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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918543/dietary-docosahexaenoic-acid-decreased-lipid-accumulation-via-inducing-adipocytes-apoptosis-of-grass-carp-ctenopharygodon-idella
#1
Ai Jin, Cai-Xia Lei, Jing-Jing Tian, Jian Sun, Hong Ji
The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism of by which docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) inhibit the accumulation of adipose tissue lipid in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). We therefore designed two semi-purified diets, namely DHA-free (control) and DHA-supplemented, and fed them to grass carp (22.19 ± 1.76 g) for 3 and 6 weeks. DHA supplementation led to a significantly lower intraperitoneal fat index (IPFI) than that in the control group by reducing the number of adipocytes but significantly higher adipocyte size (P < 0...
September 17, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918447/an-improved-crystal-structure-of-c-phycoerythrin-from-the-marine-cyanobacterium-phormidium-sp-a09dm
#2
Ravi R Sonani, Aleksander W Roszak, Claire Ortmann de Percin Northumberland, Datta Madamwar, Richard J Cogdell
C-Phycoerythrin (PE) from Phormidium sp. A09DM has been crystallized using different conditions and its structure determined to atomic resolution (1.14 Å). In order for the pigment present, phycoerythrobilin (PEB), to function as an efficient light-harvesting molecule it must be held rigidly (Kupka and Scheer in Biochim Biophys Acta 1777:94-103, 2008) and, moreover, the different PEB molecules in PE must be arranged, relative to each other, so as to promote efficient energy transfer between them. This improved structure has allowed us to define in great detail the structure of the PEBs and their binding sites...
September 16, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918311/structural-basis-for-the-potent-and-selective-binding-of-ldn-212854-to-the-bmp-receptor-kinase-alk2
#3
Eleanor Williams, Alex N Bullock
Individuals with the rare developmental disorder fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) experience disabling heterotopic ossification caused by a gain of function mutation in the intracellular region of the BMP type I receptor kinase ALK2, encoded by the gene ACVR1. Small molecule BMP type I receptor inhibitors that block this ossification in FOP mouse models have been derived from the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine scaffold of dorsomorphin. While the first derivative LDN-193189 exhibited pan inhibition of BMP receptors, the more recent compound LDN-212854 has shown increased selectivity for ALK2...
September 12, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918251/hmg-box-factor-soxd-sox15-and-homeodomain-containing-factor-xanf1-hesx1-directly-interact-and-regulate-the-expression-of-xanf1-hesx1-during-early-forebrain-development-in-xenopus-laevis
#4
Natalia Y Martynova, Fedor M Eroshkin, Eugeny E Оrlov, Andrey G Zaraisky
The homeodomain-containing transcription factor Anf (also known as Rpx/Hesx1 in mammals) plays an important role during the forebrain development in vertebrates. Here we demonstrate the ability of the Xenopus laevis Anf, Xanf1/Hesx1, to directly bind SRY-related HMG-box-containing transcription factor SoxD/Sox15 and to cooperate with the latter during regulating of the expression of Xanf1/Hesx1 own gene. As we have shown by GST pull-down, EMSA and the luciferase reporter assays, Xanf1/Hesx1 and SoxD/Sox15 bind the Xanf1/Hesx1 promoter region counteracting the inhibitory effect of Xanf1/Hesx1 alone...
September 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918231/highly-sensitive-surface-plasmon-resonance-biosensor-for-the-detection-of-hiv-related-dna-based-on-dynamic-and-structural-dna-nanodevices
#5
Wei Diao, Min Tang, Shijia Ding, Xinmin Li, Wenbin Cheng, Fei Mo, Xiaoyu Yan, Hongmin Ma, Yurong Yan
Early detection, diagnosis and treatment of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection is the key to reduce acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) mortality. In our research, an innovative surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensing strategy has been developed for highly sensitive detection of HIV-related DNA based on entropy-driven strand displacement reactions (ESDRs) and double-layer DNA tetrahedrons (DDTs). ESDRs as enzyme-free and label-free signal amplification circuit can be specifically triggered by target DNA, leading to the cyclic utilization of target DNA and the formation of plentiful double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) products...
