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Rima Bao, Zhikui Wu, Fang Wang, Xinyang Miao, Chengjing Feng
The characterization of fractures is of vital importance for studies in many industries. In the present work, we used terahertz reflection measurements to identify simulated gaps of different widths that resemble fractures. The time interval between pulses (Δt) was proportional to the distance between the interfaces. In addition, fast Fourier transform (FFT) corresponding to the waveforms was also employed to distinguish the gaps. The widths in frequency were found to be inversely proportional to that of the gaps...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Praveen Kumar, Bin Jiang, Hua Guo, Jacek Klos, Millard H Alexander, Bill Poirier
The high resolution spectroscopy of the SO 2 molecule is of great topical interest, in a wide variety of contexts ranging from origins of higher life, to astrophysics of the interstellar medium, to environmental chemistry. In particular, the C̃ 1 B 2 ← X̃ 1 A 1 UV photoabsorption spectrum has received considerable attention. This spectrum exhibits a highly regular progression of ∼ 20 or so strong peaks, spaced roughly 350 cm -1 apart, which is comparable to the C̃ 1 B 2 bending vibrational frequency...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Yuanpei Li, Gaurav Bharadwaj, Joyce S Lee
Nanomedicine is an emerging form of therapy that harnesses the unique properties of particles that are nanometers in scale for biomedical application. Improving drug delivery to maximize therapeutic outcomes and to reduce drug-associated side effects are some of the cornerstones of present-day nanomedicine. Nanoparticles in particular have found a wide application in cancer treatment. Nanoparticles that offer a high degree of flexibility in design, application, and production based on the tumor microenvironment are projected to be more effective with rapid translation into clinical practice...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jin Zhang, Jie Wang, Xiaohui Han, Hong-Liang Cui, Changcheng Shi, Jinbo Zhang, Yan Shen
We employed terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) imaging technology, a new nondestructive testing method, to detect the inclusions of glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The refractive index and absorption coefficient of two types of GFRP composites (epoxy GFRP composites and polyester GFRP composites) were first extracted, and GFRP composites with Teflon inclusions were examined, including an epoxy GFRP solid panel with a smaller Teflon inclusion hidden behind a larger Teflon inclusion, and polyester GFRP solid panels with Teflon inclusions of various sizes, at different depths...
December 20, 2016: Applied Optics
J Gersh, M Noll
PURPOSE: Accuray recommends daily evaluation of the treatment localization and delivery systems (TLS/TDS) of the CyberKnife. The vendor-provided solution is a Winston-Lutz-type test that evaluates film shadows from an orthogonal beam pair (known as AQA). Since film-based techniques are inherently inefficient and potentially inconsistent and uncertain, this study explores a method which provides a comparable test with greater efficiency, consistency, and certainty. This test uses the QAStereoChecker (QASC, Standard Imaging, Inc...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Bulent Yildiz, Durmus Etiz, Pinar Dal, Bermet Junushova, Ozgul Pasaoglu, Evrim Yilmaz, Serdar Erkasap, Murat Dincer
PURPOSE: Tumor deposits (TDs) are defined as satellite peritumoral nodules in the peritumoral adipose tissue of a primary carcinoma without histologic evidence of residual lymph node in the nodule. We aimed to investigate the relation between TDs and clinicopathological characteristics of gastric cancer and to evaluate the effect of TDs on prognosis. METHODS: One hundred and seven non-metastatic gastric cancer patients were enrolled. The relationships between positive and negative TDs with respect to clinicopathological characteristics, as well as disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), were analyzed...
