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Ultrasound in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931473/lung-ultrasound-in-diagnosing-pneumonia-in-childhood-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Daniele Orso, Alessio Ban, Nicola Guglielmo
PURPOSE: Pneumonia is the third leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age worldwide. In pediatrics, both the accuracy and safety of diagnostic tools are important. Lung ultrasound (LUS) could be a safe diagnostic tool for this reason. We searched in the literature for diagnostic studies about LUS to predict pneumonia in pediatric patients using systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, SPORTDiscus, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science databases from inception to September 2017 were searched...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925468/hospital-type-predicts-computed-tomography-use-for-pediatric-appendicitis
#2
Kathryn Tinsley Anderson, Marisa A Bartz-Kurycki, Mary T Austin, Akemi L Kawaguchi, Lillian S Kao, Kevin P Lally, Kuojen Tsao
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based guidelines recommend ultrasound (US) over computed tomography (CT) as the primary imaging modality for suspected pediatric appendicitis. Continued high rates of CT use may result in significant unnecessary radiation exposure in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate variables associated with preoperative CT use in pediatric appendectomy patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients who underwent appendectomy for acute appendicitis in 2015-2016 at National Surgical Quality Improvement Program for Pediatrics (NSQIP-P) hospitals was conducted...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912905/factors-influencing-spinal-curvature-measurements-on-ultrasound-images-for-children-with-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-ais
#3
Rui Zheng, Doug Hill, Douglas Hedden, James Mahood, Marc Moreau, Sarah Southon, Edmond Lou
The measurements of spinal curvatures using the ultrasound (US) imaging method on children with scoliosis have been comparable with radiography. However, factors influencing the reliability and accuracy of US measurement have not been studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of curve features and patients' demographics on US measurements and to determine which factors influence the reliability and accuracy. Two hundred children with scoliosis were recruited and scanned with US by one experienced operator and three trainees...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910579/bedside-ultrasonography-screening-for-congenital-renal-anomalies-in-children-with-congenital-heart-diseases-undergoing-cardiac-repair
#4
Hussam K Hamadah, Omar Hijazi, Mohammad A Faraji, Mohamed S Kabbani
Introduction: Ultrasound (US) assessment of renal anomalies in children requiring pediatric cardiac surgery is not a standard practice. This study is highlighting the role of bedside US performed by intensivist to detect occult renal anomalies associated with congenital heart disease (CHD). Methods: A cross sectional study for 100 consecutive children with CHD admitted to Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (PCICU) in 2015. US of kidneys screening was performed by trained pediatric cardiac intensivists to ascertain the presence of both kidneys in renal fossae without gross anomalies and to investigate if early detection of occult kidney anomaly would have any impact on outcome...
April 2018: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909593/imaging-of-kingella-kingae-musculoskeletal-infections-in-children-a-series-of-5-cases
#5
Jie C Nguyen, Susan L Rebsamen, Michael J Tuite, J Muse Davis, Humberto G Rosas
PURPOSE: Kingella kingae musculoskeletal infections continue to be under-diagnosed and there remains a paucity of literature on its imaging features. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the imaging, clinical, and laboratory findings of microbiology-proven K. kingae infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of musculoskeletal infections between January 1, 2013 and Dec 31, 2016 yielded 134 patients from whom 5 patients had confirmed K. kingae infections (3 boys and 2 girls, mean age of 16 months, range 9-38 months)...
June 16, 2018: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909441/annular-pancreas-in-china-9-years-experience-from-a-single-center
#6
REVIEW
DengLiang Wang, Quan Kang, ShuJun Shi, Wei Hu
To summarize the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis among 152 children with annular pancreas (AP). A retrospective review of 152 patients with AP who were treated with surgical repair between January 2009 and August 2017 was performed at our pediatric surgical units. Presenting symptoms, birth weight, radiological findings, associated anomalies, the type of surgery performed were analyzed. (1) 152 patients were identified, out of which 82 were males, and 70 were females; (2) the average birth weight of children with AP was less than that of healthy newborns...
June 16, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908353/the-impact-of-prenatal-diagnosis-on-congenital-anomaly-outcomes-data-from-1997-to-2016
#7
REVIEW
Paula Braz, Ausenda Machado, Carlos Matias Dias
The term prenatal diagnosis comprises a variety of techniques aimed to determine the health and condition of the embryo or foetus. Its main goal is to identify at an early stage of the pregnancy, if possible, malformations or other conditions that could increase the risk of a negative outcome in the pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of prenatal diagnosis in Portugal in pregnancies with congenital anomalies. A cross sectional study was implemented using data for the years 1997-2016 from the Portuguese registry of congenital anomalies (RENAC), a population-based registry that follows EUROCAT guidelines...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907939/feasibility-of-quantitative-ultrasonography-for-the-detection-of-metabolic-bone-disease-in-preterm-infants-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Liting Tong, Jaya Sujatha Gopal-Kothandapani, Amaka C Offiah
Metabolic bone disease of prematurity is characterised by disordered bone mineralisation and is therefore an increased fracture risk. Preterm infants are especially at risk due to incomplete in utero bone accretion during the last trimester. Currently, diagnosing metabolic bone disease mainly relies on biochemistry and radiographs. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative ultrasound (US) are used less frequently. However, biochemical measurements correlate poorly with bone mineralisation and although scoring systems exist for metabolic bone disease, radiographs are subjective and do not detect early features of osteopenia...
