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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732072/placental-peptides-metabolism-and-maternal-factors-as-predictors-of-risk-of-gestational-diabetes-in-pregnant-women-a-case-control-study
#1
Robert Amadu Ngala, Linda Ahenkorah Fondjo, Peter Gmagna, Frank Naku Ghartey, Martin Akilla Awe
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes is a risk factor for perinatal complications; include shoulder dystocia, birth injuries such as bone fractures and nerve palsies. It is associated with later development of type 2 diabetes, the risk of macrosomia and other long-term health effects of infants born to diabetic mothers. The study assesses placental peptides and maternal factors as potential predictors of gestational diabetes among pregnant women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 200 pregnant women were recruited for the study, 150 pregnant women without pre gestational diabetes including 50 women with low risk factors of diabetes as controls and 50 other pregnant women with pregestational diabetes as control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731364/synthesis-of-a-new-insulin-mimetic-anti-diabetic-drug-containing-vitamin-a-and-vanadium-iv-salt-chemico-biological-characterizations
#2
Abdel Majid A Adam, Ahmed M Naglah, Mohamed A Al-Omar, Moamen S Refat
Diabetes patients suffer from chronic disorders in the metabolism due to high blood sugar caused by anomalies in insulin excretion. Recently, vanadium compounds have been prepared and functionalized to decrease the level of hyperglycemia. Vitamin A boosts beta cell activity; therefore, the lack of this vitamin plays a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this article focused on the synthesis of a new anti-diabetic drug formed from the complexation of a vanadium(IV) salt with vitamin A. Vitamin A acts as a unidentate chelate through the oxygen of its -OH group...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731034/regulation-of-hepatic-glucose-metabolism-in-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Max C Petersen, Daniel F Vatner, Gerald I Shulman
The liver is crucial for the maintenance of normal glucose homeostasis - it produces glucose during fasting and stores glucose postprandially. However, these hepatic processes are dysregulated in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and this imbalance contributes to hyperglycaemia in the fasted and postprandial states. Net hepatic glucose production is the summation of glucose fluxes from gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, glycogen synthesis, glycolysis and other pathways. In this Review, we discuss the in vivo regulation of these hepatic glucose fluxes...
July 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730835/the-effect-of-very-low-calorie-diet-on-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-and-peripheral-monocytes-of-obese-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#4
M Urbanová, M Mráz, V Ďurovcová, P Trachta, J Kloučková, P Kaválková, D Haluzíková, Z Lacinová, H Hansíková, L Wenchich, M Kršek, M Haluzík
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a potentially important player in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated the changes of mRNA expression of genes encoding main enzymatic complexes of mitochondrial respiratory chain in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) and peripheral monocytes (PM) of 11 subjects with simple obesity (OB), 16 obese patients with T2DM and 17 healthy lean subjects (C) before and after very low-calorie diet (VLCD) using quantitative real time PCR...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730764/mtor-deregulation-in-oral-cavity-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#5
Nicholas S Mastronikolis, Evangelos Tsiambas, Theodoros A Papadas, Panagiotis P Fotiades, Athanasios T Papadas, Stylianos N Mastronikolis, Ioannis Kastanioudakis, Vasileios Ragos
Signal transduction pathways consist of a variety of inter- and intra-cellular molecules. They act as supporting mechanisms for cell survival and homeostasis. Among them, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays a crucial role in regulating normal cell growth based on growth factor receptors (GFRs) interaction, including epidermal GFR (type II-HER2) and insulin GFR (IGF)...
May 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730728/beneficial-long-term-antidiabetic-actions-of-n-and-c-terminally-modified-analogues-of-apelin-13-in-diet-induced-obese-diabetic-mice
#6
V Parthsarathy, C Hogg, P R Flatt, F P M O'Harte
AIMS: This study investigated the chronic effects of twice daily administration of stable apelin analogues, apelin-13 amide and (pGlu)apelin-13 amide, on metabolic parameters in glucose intolerant and insulin resistant diet-induced obese (DIO) mice fed a high-fat diet for 150 days. STUDY DESIGN & METHODS: Groups of mice received twice daily (09:00 and 17:00 h) injections of saline vehicle, apelin-13 amide, (pGlu)apelin-13 amide or exendin-4(1-39) for 28 days (all at 25 nmol/kg)...
July 20, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730683/ectopic-fat-accumulation-in-the-pancreas-and-its-biomarkers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Ruma G Singh, Harry D Yoon, Sally D Poppitt, Lindsay D Plank, Maxim S Petrov
AIM: Presence of fatty pancreas increases the risk of metabolic co-morbidities. Detection and quantification of pancreatic fat is not a routine clinical practice, at least in part because of need to use expensive imaging techniques. We aimed to systematically review common markers of pancreatic fat in blood and to investigate differences in these markers associated with fatty pancreas. METHODS: The search was conducted in three databases (EMBASE, Scopus, and MEDLINE)...