November 2016: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Iris D Nagtegaal, Nikki Knijn, Niek Hugen, Helen C Marshall, Kenichi Sugihara, Tibor Tot, Hideki Ueno, Philip Quirke
Purpose Colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment is largely determined by tumor stage. Despite improvements made in the treatment of various types of metastatic disease, staging has not been refined. The role of tumor deposits (TDs) in staging remains debated. We have assessed the relation of TDs with metastatic pattern to evaluate whether TDs might add significant new information to staging. Methods We performed a systematic literature search that was focused on the role of TDs in CRC. Studies with neoadjuvant-treated patients were excluded...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Monica Borgogno, Caterina Dinnella, Valeria Iaconisi, Renzo Fusi, Claudia Scarpaleggia, Achille Schiavone, Erminio Monteleone, Laura Gasco, Giuliana Parisi
BACKGROUND: Diet implementation with insect meal arouses increased attention in aquaculture considering the advantages of this new protein source. The effect of Hermetia illucens meal (HI) inclusion in diets on rainbow trout physical-chemical and sensory properties was evaluated. Three diets were prepared: HI0, HI25, HI50, with 0, 25 and 50% of HI replacing fish meal, respectively. Fillet sensory profiles were described by descriptive analysis (DA) and Temporal Dominance of Sensation (TDS) methods...
December 21, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Eileen Abt, Judith Spungen, Régis Pouillot, Margaret Gamalo-Siebers, Mark Wirtz
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Total Diet Study (TDS) monitors the US food supply for pesticide residues, industrial chemicals, radionuclides, nutrients, and toxic elements. Perchlorate and iodine intakes based on concentrations in TDS samples collected between 2008 and 2012 were estimated in order to update an earlier TDS dietary assessment. Perchlorate is used as an oxidizing agent in rocket and missile fuel, is formed naturally in the atmosphere, and occurs naturally in some soils. Because of perchlorate's presence in soil, and in irrigation, processing, and source water, it is widely found in food...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Alex Secora, James Phillip Trinidad, Rongmei Zhang, Rajdeep Gill, Gerald Dal Pan
PURPOSE: Population-based prescription opioid abuse studies in which one drug is compared to another, or drugs are compared across time, often account for the availability of those drugs in the community. The objective of this investigation is to assess consistency in the relative abuse ratios (RARs) across different approaches for adjusting for drug availability. METHODS: For the years 2004 through 2010, RARs for each of four prescription opioids (hydrocodone, oxycodone, hydromorphone, and morphine) were calculated using negative binomial regression...
December 21, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Wen-Cheng Ke, Fang-Wei Lee, Chih-Yung Chiang, Zhong-Yi Liang, Wei-Kuo Chen, Tae-Yeon Seong
A hybrid patterned sapphire substrate (hybrid-PSS) was prepared using an anodic aluminum oxide etching mask to transfer nanopatterns onto a conventional patterned sapphire substrate with microscale patterns (bare-PSS). The threading dislocation (TD) suppression of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on a hybrid-PSS (HP-LED) exhibits a smaller reverse leakage current compared with that of LEDs grown on a bare-PSS (BP-LED). The strain-free GaN buffer layer and fully strained InGaN active layer were evidenced by cross-sectional Raman spectra and reciprocal space mapping of the X-ray diffraction intensity for both samples...
December 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zeming Shi, Pujing Pan, Yanwei Feng, Zezhong Kan, Zhonghui Li, Fei Wei
During the past several decades, etiological and geochemical studies tend to link the Kaschin-Beck Disease (KBD) to the deficiency of some specific trace elements (e.g., selenium and iodine) in the environment; however the link has been proven inconclusive. In this work, we have investigated the relationship between KBD and the environment in a broader scope by examining comprehensively the chemistry of the surface waters in northwestern Sichuan, China, in relation to the KBD prevalence. The surface waters in the study area were found to be near neutral to slightly alkaline (pH6...
December 16, 2016: Environment International
T Traoré, C Béchaux, V Sirot, A Crépet
Through their diet, humans are exposed to a wide range of substances with possible adverse effects. Total diet studies (TDS) assess exposure and risk for many single substances or mixtures from the same chemical family. This research aims to identify from 440 substances in the second French TDS, the major mixtures to which the French population is exposed and their associated diet. Firstly, substances with a contamination value over the detection limit were selected. Secondly, consumption systems comprising major consumed foods were identified using non-negative matrix factorisation and combined with concentration levels to form the main mixture...