September 9, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918148/mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-and-ubiquitin-proteasome-related-gene-expression-in-3-different-skeletal-muscles-of-colostrum-versus-formula-fed-calves
#6
H Sadri, J Steinhoff-Wagner, Harald M Hammon, R M Bruckmaier, S Görs, H Sauerwein
The rates of protein turnover are higher during the neonatal period than at any other time in postnatal life. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the ubiquitin-proteasome system are key pathways regulating cellular protein turnover. The objectives of this study were (1) to elucidate the effect of feeding colostrum versus milk-based formula on the mRNA abundance of key components of the mTOR pathway and of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in skeletal muscle of neonatal calves and (2) to compare different muscles...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918138/characterizing-effects-of-feed-restriction-and-glucagon-like-peptide-2-administration-on-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-intestinal-morphology
#7
S K Kvidera, E A Horst, M V Sanz Fernandez, M Abuajamieh, S Ganesan, P J Gorden, H B Green, K M Schoenberg, W E Trout, A F Keating, L H Baumgard
Inadequate feed consumption reduces intestinal barrier function in both ruminants and monogastrics. Objectives were to characterize how progressive feed restriction (FR) affects inflammation, metabolism, and intestinal morphology, and to investigate if glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) administration influences the aforementioned responses. Twenty-eight Holstein cows (157 ± 9 d in milk) were enrolled in 2 experimental periods. Period 1 [5 d of ad libitum (AL) feed intake] served as baseline for period 2 (5 d), during which cows received 1 of 6 treatments: (1) 100% of AL feed intake (AL100; n = 3), (2) 80% of AL feed intake (n = 5), (3) 60% of AL feed intake (n = 5), (4) 40% of AL feed intake (AL40; n = 5), (5) 40% of AL feed intake + GLP2 administration (AL40G; 75 µg/kg of BW s...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918129/where-do-substrates-of-diacylglycerol-kinases-come-from-diacylglycerol-kinases-utilize-diacylglycerol-species-supplied-from-phosphatidylinositol-turnover-independent-pathways
#8
REVIEW
Fumio Sakane, Satoru Mizuno, Daisuke Takahashi, Hiromichi Sakai
Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) phosphorylates diacylglycerol (DG) to produce phosphatidic acid (PA). Mammalian DGK comprises ten isozymes (α-κ) and regulates a wide variety of physiological and pathological events, such as cancer, type II diabetes, neuronal disorders and immune responses. DG and PA consist of various molecular species that have different acyl chains at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, and consequently, mammalian cells contain at least 50 structurally distinct DG/PA species. Because DGK is one of the components of phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover, the generally accepted dogma is that all DGK isozymes utilize 18:0/20:4-DG derived from PI turnover...
September 9, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918058/reducible-peg-pod-dna-nanoparticles-for-gene-transfer-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-application-in-a-mouse-model-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#9
Bhanu Chandar Dasari, Siobhan M Cashman, Rajendra Kumar-Singh
Non-viral gene delivery systems are being developed to address limitations of viral gene delivery. Many of these non-viral systems are modeled on the properties of viruses including cell surface binding, endocytosis, endosomal escape, and nuclear targeting. Most non-viral gene transfer systems exhibit little correlation between in vitro and in vivo efficiency, hampering a systematic approach to their development. Previously, we have described a 3.5 kDa peptide (peptide for ocular delivery [POD]) that targets cell surface sialic acid...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918032/microrna-31-regulates-chemosensitivity-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#10
Hannah L Moody, Michael J Lind, Stephen G Maher
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is associated with an extremely poor prognosis, and most patients initially are or rapidly become unresponsive to platinum-based chemotherapy. MicroRNA-31 (miR-31) is encoded on a genomic fragile site, 9p21.3, which is reportedly lost in many MPM tumors. Based on previous findings in a variety of other cancers, we hypothesized that miR-31 alters chemosensitivity and that miR-31 reconstitution may influence sensitivity to chemotherapeutics in MPM. Reintroduction of miR-31 into miR-31 null NCI-H2452 cells significantly enhanced clonogenic resistance to cisplatin and carboplatin...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918020/rationally-engineered-aav-capsids-improve-transduction-and-volumetric-spread-in-the-cns
#11
Nicholas M Kanaan, Rhyomi C Sellnow, Sanford L Boye, Ben Coberly, Antonette Bennett, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna, Caryl E Sortwell, William W Hauswirth, Shannon E Boye, Fredric P Manfredsson
