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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928647/loss-of-metabolic-flexibility-in-the-failing-heart
#1
REVIEW
Qutuba G Karwi, Golam M Uddin, Kim L Ho, Gary D Lopaschuk
To maintain its high energy demand the heart is equipped with a highly complex and efficient enzymatic machinery that orchestrates ATP production using multiple energy substrates, namely fatty acids, carbohydrates (glucose and lactate), ketones and amino acids. The contribution of these individual substrates to ATP production can dramatically change, depending on such variables as substrate availability, hormonal status and energy demand. This "metabolic flexibility" is a remarkable virtue of the heart, which allows utilization of different energy substrates at different rates to maintain contractile function...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928337/dysregulated-genes-targeted-by-micrornas-and-metabolic-pathways-in-bladder-cancer-revealed-by-bioinformatics-methods
#2
Lu Zhang, Cuihua Feng, Yamin Zhou, Qiong Zhou
The present study aimed to identify bladder cancer-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) and target genes, and further analyze the potential molecular mechanisms involved in bladder cancer. The mRNA and miRNA expression profiling dataset GSE40355 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The Limma package in R was used to identify differential expression levels. The Human microRNA Disease Database was used to identify bladder cancer-associated miRNAs and Target prediction programs were used to screen for miRNA target genes...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926665/-effects-of-aerobic-exercise-plus-diet-control-on-serum-levels-of-total-igf-1-and-igf-1-binding-protein-3-in-female-obese-youths-and-adolescents
#3
Hong-Fang Yang, Xiao-Jing Lin, Xiao-Hui Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of 4-week moderate aerobic exercise plus diet control on serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) and IGF-1 binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) as well as IGF-1 activity (reflected by molar ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3) in female obese adolescents and youths, and their possible role on fat loss, and improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Nine female obese youths (age:18~19 y) and 30 female obese adolescents (age:14~16 y) were recruited and undertook 4-week aerobic exercise such as swimming and jogging (6 days/week, twice a day, 2 h/time with 5 min rest per 30 min exercise) with gradual increase of intensity from low (heart rate immediately post-exercise of 1st week:100~120 beats/min) to moderate (heart rate immediately post-exercise of 2nd -4th weeks:120~140 beats/min) level, combined with a diet intervention (total daily energy intake of 1 400 or 1 600 kcal according to basal metabolism rate) in Shanghai Dianfeng weight loss enclosed camp...
January 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926362/polymorphisms-within-the-prolactin-and-growth-hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-functional-pathways-associated-with-fertility-traits-in-holstein-cows-raised-in-a-hot-humid-climate
#4
Jose C Leyva-Corona, Javier R Reyna-Granados, Ricardo Zamorano-Algandar, Miguel A Sanchez-Castro, Milton G Thomas, R Mark Enns, Scott E Speidel, Juan F Medrano, Gonzalo Rincon, Pablo Luna-Nevarez
Prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are in hormone-response pathways involved in energy metabolism during thermoregulation processes in cattle. Objective herein was to study the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within genes of the PRL and GH/IGF-1 pathways with fertility traits such as services per conception (SPC) and days open (DO) in Holstein cattle lactating under a hot-humid climate. Ambient temperature and relative humidity were used to calculate the temperature-humidity index (THI) which revealed that the cows were exposed to heat stress conditions from June to November of 2012 in southern Sonora, Mexico...
June 20, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925944/a-stromal-cell-population-that-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-mammalian-fat-depots
#5
Petra C Schwalie, Hua Dong, Magda Zachara, Julie Russeil, Daniel Alpern, Nassila Akchiche, Christian Caprara, Wenfei Sun, Kai-Uwe Schlaudraff, Gianni Soldati, Christian Wolfrum, Bart Deplancke
Adipocyte development and differentiation have an important role in the aetiology of obesity and its co-morbidities1,2 . Although multiple studies have investigated the adipogenic stem and precursor cells that give rise to mature adipocytes3-14 , our understanding of their in vivo origin and properties is incomplete2,15,16 . This is partially due to the highly heterogeneous and unstructured nature of adipose tissue depots 17 , which has proven difficult to molecularly dissect using classical approaches such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting and Cre-lox lines based on candidate marker genes16,18 ...