June 16, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907218/pediatric-breast-masses-an-argument-for-observation
#9
Cory M McLaughlin, Jessica Gonzalez-Hernandez, Monica Bennett, Hannah G Piper
BACKGROUND: Pediatric breast masses can be a diagnostic challenge. Nearly all are benign, but there is no consensus on which should be removed. We hypothesized that children with asymptomatic breast lesions can be safely managed nonoperatively. METHODS: We performed a single-institution retrospective review of children (≤18 y) who underwent breast mass excision from 2008 to 2016. Male patients with gynecomastia and those who had needle biopsy without formal excision were excluded...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902780/contribution-of-fetal-brain-mri-in-management-of-severe-fetal-anemia
#10
L Ghesquière, V Houfflin-Debarge, P Verpillat, T Fourquet, S Joriot, C Coulon, P Vaast, C Garabedian
INTRODUCTION: Intrauterine transfusion (IUT) has changed fetal anemia prognosis. However, long-term neurodevelopmental outcome is altered in 5% of children. Our objective was to study the contribution of fetal MRI to diagnosis brain lesions in case of fetal anemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective monocentric descriptive study from 2005 to 2016, including all patients followed for fetal anemia requiring IUT. The indications for MRI were: hydrops fetalis and / or hemoglobin <5 g / dL and / or more than 3 IUTs and / or acute severe anemia and / or ultrasound abnormality...
June 6, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902198/intimal-and-medial-arterial-changes-defined-by-ultra-high-frequency-ultrasound-response-to-changing-risk-factors-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
Frida Dangardt, Marietta Charakida, Scott Chiesa, Devina Bhowruth, Alicja Rapala, Daniela Thurn, Franz Schaefer, John Deanfield, Rukshana Shroff
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are exposed to both traditional 'Framingham' and uremia related cardiovascular risk factors that drive atherosclerotic and arteriosclerotic disease, but these cannot be differentiated using conventional ultrasound. We used ultra-high-frequency ultrasound (UHFUS) to differentiate medial thickness (MT) from intimal thickness (IT) in CKD patients, identify their determinants and monitor their progression. METHODS: Fifty-four children and adolescents with CKD and 12 healthy controls underwent UHFUS measurements using 55-70MHz transducers in common carotid and dorsal pedal arteries...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901651/intraoperative-sonography-may-reduce-the-risk-of-extensor-pollicis-longus-tendon-injury-during-dorsal-entry-elastic-intramedullary-nailing-of-the-radius-in-children
#12
Marcell Varga, Nikoletta Gáti, Tamás Kassai, Szilvia Papp, Sándor Pintér
Extensor pollicis longus tendon (EPL) injury is a potential complication of dorsal entry radial elastic nailing technique in children. The aim of this study was to investigate if intraoperative ultrasonographic guidance can reduce the risk of (EPL) injury.Correlation between sonographic and operative findings were examined first in 6 adult cadavers. Position of Lister's tubercle, EPL, and extraosseal end of the elastic nail were detected by ultrasound imaging during a minimally invasive dorsal entry nailing...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893197/-schistosoma-mansoni-mass-drug-administration-regimens-and-their-effect-on-morbidity-among-schoolchildren-over-a-5-year-period-kenya-2010-2015
#13
Anita D Sircar, Pauline N M Mwinzi, Isaac O Onkanga, Ryan E Wiegand, Susan P Montgomery, W Evan Secor
Schistosomiasis control programs are designed to reduce morbidity by providing mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel to at-risk populations. We compared morbidity markers between two cohorts of Kenyan schoolchildren that initially had high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections. One cohort ( N = 416 at year 1) received four rounds of annual MDA in a community-wide treatment (CWT) strategy. The other cohort ( N = 386 at year 1) received school-based treatment (SBT) every other year over the 4-year period...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892564/ultrasound-guided-measurement-of-skin-and-subcutaneous-tissue-thickness-in-children-with-diabetes-and-recommendations-for-giving-insulin-injections
#14
Soo Ting Joyce Lim, Yuen Ching Angela Hui, Pei Kwee Lim, Chin Choo Evelyn Lim, Yen Yen Chia, Rashida Farhad Vasanwala
Aim: To measure skin thickness (ST) and skin + subcutaneous layer thickness (SCT) by ultrasound and estimate the risk of intramuscular injection (IM) with different needle lengths across injection sites according to age group. Method: Children recruited between 1 and 18 years with type 1 and 2 diabetes on insulin injections and divided into three age groups: 1-6 years, 7-12 years and 13-18 years. A portable ultrasound was used to measure ST and SCT at four injection sites on the abdomen, arm, thigh and buttock...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890949/complexity-of-gastroschisis-predicts-outcome-epidemiology-and-experience-in-an-australian-tertiary-centre
#15
Sarah J Melov, Irene Tsang, Ralph Cohen, Nadia Badawi, Karen Walker, Soundappan S V Soundappan, Thushari I Alahakoon
BACKGROUND: Gastroschisis is a congenital anomaly of the fetal abdominal wall, usually to the right side of umbilical insertion. It is often detected by routine antenatal ultrasound. Significant maternal and pediatric resources are utilised in the care of women and infants with gastroschisis. Increasing rates of gastroschisis worldwide have led institutions to review local data and investigate outcomes. A collaborative project was developed to review local epidemiology and investigate antenatal and neonatal factors influencing hospital length of stay (LOS) and total parental nutrition (TPN) in infants born with gastroschisis...