July 21, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730130/nutritional-counseling-for-obese-children-with-obesity-related-metabolic-abnormalities-in-korea
#8
REVIEW
Ki Soo Kang
Child obesity has become a significant health issue in Korea. Prevalence of obesity in school-age children in Korea has been alarmingly rising since 2008. Prevalence of obesity among infants and preschool-age children in Korea has doubled since 2008. Obese children may develop serious health complications. Before nutritional counseling is pursued, several points should be initially considered. The points are modifiable risk factors, assessment for child obesity, and principles of treatment. Motivational interviewing and a multidisciplinary team approach are key principles to consider in managing child obesity effectively in the short-term as well as long-term...
June 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729841/prevalence-of-non-responders-for-glucose-control-markers-after-10-weeks-of-high-intensity-interval-training-in-adult-women-with-higher-and-lower-insulin-resistance
#9
Cristian Álvarez, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Mikel Izquierdo
Background: Exercise training improves performance and biochemical parameters on average, but wide interindividual variability exists, with individuals classified as responders (R) or non-responders (NRs), especially between populations with higher or lower levels of insulin resistance. This study assessed the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and the prevalence of NRs in adult women with higher and lower levels of insulin resistance. Methods: Forty adult women were assigned to a HIIT program, and after training were analyzed in two groups; a group with higher insulin resistance (H-IR, 40 ± 6 years; BMI: 29...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729365/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-endothelial-cells-in-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Ivan Carcamo-Orive, Ngan F Huang, Thomas Quertermous, Joshua W Knowles
Insulin resistance leads to a number of metabolic and cellular abnormalities including endothelial dysfunction that increase the risk of vascular disease. Although it has been particularly challenging to study the genetic determinants that predispose to abnormal function of the endothelium in insulin-resistant states, the possibility of deriving endothelial cells from induced pluripotent stem cells generated from individuals with detailed clinical phenotyping, including accurate measurements of insulin resistance accompanied by multilevel omic data (eg, genetic and genomic characterization), has opened new avenues to study this relationship...
July 20, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729213/physical-exercise-increases-sestrin-2-protein-levels-and-induces-autophagy-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-old-mice
#11
Luciene Lenhare, Barbara M Crisol, Vagner R R Silva, Carlos K Katashima, André V Cordeiro, Karina D Pereira, Augusto D Luchessi, Adelino S R da Silva, Dennys E Cintra, Leandro P Moura, José R Pauli, Eduardo R Ropelle
Sestrins and autophagy deficiencies are associated with several aging-related organic dysfunctions and metabolic disorders. Here we evaluate the effects of acute exercise on Sestrin 2 (Sesn2) protein content and autophagy markers in the skeletal muscle of experimental models of aging. Twenty-four months-old C57BL/6J male mice were submitted to a single bout of swimming exercise and the gastrocnemius muscle was evaluated by Western blot. Transcriptomic and phenotypic analysis were also performed by using strains of genetically-diverse BXD mice...
July 17, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729031/knockout-of-the-urate-oxidase-gene-provides-a-stable-mouse-model-of-hyperuricemia-associated-with-metabolic-disorders
#12
Jie Lu, Xu Hou, Xuan Yuan, Lingling Cui, Zhen Liu, Xinde Li, Lidan Ma, Xiaoyu Cheng, Ying Xin, Can Wang, Keke Zhang, Xuefeng Wang, Wei Ren, Ruixia Sun, Zhaotong Jia, Zibin Tian, Qing-Sheng Mi, Changgui Li
The urate oxidase (Uox) gene encodes uricase that in the rodent liver degrades uric acid into allantoin, forming an obstacle for establishing stable mouse models of hyperuricemia. The loss of uricase in humans during primate evolution causes their vulnerability to hyperuricemia. Thus, we generated a Uox-knockout mouse model on a pure C57BL/6J background using the transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technique. These Uox-knockout mice spontaneously developed hyperuricemia (over 420 μmol/l) with about 40% survival up to 62 weeks...
July 17, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728958/effectiveness-of-resistance-exercise-compared-to-aerobic-exercise-without-insulin-therapy-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Cybelle Nery, Silvia Regina Arruda De Moraes, Karyne Albino Novaes, Márcio Almeida Bezerra, Patrícia Verçoza De Castro Silveira, Andrea Lemos
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise has been used to mitigate the metabolic effects of diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of resistance exercise when compared to aerobic exercise without insulin therapy on metabolic and clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Papers were searched on the databases MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, and SCIELO, without language or date of publication limits...
