adolescence. Sensitive periods have been associated with fewer GABAergic interneurons, especially parvalbumin (PV), brain derived growth factor, and its receptor, TrkB. Here, maternal separation (MS) and social isolation (ISO) were used to establish a sensitive period for anhedonic depression using the learned helplessness (LH) paradigm. Female Sprague-Dawley rat pups underwent MS for 4-h/day or received typical care (CON) between postnatal days 2-20; for the ISO condition, separate cohorts were individually housed between days 20-40 or served as controls (CON2)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471053/morphological-and-functional-evidence-of-increased-excitatory-signaling-in-the-prelimbic-cortex-during-ethanol-withdrawal
#4
Florence P Varodayan, Harpreet Sidhu, Max Kreifeldt, Marisa Roberto, Candice Contet
Excessive alcohol consumption in humans induces deficits in decision making and emotional processing, which indicates a dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The present study aimed to determine the impact of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) inhalation on mouse medial PFC pyramidal neurons. Data were collected 6-8 days into withdrawal from 7 weeks of CIE exposure, a time point when mice exhibit behavioral symptoms of withdrawal. We found that spine maturity in prelimbic (PL) layer 2/3 neurons was increased, while dendritic spines in PL layer 5 neurons or infralimbic (IL) neurons were not affected...
February 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471028/the-structural-and-functional-brain-networks-that-support-human-social-networks
#5
M P Noonan, R B Mars, J Sallet, R I M Dunbar, L K Fellows
Social skills rely on a specific set of cognitive processes, raising the possibility that individual differences in social networks are related to differences in specific brain structural and functional networks. Here, we tested this hypothesis with multimodality neuroimaging. With diffusion MRI (DMRI), we showed that differences in structural integrity of particular white matter (WM) tracts, including cingulum bundle, extreme capsule and arcuate fasciculus were associated with an individual's social network size (SNS)...
February 19, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471017/moderate-effects-of-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-of-the-frontal-cortex-for-improving-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-meta-analysis-of-controlled-trials
#6
REVIEW
André Aleman, Stefanie Enriquez-Geppert, Henderikus Knegtering, Jozarni J Dlabac-de Lange
BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms in schizophrenia concern a clinically relevant reduction of goal-directed behavior that strongly and negatively impacts daily functioning. Existing treatments are of marginal effect and novel approaches are needed. Noninvasive neurostimulation by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are novel approaches that may hold promise. OBJECTIVES: To provide a quantitative integration of the published evidence regarding effects of rTMS and tDCS over the frontal cortex on negative symptoms, including an analysis of effects of sham stimulation...
February 19, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470964/everything-in-its-right-place-a-prefrontal-midbrain-circuit-for-contextual-fear-discrimination
#7
Olena Bukalo, Andrew Holmes
In this issue of Neuron, Rozeske et al. (2018) use an ingenuous behavioral paradigm to change pertinent sensory stimuli defining a given context to interrogate how the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and periaqueductal gray (PAG) interact during contextual fear discrimination.
February 21, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470055/unique-molecular-regulation-of-higher-order-prefrontal-cortical-circuits-insights-into-the-neurobiology-of-schizophrenia
#8
Dibyadeep Datta, Amy F T Arnsten
Schizophrenia is associated with core deficits in cognitive abilities and impaired functioning of the newly evolved prefrontal association cortex (PFC). In particular, neuropathological studies of schizophrenia have found selective atrophy of the pyramidal cell microcircuits in deep layer III of the dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC), and compensatory weakening of related GABAergic interneurons. Studies in monkeys have shown that recurrent excitation in these layer III microcircuits generates the precisely patterned, persistent firing needed for working memory and abstract thought...
February 22, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468854/differential-effects-of-oxycodone-and-venlafaxine-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#9
Tine M Hansen, Dina Lelic, Anne E Olesen, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Jens B Frøkjaer
AIM: Different mechanisms may be involved in the antinociceptive effects of oxycodone (opioid) and venlafaxine (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor), and the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these drugs on brain functional connectivity. METHODS: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired in 20 healthy volunteers before and after a 5-day treatment with oxycodone, venlafaxine, or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study...
