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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651370/changes-in-visceral-adiposity-subcutaneous-adiposity-and-sex-hormones-in-the-diabetes-prevention-program
#1
Catherine Kim, Dana Dabelea, Rita R Kalyani, Costas A Christophi, George A Bray, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Christine H Darwin, Swaytha Yalamanchi, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Sherita Hill Golden, Edward J Boyko
Context: The degree to which changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) relate to corresponding changes in plasma sex steroids is not known. Objective: We examined whether changes in VAT and SAT areas assessed by computed tomography were associated with changes in sex hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEAS], testosterone, estradiol, estrone, and sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG]) among Diabetes Prevention Program participants...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651304/rifaximin-and-propranolol-combination-therapy-is-more-effective-than-propranolol-monotherapy-for-the-reduction-of-portal-pressure-an-open-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#2
Yoo Li Lim, Moon Young Kim, Yoon Ok Jang, Soon Koo Baik, Sang Ok Kwon
Background/Aims: Non-selective beta blockers (NSBBs) are currently the only accepted regimen for preventing portal hypertension (PHT)-related complications. However, the effect of NSBBs is insufficient in many cases. Bacterial translocation (BT) is one of the aggravating factors of PHT in cirrhosis; therefore, selective intestinal decontamination by rifaximin is a possible therapeutic option for improving PHT. We investigated whether the addition of rifaximin to propranolol therapy can improve hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) response...
June 27, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650998/functional-annotation-of-alzheimer-s-disease-associated-loci-revealed-by-gwass
#3
Zengpeng Han, Han Huang, Yue Gao, Qingyang Huang
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) discovered a number of SNPs and genes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, how these SNPs and genes influence the liability to AD is not fully understood. We deployed computational approaches to explore the function and action mechanisms of AD -related SNPs and genes identified by GWASs, including the effects of 195 GWAS lead SNPs and 338 proxy SNPs on miRNAs binding and protein phosphorylation, their RegulomeDB and 3DSNP scores, and gene ontology, pathway enrichment and protein-protein interaction network of 126 AD-associated genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650976/effect-of-praziquantel-on-the-differential-expression-of-mouse-hepatic-genes-and-parasite-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-gene-family-members-during-schistosoma-mansoni-infection
#4
Melissa C Sanchez, Katina V Krasnec, Amalia S Parra, Christian von Cabanlong, Geoffrey N Gobert, Boris Umylny, Pauline M Cupit, Charles Cunningham
Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by sexually dimorphic blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only drug widely available to treat the disease but does not kill juvenile parasites. Here we report the use of next generation sequencing to study the transcriptional effect of PZQ on murine hepatic inflammatory, immune and fibrotic responses to Schistosoma mansoni worms and eggs. An initial T helper cell 1 (Th1) response is induced against schistosomes in mice treated with drug vehicle (Vh) around the time egg laying begins, followed by a T helper cell 2 (Th2) response and the induction of genes whose action leads to granuloma formation and fibrosis...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650521/jmj27-an-arabidopsis-h3k9-histone%C3%A2-demethylase-modulates-defense-against-pseudomonas-syringae%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-flowering%C3%A2-time
#5
Aditya Dutta, Pratibha Choudhary, Julie Caruana, Ramesh Raina
Histone methylation is known to dynamically regulate diverse developmental and physiological processes. Histone methyl marks are written by methyltransferases and erased by demethylases, and result in modification of chromatin structure to repress or activate transcription. However, little is known about how histone methylation may regulate defense mechanisms and flowering time in plants. Here we report characterization of JmjC DOMAIN-CONTAINING PROTEIN 27 (JMJ27), an Arabidopsis JHDM2 (JmjC domain-containing histone demethylase 2) family protein, which modulates defense against pathogens and flowering time...