October 28, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Abuzer Gunduz, Nihat Polat, Tongabay Cumurcu, ErsinErsan Demirel, Ercan Özsoy
Purpose: To evaluate the central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal volume (CV), and anterior and posterior corneal surfaces using the Scheimpflug imaging system in patients diagnosed with tilted disc syndrome (TDS). Methods: The study group (Group 1) and the control group (Group 2) comprised 35 eyes of 35 age-, sex-, and refraction-matched cases. All cases underwent a full ophthalmic examination that included cycloplegic refraction, axial ocular length measurement, and Scheimpflug imaging...
September 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
A K Upadhyay, N K Singh, N S Bankoti, U N Rai
A simulated horizontal flow constructed wetland (CW) has been designed with gravel medium and aquatic plants Typha latifolia and Polygonum hydropiper to assess its performance efficiency for sewage treatment. Monitoring of fully developed CW revealed a high removal of nutrients and metals from sewage after treatment at varying retention times. The percent (%) removal of biological oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, PO4-P and total nitrogen in CW planted with T. latifolia were 88...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Technology
T Chandrasekar, Kalyan Sundar Das, Showkat A Bhat, J K Singh, Thulasiraman Parkunanan, K Puhle Japheth, Mayur R Thul, Pranay Bharti
AIM: This study was conducted to find out the relationship of prepartum udder and teat measurements with subsequent milk production traits in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 12 Nili-Ravi buffalo heifers were selected from Buffalo Farm, Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Regional Station- Bir Dosanjh, Nabha, Patiala, Punjab. The udder length (UL), udder width (UW), udder depth, teat length (TL), teat diameter (TD), and teat distances were measured at fortnightly interval from 60 days prepartum until calving...
November 2016: Veterinary World
I M Cozzarelli, K J Skalak, D B Kent, M A Engle, A Benthem, A C Mumford, K Haase, A Farag, D Harper, S C Nagel, L R Iwanowicz, W H Orem, D M Akob, J B Jaeschke, J Galloway, M Kohler, D L Stoliker, G D Jolly
Wastewaters from oil and gas development pose largely unknown risks to environmental resources. In January 2015, 11.4ML (million liters) of wastewater (300g/L TDS) from oil production in the Williston Basin was reported to have leaked from a pipeline, spilling into Blacktail Creek, North Dakota. Geochemical and biological samples were collected in February and June 2015 to identify geochemical signatures of spilled wastewaters as well as biological responses along a 44-km river reach. February water samples had elevated chloride (1030mg/L) and bromide (7...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Kinda Constantine, May Massoud, Ibrahim Alameddine, Mutasem El-Fadel
Population growth and development are associated with increased water demand that often exceeds the capacity of existing resources, resulting in water shortages, particularly in urban areas, where more than 60% of the world's population resides. In many developing communities, shortages often force households to depend on water tankers amongst other potential sources for the delivery of water for domestic and/or potable use. While water tankers have become an integral part of the water supply system in many countries, the sector is often unregulated and operates with little governmental supervision...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Sixtus Bieranye Bayaa Martin Saana, Samuel Asiedu Fosu, Godfred Etsey Sebiawu, Napoleon Jackson, Thomas Karikari
BACKGROUND: Underground water is an important natural resource serving as a reliable source of drinking water for many people worldwide, especially in developing countries. Underground water quality needs to be given a primary research and quality control attention due to possible contamination. This study was therefore designed to determine the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of borehole water in the Upper West and Northern regions of Ghana. METHODS: The study was conducted in seven districts in Ghana (including six in the Upper West region and one in the Northern region)...
2016: SpringerPlus
R Roque, C Rodriguez-Villar, A Ruiz, D Paredes, R Gelpi, X Garcia, F Vizcaíno, S Saavedra, S Rodríguez, M Quijada, M Bohils, R Adalia
BACKGROUND: Defining quality assessment and measurement tools in the area of tissue donation should be considered to be one of the most important strategies for developing health centers. The aim of this project was to identify, define, and analyze a set of indicators to assess the most important steps in the tissue donor detection and generation processes. METHODS: A prospective, descriptive, and comparative study of all potential tissue donors (TDs) detected and generated in a university hospital was performed...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
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