February 21, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468384/redirection-of-neuroblast-migration-from-the-rostral-migratory-stream-into-a-lesion-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-adult-rats
#10
Jannis Gundelach, Michael Koch
Clinical treatment of structural brain damage today is largely limited to symptomatic approaches and the avoidance of secondary injury. However, neuronal precursor cells are constantly produced within specified regions of the mammalian brain throughout life. Here we evaluate the potential of the known chemoattractive properties of the glycoprotein laminin on neuroblasts to relocate the cells into damaged brain areas. Injection of a thin laminin tract, leading from the rostral migratory stream to an excitotoxic lesion within the medial prefrontal cortex of rats, enabled neuroblasts to migrate away from their physiological route towards the olfactory bulb into the lesion site...
February 21, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467848/differential-microrna-expression-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-mouse-offspring-induced-by-glyphosate-exposure-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#11
Hua Ji, Linhao Xu, Zheng Wang, Xinli Fan, Lihui Wu
Glyphosate is the active ingredient in numerous herbicide formulations. The role of glyphosate in neurotoxicity has been reported in human and animal models. However, the detailed mechanism of the role of glyphosate in neuronal development remains unknown. Recently, several studies have reported evidence linking neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) with gestational glyphosate exposure. The current group previously identified microRNAs (miRNAs) that are associated with the etiology of NDDs, but their expression levels in the developing brain following glyphosate exposure have not been characterized...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467679/the-endocannabinoid-system-across-postnatal-development-in-transmembrane-domain-neuregulin-1-mutant-mice
#12
Rose Chesworth, Leonora E Long, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Tim Karl
The use of cannabis is a well-established component risk factor for schizophrenia, particularly in adolescent individuals with genetic predisposition for the disorder. Alterations to the endocannabinoid system have been found in the prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia. Thus, we assessed whether molecular alterations exist in the endocannabinoid signalling pathway during brain development in a mouse model for the schizophrenia risk gene neuregulin 1 ( Nrg1 ). We analysed transcripts encoding key molecules of the endocannabinoid system in heterozygous transmembrane domain Nrg1 mutant mice ( Nrg1 TM HET), which is known to have increased sensitivity to cannabis exposure...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467640/alterations-of-resting-state-static-and-dynamic-functional-connectivity-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-subjects-with-internet-gaming-disorder
#13
Xu Han, Xiaowei Wu, Yao Wang, Yawen Sun, Weina Ding, Mengqiu Cao, Yasong Du, Fuchun Lin, Yan Zhou
Internet gaming disorder (IGD), a major behavior disorder, has gained increasing attention. Recent studies indicate altered resting-state static functional connectivity (FC) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in subjects with IGD. Whereas static FC often provides information on functional changes in subjects with IGD, investigations of temporal changes in FC between the DLPFC and the other brain regions may shed light on the dynamic characteristics of brain function associated with IGD. Thirty subjects with IGD and 30 healthy controls (HCs) matched for age, gender and education status were recruited...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467603/cognitive-functions-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders-involving-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-mediodorsal-thalamus
#14
REVIEW
Zakaria Ouhaz, Hugo Fleming, Anna S Mitchell
The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) has been implicated in executive functions (such as planning, cognitive control, working memory, and decision-making) because of its significant interconnectivity with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Yet, whilst the roles of the PFC have been extensively studied, how the MD contributes to these cognitive functions remains relatively unclear. Recently, causal evidence in monkeys has demonstrated that in everyday tasks involving rapid updating (e.g., while learning something new, making decisions, or planning the next move), the MD and frontal cortex are working in close partnership...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467419/a-neuronal-mechanism-underlying-decision-making-deficits-during-hyperdopaminergic-states
#15
Jeroen P H Verharen, Johannes W de Jong, Theresia J M Roelofs, Christiaan F M Huffels, Ruud van Zessen, Mieneke C M Luijendijk, Ralph Hamelink, Ingo Willuhn, Hanneke E M den Ouden, Geoffrey van der Plasse, Roger A H Adan, Louk J M J Vanderschuren
Hyperdopaminergic states in mental disorders are associated with disruptive deficits in decision making. However, the precise contribution of topographically distinct mesencephalic dopamine pathways to decision-making processes remains elusive. Here we show, using a multidisciplinary approach, how hyperactivity of ascending projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) contributes to impaired flexible decision making in rats. Activation of the VTA-nucleus accumbens pathway leads to insensitivity to loss and punishment due to impaired processing of negative reward prediction errors...