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is the most common vector for clinical gene therapy of the CNS. This popularity originates from a high safety record and the longevity of transgene expression in neurons. Nevertheless, clinical efficacy for CNS indications is lacking, and one reason for this is the relatively limited spread and transduction efficacy in large regions of the human brain. Using rationally designed modifications of the capsid, novel AAV capsids have been generated that improve intracellular processing and result in increased transgene expression...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917988/a-comprehensive-screening-platform-for-aerosolizable-protein-formulations-for-intranasal-and-pulmonary-drug-delivery
#12
Martina Röhm, Stefan Carle, Frank Maigler, Johannes Flamm, Viktoria Kramer, Chrystelle Mavoungou, Otmar Schmid, Katharina Schindowski
Aerosolized administration of biopharmaceuticals to the airways is a promising route for nasal and pulmonary drug delivery, but - in contrast to small molecules - little is known about the effects of aerosolization on safety and efficacy of biopharmaceuticals. Proteins are sensitive against aerosolization-associated shear stress. Tailored formulations can shield proteins and enhance permeation, but formulation development requires extensive screening approaches. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a cell-based in vitro technology platform that includes screening of protein quality after aerosolization and transepithelial permeation...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917875/collagen-and-hyaluronic-acid-hydrogel-in-water-in-oil-microemulsion-delivery-systems
#13
Sylwia Kupper, Ilona Kłosowska-Chomiczewska, Patrycja Szumała
The increase in skin related health issues has promoted interest in research on the efficacy of microemulsion in dermal and transdermal delivery of active ingredients. Here, we assessed the water-in-oil microemulsion capacity to incorporate two natural polymers, i.e. collagen and hyaluronic acid with low and high molecular weight. Systems were extensively characterized in terms of conductivity, phase inversion studies, droplet diameter, polydispersity index and rheological properties. The results of this research indicate that the structure and extent of water phase in microemulsions is governed by ratio and amount of surfactant mixture (sorbitan ester derivatives)...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917845/influence-of-binding-mechanism-on-labeling-efficiency-and-luminous-properties-of-fluorescent-cellulose-nanocrystals
#14
Qijun Ding, Jinsong Zeng, Bin Wang, Wenhua Gao, Kefu Chen, Zhe Yuan, Jun Xu
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have excellent properties, such as reproducibility, low biodegradability and a large amount of reactive hydroxyl groups on the surface. This study focused on the labeling efficiency and fluorescent properties of the fluorescent labeling of CNCs by means of electrostatic adsorption and covalent bonding. The CNCs in the sample were approximately 94.76% successfully labeled with dyes, and the number of dye molecules adsorbed by per CNC was approximately 208 by electrostatic adsorption...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917781/fluorescence-self-quenching-assay-for-the-detection-of-target-collagen-sequences-using-a-short-probe-peptide
#15
Linge Nian, Yue Hu, Caihong Fu, Chen Song, Jie Wang, Jianxi Xiao
The development of novel assays to detect collagen fragments is of utmost importance for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic decisions in various collagen-related diseases, and one essential question is to discover probe peptides that can specifically recognize target collagen sequences. Herein we have developed the fluorescence self-quenching assay as a convenient tool to screen the capability of a series of fluorescent probe peptides of variable lengths to bind with target collagen peptides. We have revealed that the targeting ability of probe peptides is length-dependent, and have discovered a relatively short probe peptide FAM-G(POG)8 capable to identify the target peptide...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917667/amyloid-%C3%AE-42-clearance-and-neuroprotection-mediated-by-x-box-binding-protein-1-signaling-decline-with-aging-in-the-drosophila-brain
#16
María S Marcora, Lautaro F Belfiori-Carrasco, Nadia I Bocai, Laura Morelli, Eduardo M Castaño
The unfolded protein response (UPR) may be pathogenically related to Alzheimer's disease. Yet, the effects of chronic amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) accumulation and UPR activation upon neurotoxicity remain unclear. Here, we show that neuronal Aβ42 expression in Drosophila activated the inositol-requiring protein-1/X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) UPR branch before the onset of behavioral impairment and persisted with aging. Early upregulation of hsc3/BiP, a target of XBP1 and activating transcription factor 6 pathways, was also sustained in old animals...