June 26, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650341/two-rheumatoid-arthritis-specific-autoantigens-correlate-microbial-immunity-with-autoimmune-responses-in-joints
#6
Annalisa Pianta, Sheila L Arvikar, Klemen Strle, Elise E Drouin, Qi Wang, Catherine E Costello, Allen C Steere
In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), immunological triggers at mucosal sites, such as the gut microbiota, may promote autoimmunity that affects joints. Here, we used discovery-based proteomics to detect HLA-DR-presented peptides in synovia or peripheral blood mononuclear cells and identified 2 autoantigens, N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfatase (GNS) and filamin A (FLNA), as targets of T and B cell responses in 52% and 56% of RA patients, respectively. Both GNS and FLNA were highly expressed in synovia. GNS appeared to be citrullinated, and GNS antibody values correlated with anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) levels...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650139/a-strategy-to-boost-the-efficiency-of-rhodanine-electron-acceptor-for-organic-dye-from-nonconjugation-to-conjugation
#7
Zhongquan Wan, Chunyang Jia, Yan Wang, Xiao-Jun Yao
Rhodanine-3-acetic acid is a very important and common electron acceptor of organic dye for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, the photovoltaic performances of organic dyes with rhodanine-3-acetic acid are relatively poor in the great majority of cases due to its nonconjugated structure between rhodanine ring and carboxyl anchoring group. Herein, a rhodanine derivative with conjugated structure between rhodanine ring and anchoring group is first employed as electron acceptor for TiO2-based DSSCs. Organic dye with this conjugated electron acceptor can not only maintain wide absorption spectrum, but also greatly improve the electronic structure and adsorption geometry on TiO2, which significantly enhances the electron injection and slows the charge recombination...
June 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650102/endocrine-influence-on-neuroinflammation-the-use-of-reporter-systems
#8
REVIEW
Nicoletta Rizzi, Alessandro Villa, Valeria Benedusi, Electra Brunialti, Nicoletta Cesari, Paolo Ciana, Adriana Maggi
Most of the ageing-associated pathologies are coupled with a strong inflammatory component that accelerates the progress of the physio-pathological functional decline related to ageing. The currently available pharmacological tools for the control of neuroinflammation present several side effects which restrict their application, particularly in chronic disorders. The discovery of the potential anti-inflammatory action exerted by endogenous estrogens and that activation of ERα results in a significant decrease of inflammation at the cellular level and in models of inflammatory diseases, prompted us to embark in a series of studies aimed at the generation of reporter systems allowing to i...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650060/an-adaptive-bias-hybrid-md-kmc-algorithm-for-protein-folding-and-aggregation
#9
Emanuel K Peter, Joan-Emma Shea
In this paper, we present a novel hybrid Molecular Dynamics/kinetic Monte Carlo (MD/kMC) algorithm and apply it to protein folding and aggregation in explicit solvent. The new algorithm uses a dynamical definition of biases throughout the MD component of the simulation, normalized in relation to the unbiased forces. The algorithm guarantees sampling of the underlying ensemble in dependency of one average linear coupling factor 〈α〉τ. We test the validity of the kinetics in simulations of dialanine and compare dihedral transition kinetics with long-time MD-simulations...
June 26, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650056/tailoring-the-local-environment-around-metal-ions-a-solution-chemical-and-structural-study-of-some-multidentate-tripodal-ligands
#10
Ferenc Matyuska, Attila Szorcsik, Nóra V May, Ágnes Dancs, Éva Kováts, Attila Bényei, Tamás Gajda
Manganese(ii), copper(ii) and zinc(ii) complexes of four polydentate tripodal ligands (tachpyr (N,N',N''-tris(2-pyridylmethyl)-cis,cis-1,3,5-triaminocyclohexane), trenpyr (tris[2-(2-pyridylmethyl)aminoethyl]amine, tach3pyr (N,N',N''-tris(3-pyridylmethyl)-cis,cis-1,3,5-triaminocyclohexane) and tren3pyr (tris[2-(2-pyridylmethyl)aminoethyl]amine)) were characterized in both solution and solid states. A combined evaluation of potentiometric, UV-VIS, NMR and EPR data allowed the conclusion of both thermodynamic and structural information about the complexes formed in solution...