June 20, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925841/the-relationship-between-metabolic-syndrome-and-asthma-in-the-elderly
#6
Sangshin Park, Nam-Kyong Choi, Seungsoo Kim, Chang-Hoon Lee
The burden of asthma in the elderly is increasing, but the etiology of asthma in the elderly is not clearly understood. Recent studies have reported the epidemiological link between metabolic syndrome (MS) and asthma, but it has rarely been studied in the elderly. This study investigated the association between MS and asthma and the contribution of insulin resistance (IR) and systemic inflammation to this MS-asthma association in the elderly. Our study analyzed 4,060 elderly participants (≥65 years old) from a cross-sectional survey, the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2007-2012...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925744/effect-of-lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-inhibitor-on-insulin-resistance-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-pregnant-rats
#7
Guo-Hua Wang, Jun Jin, Li-Zhou Sun
This paper aims to investigate the influence of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) inhibitor, darapladib, on insulin resistance (IR) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic pregnant rats. The rat models were divided into Control (normal pregnancy), STZ + saline (STZ-induced diabetic pregnant rats), STZ + Low-dose and STZ + High-dose darapladib (STZ-induced diabetic pregnant rats treated with low-/high-dose darapladib) groups. Pathological changes were observed by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Immunohistochemistry staining...
June 21, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925637/interrogation-of-nonconserved-human-adipose-lincrnas-identifies-a-regulatory-role-of-linc-adal-in-adipocyte-metabolism
#8
Xuan Zhang, Chenyi Xue, Jennie Lin, Jane F Ferguson, Amber Weiner, Wen Liu, Yumiao Han, Christine Hinkle, Wenjun Li, Hongfeng Jiang, Sager Gosai, Melanie Hachet, Benjamin A Garcia, Brian D Gregory, Raymond E Soccio, John B Hogenesch, Patrick Seale, Mingyao Li, Muredach P Reilly
Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have emerged as important modulators of cellular functions. Most lincRNAs are not conserved among mammals, raising the fundamental question of whether nonconserved adipose-expressed lincRNAs are functional. To address this, we performed deep RNA sequencing of gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue from 25 healthy humans. We identified 1001 putative lincRNAs expressed in all samples through de novo reconstruction of noncoding transcriptomes and integration with existing lincRNA annotations...
June 20, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925523/the-metabolic-outcomes-of-growth-hormone-treatment-in-children-are-gender-specific
#9
Alessandro Ciresi, Stefano Radellini, Valentina Guarnotta, Maria Grazia Mineo, Carla Giordano
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of gender on the clinical and metabolic parameters in prepubertal GHD children at diagnosis and during GH treatment (GHT). DESIGN: The data of 105 prepubertal children (61 males, 44 females, mean age 6.8 ± 0.7 years) affected by idiopathic GHD were retrospectively evaluated. METHODS: Body height, BMI, waist circumference (WC), IGF-I, HbA1c, lipid profile, fasting and after-OGTT glucose and insulin levels, insulin sensitivity and secretion indices were evaluated at baseline and after 24 months of GHT...
June 20, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925517/feeding-state-regulates-pheromone-mediated-avoidance-behavior-via-the-insulin-signaling-pathway-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#10
Leesun Ryu, YongJin Cheon, Yang Hoon Huh, Seondong Pyo, Satya Chinta, Hongsoo Choi, Rebecca A Butcher, Kyuhyung Kim
Animals change sensory responses and their eventual behaviors, depending on their internal metabolic status and external food availability. However, the mechanisms underlying feeding state-dependent behavioral changes remain undefined. Previous studies have shown that Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite exhibits avoidance behaviors to acute exposure of a pheromone, ascr#3 (asc-ΔC9, C9). Here, we show that the ascr#3 avoidance behavior is modulated by feeding state via the insulin signaling pathway. Starvation increases ascr#3 avoidance behavior, and loss-of-function mutations in daf-2 insulin-like receptor gene dampen this starvation-induced ascr#3 avoidance behavior...