August 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917639/protein-oxidation-involved-in-cys-tyr-post-translational-modification
#17
Susan E Hromada, Adam M Hilbrands, Elysa M Wolf, Jackson L Ross, Taylor R Hegg, Andrew G Roth, Matthew T Hollowell, Carolyn E Anderson, David E Benson
Some post-translationally modified tyrosines can perform reversible redox chemistry similar to metal cofactors. The most studied of these tyrosine modifications is the intramolecular thioether-crosslinked 3'-(S-cysteinyl)-tyrosine (Cys-Tyr) in galactose oxidase. This Cu-mediated tyrosine modification in galactose oxidase involves direct electron transfer (inner-sphere) to the coordinated tyrosine. Mammalian cysteine dioxygenase enzymes also contain a Cys-Tyr that is formed, presumably, through outer-sphere electron transfer from a non-heme iron center ~6Å away from the parent residues...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916968/hmgb-proteins-and-arthritis
#18
REVIEW
Noboru Taniguchi, Yasuhiko Kawakami, Ikuro Maruyama, Martin Lotz
The high-mobility group box (HMGB) family includes four members: HMGB1, 2, 3 and 4. HMGB proteins have two functions. In the nucleus, HMGB proteins bind to DNA in a DNA structure-dependent but nucleotide sequence-independent manner to function in chromatin remodeling. Extracellularly, HMGB proteins function as alarmins, which are endogenous molecules released upon tissue damage to activate the immune system. HMGB1 acts as a late mediator of inflammation and contributes to prolonged and sustained systemic inflammation in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis...
September 15, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916818/identification-of-4-phenylquinolin-2-1h-one-as-a-specific-allosteric-inhibitor-of-akt
#19
Bill X Huang, Kenny Newcomer, Karl Kevala, Elena Barnaeva, Wei Zheng, Xin Hu, Samarjit Patnaik, Noel Southall, Juan Marugan, Marc Ferrer, Hee-Yong Kim
Akt plays a major role in tumorigenesis and the development of specific Akt inhibitors as effective cancer therapeutics has been challenging. Here, we report the identification of a highly specific allosteric inhibitor of Akt through a FRET-based high-throughput screening, and characterization of its inhibitory mechanism. Out of 373,868 compounds screened, 4-phenylquinolin-2(1H)-one specifically decreased Akt phosphorylation at both T308 and S473, and inhibited Akt kinase activity (IC50 = 6 µM) and downstream signaling...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916770/changes-in-cd73-cd39-and-cd26-expression-on-t-lymphocytes-of-anca-associated-vasculitis-patients-suggest-impairment-in-adenosine-generation-and-turn-over
#20
Lovis Kling, Urs Benck, Annette Breedijk, Lisa Leikeim, Marianne Heitzmann, Stefan Porubsky, Bernhard K Krämer, Benito A Yard, Anna-Isabelle Kälsch
Extracellular adenosine, generated via the concerted action of CD39 and CD73, contributes to T-cell differentiation and function. Adenosine concentrations are furthermore influenced by adenosine deaminase binding protein CD26. Because aberrant T-cell phenotypes had been reported in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic auto-antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) patients, an impaired expression of these molecules on T-cells of AAV patients was hypothesized in the present study. While in AAV patients (n = 29) CD26 was increased on CD4(+) lymphocytes, CD39 and CD73 were generally reduced on patients' T-cells...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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