June 26, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650022/interaction-and-inhibitory-influence-of-the-azo-dye-carmoisine-on-lysozyme-amyloid-fibrillogenesis
#11
Anirban Basu, Gopinatha Suresh Kumar
The binding of the common food colorant carmoisine and its inhibitory effect on amyloid fibrillation in lysozyme have been investigated. Since humans are increasingly exposed to various food colorants like carmoisine, such studies are highly relevant. In the presence of lysozyme, the carmoisine absorption spectrum exhibited hypochromic changes. The intrinsic fluorescence of lysozyme was also quenched on interaction. Time-resolved fluorescence results suggested that the binding mechanism involved ground state complexation...
June 26, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649744/mannose-binding-lectin-deficient-donors-increase-the-risk-of-bacterial-infection-and-bacterial-infection-related-mortality-after-liver-transplantation
#12
J Lombardo, G Sanclemente, J Colmenero, M Español-Rego, M T Arias, P Ruiz, E Mauro, L Sastre, G Crespo, A Rimola, A Moreno, F Lozano, M Navasa
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is synthesized by the liver and binds to microbes. MBL2 gene polymorphisms produce intermediate/low/null- or normal-MBL serum levels (MBL-deficient or MBL-sufficient phenotypes, respectively). We aimed to evaluate the incidence and severity of infection, rejection and survival within 1 year after liver transplantation (LT) according to donor and recipient MBL2 gene polymorphisms. A repeated-event analysis for infection episodes (negative binomial regression, Andersen-Gill model) was performed in 240 LT...
June 26, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649380/gitr-ligand-fusion-protein-agonist-enhances-the-tumor-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cell-response-and-leads-to-long-lasting-memory
#13
Nick M Durham, Nick Holoweckyj, Randall S MacGill, Kelly McGlinchey, Ching Ching Leow, Scott H Robbins
BACKGROUND: The expansion of antigen-specific CD8 T cells is important in generating an effective and long-lasting immune response to tumors and viruses. Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related receptor (GITR) is a co-stimulatory receptor that binds the GITR ligand (GITRL). Agonism of GITR can produce important signals that drive expansion of effector T cell populations. METHODS: We explored two separate murine tumor models, CT26 and TC-1, for responsiveness to GITR Ligand Fusion Protein(GITRL-FP) monotherapy...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649260/tomato-udp-glucose-sterol-glycosyltransferases-a-family-of-developmental-and-stress-regulated-genes-that-encode-cytosolic-and-membrane-associated-forms-of-the-enzyme
#14
Karla Ramirez-Estrada, Nídia Castillo, Juan A Lara, Monserrat Arró, Albert Boronat, Albert Ferrer, Teresa Altabella
Sterol glycosyltransferases (SGTs) catalyze the glycosylation of the free hydroxyl group at C-3 position of sterols to produce sterol glycosides. Glycosylated sterols and free sterols are primarily located in cell membranes where in combination with other membrane-bound lipids play a key role in modulating their properties and functioning. In contrast to most plant species, those of the genus Solanum contain very high levels of glycosylated sterols, which in the case of tomato may account for more than 85% of the total sterol content...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649250/immunity-in-protochordates-the-tunicate-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Nicola Franchi, Loriano Ballarin
Tunicates are the closest relatives of vertebrates, and their peculiar phylogenetic position explains the increasing interest toward tunicate immunobiology. They are filter-feeding organisms, and this greatly influences their defense strategies. The majority of the studies on tunicate immunity were carried out in ascidians. The tunic acts as a first barrier against pathogens and parasites. In addition, the oral siphon and the pharynx represent two major, highly vascularized, immune organs, where circulating hemocytes can sense non-self material and trigger immune responses that, usually, lead to inflammation and phagocytosis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649242/an-approach-for-a-synthetic-ctl-vaccine-design-against-zika-flavivirus-using-class-i-and-class-ii-epitopes-identified-by-computer-modeling
#16