July 5, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728946/serum-galectin-1-levels-are-positively-correlated-with-body-fat-and-negatively-with-fasting-glucose-in-obese-children
#14
Sezer Acar, Ahu Paketçi, Tuncay Küme, Hale Tuhan, Özlem Gürsoy Çalan, Korcan Demir, Ece Böber, Ayhan Abaci
Galectin-1, a recently identified peptide, is primarily released from the adipose tissue. Although galectin-1 was shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect, its specific function is not clearly understood. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of serum galectin-1 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters in childhood obesity. A total of 45 obese children (mean age: 12.1±3.1years) and 35 normal-weight children (mean age: 11.8±2.2years) were enrolled. Clinical [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), percentage of body fat and blood pressure] and biochemical [glucose, insulin, lipids, galectin-1, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and leptin levels] parameters were assessed...
July 17, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728934/beyond-body-mass-index-obesity-and-lung-disease
#15
REVIEW
Ubong Peters, Benjamin T Suratt, Jason H T Bates, Anne E Dixon
The worldwide prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly in the last three decades, and this has led to important changes in the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of many common diseases. This review article examines the relationship between obesity and lung disease, highlighting some of the major findings that have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to this relationship. Changes in pulmonary function related to fat mass are important, but obesity is much more than simply a state of mass loading, and body mass index is only a very indirect measure of metabolic health...
July 17, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728928/gtf-231-a-mixture-of-gymnemic-acid-trigonelline-and-ferulic-acid-significantly-ameliorates-oxidative-stress-in-experimental-type-2-diabetes-in-rats
#16
Roshana Devi Vellai, Sharmila Chandiran, Subramanian Sorimuthu Pillai
OBJECTIVES: According to a report by the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, nearly 60% of patients with diabetes have more than one complication caused by chronic diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a multifactorial metabolic disorder that accounts for more than 95% of people with diabetes and usually requires multitargeted therapeutic interventions. It arises due to insufficient insulin secretion or its action or both. Recently, we reported that the oral administration of gymnemic acid, trigonelline and ferulic acid in the ratio of 2:3:1 (GTF-231), a mixture of 3 phytoingredients at a concentration of 300 mg/kg body weight significantly improved the glucose homeostasis in rats with low-dose streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes that were fed with high-fat diet...
July 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728620/insulin-resistance-and-hypertension-in-obese-youth-with-sleep-disordered-breathing-treated-with-positive-airway-pressure-a-prospective-multicenter-study
#17
Sherri L Katz, Joanna E MacLean, Lynda Hoey, Linda Horwood, Nicholas Barrowman, Bethany Foster, Stasia Hadjiyannakis, Laurent Legault, Glenda N Bendiak, Valerie G Kirk, Evelyn Constantin
STUDY OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that cardiometabolic disease associated with obesity and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in adults is present in youth. SDB is often treated with positive airway pressure (PAP) in youth with obesity. Our aims were to determine: (1) the prevalence of cardiometabolic disease and (2) whether PAP improves markers of cardiometabolic disease, in youth with obesity and newly diagnosed moderate-severe SDB. METHODS: A prospective multicenter cohort study was conducted in youth (8 to 16 years old) with obesity, prescribed PAP therapy for newly diagnosed moderate-severe SDB...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728486/relationship-between-neck-circumference-insulin-resistance-and-arterial-stiffness-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects
#18
Francesco Fantin, Gabriele Comellato, Andrea P Rossi, Elisa Grison, Elena Zoico, Gloria Mazzali, Mauro Zamboni
Background Only a few studies have investigated the relationship between neck circumference and cardiometabolic risk. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between neck circumference, waist circumference, metabolic variables and arterial stiffness in a group of overweight and obese subjects evaluating a possible independent role of neck circumference in determining arterial stiffness. Methods and results We studied 95 subjects (53 women) with an age range of 20-77 years and body mass index range from 25...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728396/characterization-and-functional-inferences-of-a-genome-wide-dna-methylation-profile-in-the-loin-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-of-swine
#19
Woonsu Kim, Hyesun Park, Kang-Seok Seo, Seongwon Seo
Objective: DNA methylation plays a major role in regulating the expression of genes related to traits of economic interest (e.g., weight gain) in livestock animals. This study characterized and investigated the functional inferences of genome-wide DNA methylome in the loin (longissimus dorsi) muscle (LDM) of swine. Methods: A total of 8.99 Gb methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequence data were obtained from LDM samples of eight Duroc pigs (four pairs of littermates)...
May 14, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727791/predisposition-to-insulin-resistance-and-obesity-due-to-staple-consumption-of-rice-amylose-content-versus-germination-status
#20
Bilyaminu Abubakar, Norhasnida Zawawi, Abdul Rahman Omar, Maznah Ismail
Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder with established, well-defined precursors. Obesity and insulin resistance are amongst most important factors in predisposition to diabetes. Rice is a staple for about half the global population and its consumption has been strongly linked with diabetogenesis. We assert that tackling the prevalence of predisposing factors by modifying certain rice cultivars could reduce the global burden of obesity and insulin resistance, and by extension type 2 diabetes. Several rice cultivars with various properties were fed to nulliparous rats (five weeks old at the start of the experiment) for 90 days...
2017: PloS One
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