February 21, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467392/alcohol-impairs-n100-response-to-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-stimulation
#16
Genane Loheswaran, Mera S Barr, Reza Zomorrodi, Tarek K Rajji, Daniel M Blumberger, Bernard Le Foll, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Alcohol is thought to exert its effect by acting on gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) inhibitory neurotransmission. The N100, the negative peak on electroencephalography (EEG) that occurs approximately 100 ms following the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse, is believed to represent GABAB receptor mediated neurotransmission. However, no studies have examined the effect of alcohol on the N100 response to TMS stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In the present study, we aimed to explore the effect of alcohol on the DLPFC TMS-evoked N100 response...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466732/dissonant-representations-of-visual-space-in-prefrontal-cortex-during-eye-movements
#17
Xiaomo Chen, Marc Zirnsak, Tirin Moore
We used local field potentials (LFPs) and spikes to investigate representations of visual space in prefrontal cortex and the dynamics of those representations during eye movements. Spatial information contained in LFPs of the frontal eye field (FEF) was differentially distributed across frequencies, with a majority of that information being carried in alpha and high-gamma bands and minimal signal in the low-gamma band. During fixation, spatial information from alpha and high-gamma bands and spiking activity was robust across cortical layers...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466364/abnormalities-in-gray-matter-volume-in-patients-with-borderline-personality-disorder-and-their-relation-to-lifetime-depression-a-vbm-study
#18
Salvatore Aguilar-Ortiz, Pilar Salgado-Pineda, Josep Marco-Pallarés, Juan C Pascual, Daniel Vega, Joaquim Soler, Cristina Brunel, Ana Martin-Blanco, Angel Soto, Joan Ribas, Teresa Maristany, Salvador Sarró, Raymond Salvador, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Peter J McKenna
BACKGROUND: Structural imaging studies of borderline personality disorder (BPD) have found regions of reduced cortical volume, but these have varied considerably across studies. Reduced hippocampus and amygdala volume have also been a regular finding in studies using conventional volumetric measurement. How far comorbid major depression, which is common in BPD and can also affect in brain structure, influences the findings is not clear. METHODS: Seventy-six women with BPD and 76 matched controls were examined using whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464981/multiple-sclerosis-related-fatigue-altered-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-ventral-striatum-and-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#19
Sven Jaeger, Friedemann Paul, Michael Scheel, Alexander Brandt, Josephine Heine, Daniel Pach, Claudia M Witt, Judith Bellmann-Strobl, Carsten Finke
OBJECTIVE: Since recent studies suggested a role of the striatum and prefrontal cortex for multiple sclerosis (MS)-related fatigue, we investigated resting-state functional connectivity alterations of striatal subdivisions and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired in 77 relapsing-remitting MS patients (38 fatigued (F-MS), 39 non-fatigued (NF-MS)) and 41 matched healthy controls (HC)...
February 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464530/difference-in-regional-neural-fluctuations-and-functional-connectivity-in-crohn-s-disease-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#20
Chunhui Bao, Peng Liu, Huirong Liu, Xiaoming Jin, Yin Shi, Luyi Wu, Xiaoqing Zeng, Jianye Zhang, Di Wang, Vince D Calhoun, Jie Tian, Huangan Wu
Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are shown to have abnormal changes in brain structures. This study aimed to further investigate whether these patients have abnormal brain activities and network connectivity. Sixty patients with CD and 40 healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) were used to assess differences in spontaneous regional brain activity and functional connectivity...
February 20, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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