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Resting state functional MRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903561/keeping-weight-off-study-protocol-of-an-rct-to-investigate-brain-changes-associated-with-mindfulness-based-stress-reduction
#1
Carl Fulwiler, Julia A Siegel, Jeroan Allison, Milagros C Rosal, Judson Brewer, Jean A King
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a growing epidemic fuelled by unhealthy behaviours and associated with significant comorbidities and financial costs. While behavioural interventions produce clinically meaningful weight loss, weight loss maintenance is challenging. This may partially be due to failure to target stress and emotional reactivity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) reduces stress and emotional reactivity and may be a useful tool for behaviour change maintenance. This study seeks to provide a mechanistic understanding for clinical trials of the benefits of MBSR for weight loss maintenance by examining changes in functional connectivity (FC) and the association of these changes with clinical outcomes...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902865/small-world-properties-changes-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Yongxia Zhou
PURPOSE: To investigate local and global efficiency changes characterized by small-world properties based on resting-state functional MRI, such as centrality and clustering coefficient, in mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients; and to associate these findings with axonal injury as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as well as with post-concussive symptom (PCS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients (mean age 35 ± 13 years) with clinically defined MTBI and 45 age-matched healthy controls (mean age 37 ± 10 years) participated in the experiments...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898057/functional-brain-mapping-using-specific-sensory-circuit-stimulation-and-a-theoretical-graph-network-analysis-in-mice-with-neuropathic-allodynia
#3
Yuji Komaki, Keigo Hikishima, Shinsuke Shibata, Tsunehiko Konomi, Fumiko Seki, Masayuki Yamada, Naoyuki Miyasaka, Kanehiro Fujiyoshi, Hirotaka J Okano, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano
Allodynia, a form of neuropathic pain, is defined as pain in response to a non-nociceptive stimulus. The brain regions responsible for pain, which are not normally activated, can be activated in allodynic mice by providing a suitable stimulus to Aβ-fibers, which transmit signals from tactile sensory fibers. Functional MRI (fMRI) can be used to objectively observe abnormal brain activation. In the present study, fMRI was conducted to investigate allodynia in mice; allodynia was generated by surgical injury at the L4 spinal nerve root, thus selectively stimulating sensory nerve fibers...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896064/executive-attention-networks-show-altered-relationship-with-default-mode-network-in-pd
#4
Peter Boord, Tara M Madhyastha, Mary K Askren, Thomas J Grabowski
Attention dysfunction is a common but often undiagnosed cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease that significantly reduces quality of life. We sought to increase understanding of the mechanisms underlying attention dysfunction using functional neuroimaging. Functional MRI was acquired at two repeated sessions in the resting state and during the Attention Network Test, for 25 non-demented subjects with Parkinson's disease and 21 healthy controls. Behavioral and MRI contrasts were calculated for alerting, orienting, and executive control components of attention...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892543/functional-and-structural-signatures-of-the-anterior-insula-are-associated-with-risk-taking-tendency-of-analgesic-decision-making
#5
Chia-Shu Lin, Hsiao-Han Lin, Shih-Yun Wu
In a medical context, decision-making is associated with complicated assessment of gains, losses and uncertainty of outcomes. We here provide novel evidence about the brain mechanisms underlying decision-making of analgesic treatment. Thirty-six healthy participants were recruited and completed the Analgesic Decision-making Task (ADT), which quantified individual tendency of risk-taking (RPI), as the frequency of choosing a riskier option to relieve pain. All the participants received resting-state (rs) functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and structural MRI...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891090/disrupted-nodal-and-hub-organization-account-for-brain-network-abnormalities-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Yuko Koshimori, Sang-Soo Cho, Marion Criaud, Leigh Christopher, Mark Jacobs, Christine Ghadery, Sarah Coakeley, Madeleine Harris, Romina Mizrahi, Clement Hamani, Anthony E Lang, Sylvain Houle, Antonio P Strafella
The recent application of graph theory to brain networks promises to shed light on complex diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to investigate functional changes in sensorimotor and cognitive networks in Parkinsonian patients, with a focus on inter- and intra-connectivity organization in the disease-associated nodal and hub regions using the graph theoretical analyses. Resting-state functional MRI data of a total of 65 participants, including 23 healthy controls (HCs) and 42 patients, were investigated in 120 nodes for local efficiency, betweenness centrality, and degree...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890325/functional-coupling-between-frontoparietal-and-occipitotemporal-pathways-during-action-and-perception
#7
R Matthew Hutchison, Jason P Gallivan
Several lines of evidence point to areas in the occipitotemporal pathway as being critical in the processes of visual perception and object recognition. Much less appreciated, however, is the role that this pathway plays in object-related processing for the purposes of visually guided action. Here, using functional MRI (fMRI) and functional connectivity (FC) measures, we examined interactions between areas in frontoparietal cortex (FPC) involved in grasping, reaching, eye movements, and tool use and areas in occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) involved in object-, face-, scene-, body-, tool-, and motion-related processing, both during the performance of sensorimotor and visual-perceptual tasks, as well as during passive fixation (resting-state)...