June 19, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925515/change-in-inflammatory-biomarkers-and-adipose-tissue-in-brca1-2-breast-cancer-survivors-following-a-year-long-lifestyle-modification-program
#11
Kathleen M Sturgeon, Wayne Y Foo, Mariane L Heroux, Kathryn Schmitz
Breast cancer survivors who carry a genetic mutation for one of the BRCA genes often undergo surgically-induced menopause a decade or more before the usual age of natural menopause. These women are at elevated risk for multiple negative health outcomes, including metabolic diseases, heart disease, and cancer recurrence. Effects of a 12-month commercially available web-based lifestyle program (Precision Nutrition) were tested on body composition and markers of inflammation in a randomized controlled trial. Participants (N=35) were BRCA1/2+, breast cancer survivors, and had completed surgically-induced menopause at age <45 years...
June 20, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925367/genetic-interaction-effects-reveal-lipid-metabolic-and-inflammatory-pathways-underlying-common-metabolic-disease-risks
#12
Hyung Jun Woo, Jaques Reifman
BACKGROUND: Common metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and hypertension, arise from disruptions of the body's metabolic homeostasis, with relatively strong contributions from genetic risk factors and substantial comorbidity with obesity. Although genome-wide association studies have revealed many genomic loci robustly associated with these diseases, biological interpretation of such association is challenging because of the difficulty in mapping single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) onto the underlying causal genes and pathways...
June 20, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925339/maternal-overweight-is-not-an-independent-risk-factor-for-increased-birth-weight-leptin-and-insulin-in-newborns-of-gestational-diabetic-women-observations-from-the-prospective-each-cohort-study
#13
Raffael Ott, Jens H Stupin, Andrea Loui, Elisabeth Eilers, Kerstin Melchior, Rebecca C Rancourt, Karen Schellong, Thomas Ziska, Joachim W Dudenhausen, Wolfgang Henrich, Andreas Plagemann
BACKGROUND: Both gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as well as overweight/obesity during pregnancy are risk factors for detrimental anthropometric and hormonal neonatal outcomes, identified to 'program' adverse health predispositions later on. While overweight/obesity are major determinants of GDM, independent effects on critical birth outcomes remain unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate, in women with GDM, the relative/independent impact of overweight/obesity vs...
June 20, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924632/heat-shock-protein-72-regulates-hepatic-lipid-accumulation
#14
Ashley E Archer, Robert S Rogers, Alex T Von Schulze, Joshua L Wheatley, E Matthew Morris, Colin S McCoin, John P Thyfault, Paige C Geiger
Induction of the chaperone Heat Shock Protein 72 (HSP72) through heat treatment, exercise, or overexpression improves glucose tolerance and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Less is known about HSP72 function in the liver where lipid accumulation can result in insulin resistance and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). The purpose of this study was 1) to determine whether weekly in vivo heat treatment (HT) induces hepatic HSP72 and improves glucose tolerance in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and 2) to determine the ability of HSP72 to protect against lipid accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction in primary hepatocytes...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924631/effects-of-postweaning-calorie-restriction-on-accelerated-growth-and-adiponectin-in-nutritionally-programmed-microswine-offspring
#15
Elizabeth A DuPriest, Baoyu Lin, Philipp Kupfer, Kaiu Sekiguchi, Amruta Bhusari, Alexandra Quackenbush, Almir Celebic, Terry K Morgan, Jonathan Q Purnell, Susan Pound Bagby
Poor prenatal development followed by rapid childhood growth conveys greater cardiometabolic risk in later life. Microswine offspring exposed to perinatal maternal protein restriction (MPR; "low protein offspring", LPO) grow poorly in late-fetal/neonatal stages. After weaning to ad libitum (AL) diet, LPO-AL exhibit accelerated growth and fat deposition rates with low adiponectin mRNA despite low-normal body fat and small intra-abdominal adipocytes. We examined effects of caloric restriction (CR) on growth and metabolic status in LPO and normal protein offspring (NPO) randomized to AL or CR diets from weaning...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924135/exenatide-ameliorates-hepatic-steatosis-and-attenuates-fat-mass-and-fto-gene-expression-through-pi3k-signaling-pathway-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
