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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665000/increased-killer-b-cells-in-chronic-hcv-infection-may-lead-to-autoimmunity-and-increased-viral-load
#1
Nasren Eiza, Eli Zuckerman, Matthias Carlebach, Tova Rainis, Yair Goldberg, Zahava Vadasz
BACKGROUND: B regulatory (Breg) cells are characterized by various membrane markers, and the secretion of different inhibitory cytokines. A new subset of Breg cells was identified as CD5hi Fas-ligand (FasL)hi. Their main reported role is to suppress anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses and hence, they have been dubbed "killer" B cells. In this study, we aim to assess the role of these cells in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and determine if they contribute to the increased viral load and persistence of HCV and its related autoimmunity...
April 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655344/entangled-trajectories-hamiltonian-dynamics-for-treating-quantum-nuclear-effects
#2
Brendan Smith, Alexey V Akimov
A simple and robust methodology, dubbed Entangled Trajectories Hamiltonian Dynamics (ETHD), is developed to capture quantum nuclear effects such as tunneling and zero-point energy through the coupling of multiple classical trajectories. The approach reformulates the classically mapped second-order Quantized Hamiltonian Dynamics (QHD-2) in terms of coupled classical trajectories. The method partially enforces the uncertainty principle and facilitates tunneling. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by studying the dynamics in symmetric double well and cubic metastable state potentials...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655334/low-lying-excited-states-by-constrained-dft
#3
Pablo Ramos, Michele Pavanello
Exploiting the machinery of Constrained Density Functional Theory (CDFT), we propose a variational method for calculating low-lying excited states of molecular systems. We dub this method eXcited CDFT (XCDFT). Excited states are obtained by self-consistently constraining a user-defined population of electrons, Nc , in the virtual space of a reference set of occupied orbitals. By imposing this population to be Nc = 1.0, we computed the first excited state of 15 molecules from a test set. Our results show that XCDFT achieves an accuracy in the predicted excitation energy only slightly worse than linear-response time-dependent DFT (TDDFT), but without incurring into problems of variational collapse typical of the more commonly adopted ΔSCF method...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628722/yoga-as-a-therapeutic-intervention-in-the-management-of-dysfunctional-uterine-bleeding-a-controlled-pilot-study
#4
Snehal Pankaj Nalgirkar, Suhas Ashok Vinchurkar, Apar Avinash Saoji, Sriloy Mohanty
Background: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is one of the most common gynecological disorders encountered in women during the reproductive age. Yoga therapy has shown promising benefits in several gynecological disorders. Methods: Thirty women between the ages of 20 and 40 years with primary DUB were randomly assigned to a yoga ( n = 15) and a waitlist control group ( n = 15). Participants in the yoga group received a 3-month yoga module and were assessed for hemoglobin values, endometrial thickness (ET), pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, perceived stress scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) before and after a 3-month follow-up period...
January 2018: Journal of Mid-life Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625031/in-a-class-of-its-own-a-new-family-of-deubiquitinases-promotes-genome-stability
#5
Kate E Coleman, Tony T Huang
Several proteins are ubiquitylated in response to genotoxic stress; however, the roles of deubiquitinases (DUBs) in reversing these modifications are less well characterized. Two independent studies by Kwasna et al. (2018) and Haahr et al. (2018) identify a new type of cysteine protease DUB called ZUFSP, which cleaves K63-linked polyubiquitin chains at DNA damage sites to promote genome stability.
April 5, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616860/targeting-hausp-in-both-p53-wildtype-and-p53-mutant-tumors
#6
Omid Tavana, Hongbin Sun, Wei Gu
Inhibition of Mdm2 function is a validated approach to restore p53 activity for cancer therapy; nevertheless, inhibitors of Mdm2 such as Nutlin-3 have certain limitations, suggesting that additional targets in this pathway need to be further elucidated. Our finding that the Herpesvirus-Associated Ubiquitin-Specific Protease (HAUSP, also called USP7) interacts with the p53/Mdm2 protein complex, was one of the first examples that deubiquitinases (DUBs) exhibit a specific role in regulating protein stability. Here, we show that inhibitors of HAUSP and Nutlin-3 can synergistically activate p53 function and induce p53-dependent apoptosis in human cancer cells...
April 4, 2018: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609939/a-novel-cognitive-behavioral-treatment-for-patients-with-chronic-insomnia-a-pilot-experimental-study
#7
Sofia Tsoli, Spyros Vasdekis, Xanthi Tigani, Artemios Artemiadis, George Chrousos, Christina Darviri
OBJECTIVES: Chronic insomnia (CI) is a common sleep disorder linked to stress and various ubiquitous stress-related disorders (e.g. cardiovascular and mental diseases). Previous experimental studies exploring the effects of stress management in CI have confirmed that reducing stress, especially through cognitive methods, could ameliorate symptoms and repercussions of CI. In this 16-week experimental pilot study, we primarily examined the feasibility of a novel method, dubbed Pythagorean Self-Awareness Intervention (PSAI) in 30 CI patients...