Edecio Cunha-Neto, Daniela S Rosa, Paul E Harris, Tim Olson, Alex Morrow, Serban Ciotlos, Charles V Herst, Reid Martin Rubsamen
The threat posed by severe congenital abnormalities related to Zika virus (ZKV) infection during pregnancy has turned development of a ZKV vaccine into an emergency. Recent work suggests that the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to infection is an important defense mechanism in response to ZKV. Here, we develop the rationale and strategy for a new approach to developing cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) vaccines for ZKV flavivirus infection. The proposed approach is based on recent studies using a protein structure computer model for HIV epitope selection designed to select epitopes for CTL attack optimized for viruses that exhibit antigenic drift...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649090/mirna-143-mediates-the-proliferative-signaling-pathway-of-fsh-and-regulates-estradiol-production
#17
Li Zhang, XiaoXin Zhang, Xuejing Zhang, Yu Lu, Lei Li, Sheng Cui
MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) play important regulatory roles in many cellular processes. MiR-143 is highly enriched in the mouse ovary, but its roles and underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the current study, we show that miR-143 is located in granulosa cells of primary, secondary and antral follicles. To explore the specific functions of miR-143, we transfected miR-143 inhibitor into primary cultured granulosa cells to study the loss of function of miR-143 and the results showed that miR-143 silencing significantly increased estradiol production and steroidogenesis-related gene expression...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649017/chiral-alkylated-aniline-as-a-noninvasive-fluorescence-sensor-spectroscopic-and-molecular-modeling-studies
#18
Bidisha Sengupta, Chirantan Sen Mukherjee, Sandipan Chakraborty, Maria Jones Muhammad, William Gladney, George Armstrong
Aniline, heterocyclic aromatic amines, and arylamines are known carcinogens. Recently aniline mustard has come into prominence as a novel anticancer agent. In this project, microwave irradiation has been used to synthesize an optically active alkylated aniline namely 2,6-dimethyl-4-(1-(p-tolyl)ethyl)aniline (abbreviated DMPA). The presence of quartet and doublet peaks in NMR and a single chromatogram in HPLC verified that the final product DMPA, prepared from the synthesis reactions, had no major impurities...
June 7, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648995/when-the-ball-is-in-the-female-s-court-how-the-scramble-competition-mating-system-of-the-north-american-red-squirrel-has-shaped-male-physiology-and-testosterone-dynamics
#19
Rudy Boonstra, Adam Dušek, Jeffrey E Lane, Stan Boutin
Male reproductive success in most mammals is determined by their success in direct inter-male competition through aggression and conflict, resulting in female-defense mating systems being predominant. This is linked to male testosterone levels and its dynamics. However, in certain environments, a scramble-competition mating system has evolved, where female reproductive behavior takes precedence and male testosterone dynamics are unlikely to be related to inter-male competition. We studied the North American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), a species with a well-established scramble-competition system...
June 22, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648900/tet-catalyzed-5-hydroxymethylation-precedes-hnf4a-promoter-choice-during-differentiation-of-bipotent-liver-progenitors
#20
Pierre-Benoit Ancey, Szilvia Ecsedi, Marie-Pierre Lambert, Fazlur Rahman Talukdar, Marie-Pierre Cros, Denise Glaise, Diana Maria Narvaez, Veronique Chauvet, Zdenko Herceg, Anne Corlu, Hector Hernandez-Vargas
Understanding the processes that govern liver progenitor cell differentiation has important implications for the design of strategies targeting chronic liver diseases, whereby regeneration of liver tissue is critical. Although DNA methylation (5mC) and hydroxymethylation (5hmC) are highly dynamic during early embryonic development, less is known about their roles at later stages of differentiation. Using an in vitro model of hepatocyte differentiation, we show here that 5hmC precedes the expression of promoter 1 (P1)-dependent isoforms of HNF4A, a master transcription factor of hepatocyte identity...
June 19, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
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