November 9, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888657/electroconvulsive-therapy-induced-brain-structural-and-functional-changes-in-major-depressive-disorders-a-longitudinal-study
#8
Haitang Qiu, Xirong Li, Wenjing Zhao, Lian Du, Peiyu Huang, Yixiao Fu, Tian Qiu, Peng Xie, Huaqing Meng, Qinghua Luo
BACKGROUND This study aimed to study the brain structural and functional changes after 8 courses of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). MATERIAL AND METHODS MRI scans were performed on 12 depressive patients before and after 8 courses of ECT and compared with those of 15 normal controls. Data were analyzed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) using SPM8 software. Functional MRI (fMRI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) analyses were used to assess the functional changes after ECT...
November 26, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888059/towards-a-consensus-regarding-global-signal-regression-for-resting-state-functional-connectivity-mri
#9
Kevin Murphy, Michael D Fox
The number of resting state functional connectivity MRI studies continues to expand at a rapid rate along with the options for data processing. Of the processing options, few have generated as much controversy as global signal regression and the subsequent observation of negative correlations (anti-correlations). This debate has motivated new processing strategies and advancement in the field, but has also generated significant confusion and contradictory guidelines. In this article, we work towards a consensus regarding global signal regression...
November 22, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880010/abnormal-baseline-brain-activity-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-and-without-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#10
Dan Li, Peiyu Huang, Yufeng Zang, Yuting Lou, Zhidong Cen, Quanquan Gu, Min Xuan, Fei Xie, Zhiyuan Ouyang, Bo Wang, Minming Zhang, Wei Luo
PURPOSE: To investigate the differences in spontaneous brain activity between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), PD patients without RBD, and normal controls, which may shed new light on the neural mechanism of RBD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen PD patients with RBD, 16 patients without RBD, and 19 age- and gender-matched normal controls underwent clinical assessment and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a 3...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878584/altered-intrinsic-brain-activity-after-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-gastric-cancer-a-preliminary-study
#11
Hyun Gi Kim, Na-Young Shin, Yunjin Bak, Kyung Ran Kim, Young-Chul Jung, Kyunghwa Han, Seung-Koo Lee, Soo Mee Lim
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the pattern of altered intrinsic brain activity in gastric cancer patients after chemotherapy (CTx). METHODS: Patients before and after CTx (n = 14) and control subjects (n = 11) underwent resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) at baseline and 3 months after CTx. Regional homogeneity (ReHo), amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), and fractional ALFF (fALFF) were calculated and compared between the groups using the two-sample t test...
November 23, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870505/distinguishing-medication-free-subjects-with-unipolar-disorder-from-subjects-with-bipolar-disorder-state-matters
#12
Maria M Rive, Ronny Redlich, Lianne Schmaal, André F Marquand, Udo Dannlowski, Dominik Grotegerd, Dick J Veltman, Aart H Schene, Henricus G Ruhé
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have indicated that pattern recognition techniques of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for individual classification may be valuable for distinguishing between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Importantly, medication may have affected previous classification results as subjects with MDD and BD use different classes of medication. Furthermore, almost all studies have investigated only depressed subjects. Therefore, we focused on medication-free subjects...
November 2016: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867352/aberrant-functional-connectivity-between-the-amygdala-and-the-temporal-pole-in-drug-free-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#13
Wei Li, Huiru Cui, Zhipei Zhu, Li Kong, Qian Guo, Yikang Zhu, Qiang Hu, Lanlan Zhang, Hui Li, Qingwei Li, Jiangling Jiang, Jordan Meyers, Jianqi Li, Jijun Wang, Zhi Yang, Chunbo Li
The amygdala and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) play important roles in "emotion dysregulation," which has a profound impact on etiologic research of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The present study analyzed both eyes-open and eyes-closed resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) of 43 subjects (21 GAD patients with medicine free and 22 matched healthy controls). The amygdala and the DLPFC were defined as regions of interest (ROI) to analyze functional connectivity (FC) in GAD patients compared with healthy controls...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864079/temporal-reliability-of-ultra-high-field-resting-state-mri-for-single-subject-sensorimotor-and-language-mapping
#14
Paulo Branco, Daniela Seixas, São Luís Castro
Resting-state fMRI is a well-suited technique to map functional networks in the brain because unlike task-based approaches it requires little collaboration from subjects. This is especially relevant in clinical settings where a number of subjects cannot comply with task demands. Previous studies using conventional scanner fields have shown that resting-state fMRI is able to map functional networks in single subjects, albeit with moderate temporal reliability. Ultra-high resolution (7 T) imaging provides higher signal-to-noise ratio and better spatial resolution and is thus well suited to assess the temporal reliability of mapping results, and to determine if resting-state fMRI can be applied in clinical decision making including preoperative planning...