April 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601110/expression-of-novel-locgef-isoforms-of-arhgef18-in-eosinophils
#8
Keren B Turton, Emily M Wilkerson, Alex S Hebert, Frances J Fogerty, Hazel M Schira, Fady E Botros, Joshua J Coon, Deane F Mosher
Genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic databases indicate that the N-terminal 322 residues encoded by the presumptive LOC100996504 gene, which is adjacent to the ARHGEF18 guanine nucleotide exchange factor gene on chromosome 19, constitute the N-terminal portion of a 1361-residue isoform of ARHGEF18, dubbed LOCGEF-X3. LOCGEF-X3 arises from the use of a leukocyte-specific alternative transcriptional start site and splicing that bypasses the initial noncoding exon of the canonical 1015-residue ARHGEF18 isoform, p114...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600870/integrating-caries-management-by-risk-assessment-cambra-and-prevention-strategies-into-the-contemporary-dental-practice
#9
Peter Rechmann, Richard Kinsel, John D B Featherstone
In the past, the dental profession has adhered to a rigid tenet: remove decay from a tooth and then restore, a mindset that has been proverbially dubbed as "drill and fill." Today, dental caries is recognized as an infectious disease that affects children and adults throughout life. The philosophy of CAries Management By Risk Assessment, or CAMBRA®, represents a paradigm shift. The CAMBRA concept provides the dentist with scientific, evidence-based solutions with which to approach treatment of dental caries disease...
April 2018: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595962/cross-platform-cancer-cell-identification-using-telomerase-specific-spherical-nucleic-acids
#10
Zhengjie Liu, Jun Zhao, Ruilong Zhang, Guangmei Han, Cheng Zhang, Bianhua Liu, Zhongping Zhang, Ming-Yong Han, Xiaohu Gao
Distinguishing tumor cells from normal cells holds the key to precision diagnosis and effective intervention of cancers. The fundamental difficulties, however, are the heterogeneity of tumor cells and the lack of truly specific and ideally universal cancer biomarkers. Here, we report a concept of tumor cell detection, bypassing the specific genotypic and phenotypic features of different tumor cell types and directly going toward the hallmark of cancer, uncontrollable growth. Combining spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) with exquisitely engineered molecular beacons (SNA beacons, dubbed SNAB technology) is capable of identifying tumor cells from normal cells based on the molecular phenotype of telomerase activity, largely bypassing the heterogeneity problem of cancers...
April 2, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590601/do-skeletal-dynamics-mediate-sugar-uptake-and-transport-in-human-erythrocytes
#11
Robert J Asaro, Qiang Zhu, Pedro Cabrales, Anthony Carruthers
We explore, herein, the hypothesis that transport of molecules or ions into erythrocytes may be affected and directly stimulated by the dynamics of the spectrin/actin skeleton. Skeleton/actin motions are driven by thermal fluctuations that may be influenced by ATP hydrolysis as well as by structural alterations of the junctional complexes that connect the skeleton to the cell's lipid membrane. Specifically, we focus on the uptake of glucose into erythrocytes via glucose transporter 1 and on the kinetics of glucose disassociation at the endofacial side of glucose transporter 1...
March 27, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576528/zufsp-deubiquitylates-k63-linked-polyubiquitin-chains-to-promote-genome-stability
#12
Peter Haahr, Nikoline Borgermann, Xiaohu Guo, Dimitris Typas, Divya Achuthankutty, Saskia Hoffmann, Robert Shearer, Titia K Sixma, Niels Mailand
Deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) enhance the dynamics of the versatile ubiquitin (Ub) code by reversing and regulating cellular ubiquitylation processes at multiple levels. Here we discovered that the uncharacterized human protein ZUFSP (zinc finger with UFM1-specific peptidase domain protein/C6orf113/ZUP1), which has been annotated as a potentially inactive UFM1 protease, and its fission yeast homolog Mug105 define a previously unrecognized class of evolutionarily conserved cysteine protease DUBs. Human ZUFSP selectively interacts with and cleaves long K63-linked poly-Ub chains by means of tandem Ub-binding domains, whereas it displays poor activity toward mono- or di-Ub substrates...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576527/discovery-and-characterization-of-zufsp-zup1-a-distinct-deubiquitinase-class-important-for-genome-stability
#13
Dominika Kwasna, Syed Arif Abdul Rehman, Jayaprakash Natarajan, Stephen Matthews, Ross Madden, Virginia De Cesare, Simone Weidlich, Satpal Virdee, Ivan Ahel, Ian Gibbs-Seymour, Yogesh Kulathu
Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are important regulators of ubiquitin signaling. Here, we report the discovery of deubiquitinating activity in ZUFSP/C6orf113. High-resolution crystal structures of ZUFSP in complex with ubiquitin reveal several distinctive features of ubiquitin recognition and catalysis. Our analyses reveal that ZUFSP is a novel DUB with no homology to any known DUBs, leading us to classify ZUFSP as the seventh DUB family. Intriguingly, the minimal catalytic domain does not cleave polyubiquitin...