Shan Li, Xiaoman Wang, Jielei Zhang, Jingyi Li, Xiaogang Liu, Yuanyuan Ma, Chao Han, Lixia Zhang, Lili Zheng
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease associated with metabolic syndrome and can lead to life-threatening complications like hepatic carcinoma and cirrhosis. Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist antidiabetic drug, has the capacity to overcome insulin resistance and attenuate hepatic steatosis but the specific underlying mechanism is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of exenatide therapy on NAFLD. We used in vivo and in vitro techniques to investigate the protective effects of exenatide on fatty liver via fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) in a high-fat (HF) diet-induced NAFLD animal model and related cell culture model...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923997/euglycemic-diabetic-ketoacidosis-caused-by-dapagliflozin-a-case-report
#17
Yu-Mou Chou, Chen-June Seak, Zhong Ning Leonard Goh, Joanna Chen-Yeen Seak, Chen-Ken Seak, Chih-Chuan Lin
RATIONALE: Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening acute complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (eDKA) is however challenging to identify in the emergency department (ED) due to absence of marked hyperglycemia, often leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. eDKA has been recently found to be associated with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, one of the newest classes of antidiabetics, though there are very limited reports implicating dapagliflozin as the offending agent in ED patients...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923910/hypoxic-training-improves-normoxic-glucose-tolerance-in-adolescents-with-obesity
#18
Estelle De Groote, Florian A Britto, Loïc Bullock, Marie François, Carine De Buck, Henri Nielens, Louise Deldicque
PURPOSE: To test whether environmental hypoxia could potentiate the effects of exercise training on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. METHODS: Fourteen adolescents with obesity were assigned to 6 weeks of exercise training either in normoxic or in hypoxic conditions (FiO2 15%). Adolescents trained 3x/w for 50-60min, including endurance and resistance exercises. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), blood and morphological analyses as well as physical performance tests were performed before and after the training period...
June 20, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923306/acid-sphingomyelinase-down-regulation-alleviates-vascular-endothelial-insulin-resistance-in-diabetic-rats
#19
Xin Li, Shi-Jie Jin, Jie Su, Xiao-Xue Li, Ming Xu
Insulin resistance in endothelial cells contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a soluble glycoprotein which plays a vital role in the development and progression of various diseases such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, it remains unknown if ASM regulates insulin resistance in vascular endothelial cells in type 2 diabetes. ASM down-regulation with gene silencing and selective inhibitor amitriptyline was used in the rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) treated with palmitic acid (PA), a common saturated free fatty acid, which is thought to be the major cause of insulin resistance...
June 19, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923295/dapagliflozin-a-sglt2-inhibitor-slows-the-progression-of-renal-complications-through-the-suppression-of-renal-inflammation-er-stress-and-apoptosis-in-pre-diabetic-rats
#20
Krit Jaikumkao, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Nuttawud Chueakula, La-Ongdao Thongnak, Keerati Wanchai, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Nipon Chattipakorn, Anusorn Lungkaphin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin has been shown to exert both anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects in metabolic syndrome. However, the effects of dapagliflozin on the renal complications associated with metabolic dysfunction in diet-induced obesity (DIO) are not fully understood. In this study, to work towards a resolution of these issues, we evaluated the renoprotective roles of dapagliflozin in pre-diabetic rats. METHODS: DIO was induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HF) to male Wistar rats for 16 weeks...
June 19, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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