November 15, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862625/bayesian-vector-autoregressive-model-for-multi-subject-effective-connectivity-inference-using-multi-modal-neuroimaging-data
#15
Sharon Chiang, Michele Guindani, Hsiang J Yeh, Zulfi Haneef, John M Stern, Marina Vannucci
In this article a multi-subject vector autoregressive (VAR) modeling approach was proposed for inference on effective connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI data. Their framework uses a Bayesian variable selection approach to allow for simultaneous inference on effective connectivity at both the subject- and group-level. Furthermore, it accounts for multi-modal data by integrating structural imaging information into the prior model, encouraging effective connectivity between structurally connected regions...
November 16, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861502/abnormal-profiles-of-local-functional-connectivity-proximal-to-focal-cortical-dysplasias
#16
René M H Besseling, Jacobus F A Jansen, Anton J A de Louw, Mariëlle C G Vlooswijk, M Christianne Hoeberigs, Albert P Aldenkamp, Walter H Backes, Paul A M Hofman
INTRODUCTION: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a congenital malformation of cortical development that often leads to medically refractory epilepsy. Focal resection can be an effective treatment, but is challenging as the surgically relevant abnormality may exceed the MR-visible lesion. The aim of the current study is to develop methodology to characterize the profile of functional connectivity around FCDs using resting-state functional MRI and in the individual patient. The detection of aberrant connectivity may provide a means to more completely delineate the clinically relevant lesion...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859451/altered-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-cushing-s-disease-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#17
Hong Jiang, Na-Ying He, Yu-Hao Sun, Fang-Fang Jian, Liu-Guan Bian, Jian-Kang Shen, Fu-Hua Yan, Si-Jian Pan, Qing-Fang Sun
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Cushing's disease (CD) provides a unique and naturalist model for studying the influence of hypercortisolism on the human brain and the reversibility of these effects after resolution of the condition. This cross-sectional study used resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) to investigate the altered spontaneous brain activity in CD patients and the trends for potential reversibility after the resolution of the hypercortisolism. We also aim to determine the relationship of these changes with clinical characteristics and cortisol levels...
November 8, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853960/phase-ii-study-of-tivozanib-an-oral-vegfr-inhibitor-in-patients-with-recurrent-glioblastoma
#18
Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Vyshak Chandra, Xiao Da, Yangming Ou, Kyrre E Emblem, Alona Muzikansky, Xuezhu Cai, Linda Douw, John G Evans, Jorg Dietrich, Andrew S Chi, Patrick Y Wen, Stephen Stufflebeam, Bruce Rosen, Dan G Duda, Rakesh K Jain, Tracy T Batchelor, Elizabeth R Gerstner
Targeting tumor angiogenesis is a potential therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma because of its high vascularization. Tivozanib is an oral pan-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that hits a central pathway in glioblastoma angiogenesis. We conducted a phase II study to test the effectiveness of tivozanib in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Ten adult patients were enrolled and treated with tivozanib 1.5 mg daily, 3 weeks on/1 week off in 28-day cycles. Brain MRI and blood biomarkers of angiogenesis were performed at baseline, within 24-72 h of treatment initiation, and monthly thereafter...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852375/-study-of-functional-connectivity-density-mapping-in-patients-with-acute-stress-response-by-using-resting-state-functional-mri-after-traffic-accident
#19
Y F Weng, R F Qi, X D Zhang, L Zhang, J Ke, Y Zhong, F Chen, Q Xu, G M Lu
Objective: To explore the changes of brain activity in traffic accident survivors with acute stress response within a week by using functional connectivity density (FCD) method. Method: A total of 20 traffic accidents survivors with acute stress disorders (acute stress disorder interview >3) and twenty healthy controls from Nanjing Jinling Hospital underwent the 3.0 T resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan from January 2013 to February 2016. Functional connectivity density mapping was used to compare the brain functional connective networks between acute stress response survivors and controls...
November 8, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848149/midlife-managerial-experience-is-linked-to-late-life-hippocampal-morphology-and-function
#20
C Suo, N Gates, M Fiatarone Singh, N Saigal, G C Wilson, J Meiklejohn, P Sachdev, H Brodaty, W Wen, N Singh, B T Baune, M Baker, N Foroughi, Y Wang, Michael J Valenzuela
An active cognitive lifestyle has been suggested to have a protective role in the long-term maintenance of cognition. Amongst healthy older adults, more managerial or supervisory experiences in midlife are linked to a slower hippocampal atrophy rate in late life. Yet whether similar links exist in individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is not known, nor whether these differences have any functional implications. 68 volunteers from the Sydney SMART Trial, diagnosed with non-amnestic MCI, were divided into high and low managerial experience (HME/LME) during their working life...
November 15, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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