March 21, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564676/the-catalytically-inactive-mutation-of-the-ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-cdc34-affects-its-stability-and-cell-proliferation
#14
Xun Liu, Yang Zhang, Zhanhong Hu, Qian Li, Lu Yang, Guoqiang Xu
The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays important roles in the regulation of protein stability, localization, and activity. A myriad of studies have focused on the functions of ubiquitin ligases E3s and deubiquitinating enzymes DUBs due to their specificity in the recognition of downstream substrates. However, the roles of the most ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes E2s are not completely understood except that they transport the activated ubiquitin and form E2-E3 protein complexes. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme CDC34 can promote the degradation of downstream targets through the UPS whereas its non-catalytic functions are still elusive...
March 21, 2018: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561599/the-dmsp-lyase-and-lyase-like-cupin-family-consists-of-bona-fide-dmsp-lyases-as-well-as-other-enzymes-with-unknown-function
#15
Lei Lei, Kesava Phaneendra Cherukuri, Uria Alcolombri, Diana Meltzer, Dan S Tawfik
Marine organisms release dimethylsulfide (DMS) via cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). Different genes encoding proteins with DMSP lyase activity are known, yet these exhibit highly variable levels of activity. Most assigned bacterial DMSP lyases, including DddK, DddL, DddQ, DddW and DddY, appear to belong to one, cupin-like superfamily. Here, we attempted to define and map this superfamily dubbed Cupin-DLL: DMSP lyases and lyase-like. To this end, we have pursued the characterization of various recombinant DMSP lyases belonging to this superfamily of metallo-enzymes, and especially of DddY and DddL that seem to be the most active DMSP lyases in this superfamily...
March 21, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559747/otub1-promotes-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-metastasis-through-modulating-snail-stability
#16
Honghong Zhou, Yongshuo Liu, Rui Zhu, Fang Ding, Xiufeng Cao, Dongxin Lin, Zhihua Liu
Snail is a key regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. Snail is rapidly degraded in the cells and its protein level is critically controlled. Although several E3 ligases regulating Snail degradation have been defined, the deubiquitinases (DUBs) responsible for Snail deubiquitination are less studied. We identified ovarian tumor domain-containing ubiquitin aldehyde binding protein 1 (OTUB1) as a DUB that stabilizes Snail through preventing its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation...
March 21, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556699/the-novel-deubiquitinase-inhibitor-b-ap15-induces-direct-and-nk-cell-mediated-antitumor-effects-in-human-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#17
Korbinian N Kropp, Stefanie Maurer, Kathrin Rothfelder, Bastian J Schmied, Kim L Clar, Moritz Schmidt, Benedikt Strunz, Hans-Georg Kopp, Alexander Steinle, Frank Grünebach, Susanne M Rittig, Helmut R Salih, Daniela Dörfel
The first therapeutic proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has clinical efficacy in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) which resulted in its incorporation in treatment algorithms for this disease. Impairment of proteasomal function by bortezomib is mediated via inhibition of the 20S core particle. However, proteasome function can also be modified by targeting upstream components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Recently, b-AP15 has been identified as a small molecule achieving proteasome inhibition by targeting the deubiquitinase (DUB) activity of the 19S regulatory subunit and was found to inhibit cancer cell growth in preclinical analyses...
March 19, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551776/a-shift-from-papillary-to-reticular-fibroblasts-enables-tumour-stroma-interaction-and-invasion
#18
Marieke Hogervorst, Marion Rietveld, Frank de Gruijl, Abdoelwaheb El Ghalbzouri
BACKGROUND: Tumour stroma consists of a heterogeneous population of fibroblasts and related mesenchymal cells, collectively dubbed cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). These CAFs are key players in cancer invasion of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). As we have shown earlier, papillary and reticular fibroblasts (Pfs and Rfs, respectively) have distinct effects on epidermal and dermal homeostasis, but their role in cancer invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains to be determined...
March 19, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551769/monocyte-chemotactic-protein-induced-protein-1-enhances-dr5-degradation-and-negatively-regulates-dr5-activation-induced-apoptosis-through-its-deubiquitinase-function
#19
You-Take Oh, Guoqing Qian, Jiusheng Deng, Shi-Yong Sun
Monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein-1 (MCPIP1; also called Regnase-1) encoded by the ZC3H12A gene critically regulates inflammatory responses and immune homeostasis primarily by RNase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. However, the relationship of MCPIP1 with apoptosis and cancer and the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. The current study has demonstrated a previously uncovered connection between MCPIP1 and the negative regulation of death receptor 5 (DR5; also known as TRAIL-R2 or killer/DR5), a cell surface receptor for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which is produced endogenously by various immune cells such as T cells...
March 19, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547328/space-time-crystal-and-space-time-group
#20
Shenglong Xu, Congjun Wu
Crystal structures and the Bloch theorem play a fundamental role in condensed matter physics. We extend the static crystal to the dynamic "space-time" crystal characterized by the general intertwined space-time periodicities in D+1 dimensions, which include both the static crystal and the Floquet crystal as special cases. A new group structure dubbed a "space-time" group is constructed to describe the discrete symmetries of a space-time crystal. Compared to space and magnetic groups, the space-time group is augmented by "time-screw" rotations and "time-glide" reflections involving fractional translations along the time direction...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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