June 11, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881466/the-identification-and-appraisal-of-assessment-tools-used-to-evaluate-metatarsus-adductus-a-systematic-review-of-their-measurement-properties
#16
REVIEW
Nicole Marshall, Emily Ward, Cylie M Williams
Background: Metatarsus adductus is the most common congenital foot deformity in newborns. It involves adduction of the metatarsals at the Lisfranc joint. A systematic literature review was conducted to investigate the following question: What tools are used to identify and quantify metatarsus adductus and how reliable, valid and responsive are they? Methods: The following electronic databases were searched for studies describing tools for the identification and quantification of metatarsus adductus in adults and children published from inception to June 2016: Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science and AMED...
2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881164/spondylolysis-and-spondylolisthesis-a-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
Paul Gagnet, Kent Kern, Kyle Andrews, Hossein Elgafy, Nabil Ebraheim
Spondylolysis is a common diagnosis with a high prevalence in children and adolescents complaining of low back pain. It may be caused by either a defect or fracture of the pars interarticularis due to mechanical stress. Depending on the severity of the spondylolysis and symptoms associated it may be treated either conservatively or surgically, both of which have shown significant success. Conservative treatments such as bracing and decreased activity have been shown to be most effective with patients who have early diagnosis and treatment...
June 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880545/prospective-observational-study-of-point-of-care-ultrasound-for-diagnosing-pneumonia
#18
Claire Lissaman, Panida Kanjanauptom, Cyril Ong, Mark Tessaro, Elliot Long, Adam O'Brien
OBJECTIVES: The clinical diagnosis of pneumonia lacks specificity and may lead to antibiotic overuse, whereas radiological diagnoses can lack sensitivity. Point-of-care lung ultrasound is an emerging diagnostic tool. There are limited prospective data, however, on the accuracy of sonologists in the paediatric emergency department setting. We aimed to test the diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasound for pneumonia using chest radiograph (CR) as the reference standard. METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study in a paediatric emergency department enrolled children aged 1 month to <18 years, who had a CR ordered for possible pneumonia...
June 7, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879745/added-value-of-fetal-mri-in-the-evaluation-of-fetal-anomalies-of-the-corpus-callosum-a-retrospective-analysis-of-78-cases
#19
Mirra Manevich-Mazor, Alina Weissmann-Brenner, Omer Bar Yosef, Chen Hoffmann, Roei David Mazor, Mariela Mosheva, Reuven Ryszard Achiron, Eldad Katorza
OBJECTIVE:  To evaluate the added value of fetal MRI to ultrasound in detecting and specifying callosal anomalies, and its impact on clinical decision making. METHODS:  Fetuses with a sonographic diagnosis of an anomalous corpus callosum (CC) who underwent a subsequent fetal brain MRI between 2010 and 2015 were retrospectively evaluated and classified according to the severity of the findings. The findings detected on ultrasound were compared to those detected on MRI...
June 7, 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877636/the-assessment-of-skeletal-status-in-young-patients-with-turner-syndrome-by-2-densitometric-techniques-phalangeal-quantitative-ultrasound-and-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#20
Beata Wikiera, Agata Mierzwicka, Aleksander Basiak, Jowita Halupczok-Żyła, Diana Jędrzejuk, Magdalena Cabała, Anna Noczyńska, Marek Bolanowski, Kornel Mikołajczyk, Zenon P Halaba
BACKGROUND: Studies using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) demonstrate a reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents with Turner syndrome (TS). However, these studies do not take into account changes in bone size, which influence BMD in the case of short-statured patients. Phalangeal quantitative ultrasound (phQUS) measurements have shown an ability to reveal changes due to skeletal growth, aging, and bone and mineral disorders. There is limited data on bone mineral status in girls with TS assessed by 2 different techniques, i...
June 4, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
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