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Corey M Leidenfrost, Matthew D Scalco, Elizabeth Randall, Peter S Martin, Samuel J Sinclair, Travis J Stewart, Ronald Schoelerman, Daniel Antonius
Early identification of treatment needs in incarcerated individuals with serious mental illness has significant implications. Validated assessment instruments to guide treatment are lacking in correctional settings. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the predictive validity of the Level of Care Index (LOCI) in 35 inmates admitted to a specialized treatment unit. The LOCI score was predictive of levels of depressogenic psychopathology and psychological well-being as well as changes in these constructs over time...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Correctional Health Care
I I Katkov, V F Bolyukh, G T Sukhikh
Kinetic (dynamic) vitrification is a promising trend in cryopreservation of biological materials because it allows avoiding the formation of lethal intracellular ice and minimizes harmful effects of highly toxic penetrating cryoprotectants. A uniform cooling protocol and the same instruments can be used for practically all types of cells. In modern technologies, the rate of cooling is essentially limited by the Leidenfrost effect. We describe a novel platform for kinetic vitrification of biological materials KrioBlastTM that realizes hyper-fast cooling and allows overcoming the Leidenfrost effect...
March 4, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Istafaul Haque Ansari, Nicolas Rivas, Meheboob Alam
We report patterns consisting of coexistence of synchronous and asynchronous states [for example, a granular gas co-existing with (i) bouncing bed, (ii) undulatory subharmonic waves, and (iii) Leidenfrost-like states] in experiments on vertically vibrated binary granular mixtures in a Hele-Shaw cell. Most experiments have been carried out with equimolar binary mixtures of glass and steel balls of same diameter by varying the total layer height (F) for a range of shaking acceleration (Γ). All patterns as well as the related phase diagram in the (Γ,F) plane have been reproduced via molecular dynamics simulations of the same system...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Aditya Jetly, Ivan U Vakarelski, Sigurdur T Thoroddsen
We investigate the effect of thin air layers naturally sustained on superhydrophobic surfaces on the terminal velocity and drag force of metallic spheres free falling in water. The surface of 20 mm to 60 mm steel or tungsten-carbide spheres is rendered superhydrophobic by a simple coating process that uses a commercially available hydrophobic agent. By comparing the free fall of unmodified spheres and superhydrophobic spheres in a 2.5 meter tall water tank, it is demonstrated that even a very thin air layer (∼1-2 μm) that covers the freshly dipped superhydrophobic sphere can reduce the drag force on the spheres by up to 80%, at Reynolds numbers from 105 to 3 × 105, owing to an early drag crisis transition...
February 7, 2018: Soft Matter
Mohammad Khavari, Tuan Tran
The Leidenfrost transition leads a boiling system to the boiling crisis, a state in which the liquid loses contact with the heated surface due to excessive vapor generation. Here, using experiments of liquid droplets boiling on a heated surface, we report a phenomenon, termed oscillating boiling, at the Leidenfrost transition. We show that oscillating boiling results from the competition between two effects: separation of liquid from the heated surface due to localized boiling and rewetting. We argue theoretically that the Leidenfrost transition can be predicted based on its link with the oscillating boiling phenomenon and verify the prediction experimentally for various liquids...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Hua-Yi Hsu, Ming-Chieh Lin, Bridget Popovic, Chii-Ruey Lin, Neelesh A Patankar
Surface wettability is recognized as playing an important role in pool boiling and the corresponding heat transfer curve. In this work, a systematic study of pool boiling heat transfer on smooth surfaces of varying wettability (contact angle range of 5° - 180°) has been conducted and reported. Based on numerical simulations, boiling curves are calculated and boiling dynamics in each regime are studied using a volume-of-fluid method with contact angle model. The calculated trends in critical heat flux and Leidenfrost point as functions of surface wettability are obtained and compared with prior experimental and theoretical predictions, giving good agreement...
2017: PloS One
Sylwia Wciślik
In this paper, a review of the impact of most common nanoparticles on the Leidenfrost temperature TLeid in heat transfer applications is delivered. Moreover, a simple economic analysis of the nanoparticles use is proposed. When coolant is distilled water, TLeid can range 150-220 °C; occasionally, it can even amount to over 400 °C. When the base liquid is modified by additives, considerable changes in the character of heat transfer are observed. Out of five nanofluids under consideration in this study, the best thermal effect (up to 50%) is obtained when Al2O3 nanofluid having particle sizes ~39 nm and volume concentration of 0...
2017: Chemické Zvesti
Arjang Shahriari, Onur Ozkan, Vaibhav Bahadur
An applied electric field can fundamentally eliminate the Leidenfrost effect (formation of a vapor layer at the solid-liquid interface at high temperatures). This study analyzes electrostatic suppression of the Leidenfrost state on liquid substrates. Electrostatic suppression on silicone oil and Wood's metal (liquid alloy) is studied via experimentation, high-speed imaging, and analyses. It is seen that the nature of electrostatic suppression can be drastically different from that on a solid substrate. First, the Leidenfrost droplet completely penetrates into the silicone oil substrate and converts to a thin film under an electric field...
November 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Jonathan T Pham, Maxime Paven, Sanghyuk Wooh, Tadashi Kajiya, Hans-Jürgen Butt, Doris Vollmer
The contact between liquid drops and hot solid surfaces is of practical importance for industrial processes, such as thermal spraying and spray cooling. The contact and bouncing of solid spheres is also an important event encountered in ball milling, powder processing, and everyday activities, such as ball sports. Using high speed video microscopy, we demonstrate that hydrogel drops, initially at rest on a surface, spontaneously jump upon rapid heating and continue to bounce with increasing amplitudes. Jumping is governed by the surface wettability, surface temperature, hydrogel elasticity, and adhesion...
October 13, 2017: Nature Communications
Michiel A J van Limbeek, Paul B J Hoefnagels, Chao Sun, Detlef Lohse
In many applications, it is crucial to control the heat transfer rate of impacting drops on a heated plate. When the solid exceeds the so-called Leidenfrost temperature, an impacting drop is prevented from contacting the plate by its own evaporation. But the decrease in the resulting cooling efficiency of the impacting drop is yet not quantitatively understood. Here, we experimentally study the impact of such water drops on smooth heated surfaces of various substances. We demonstrate that, in contrast to previous results for other liquids, water exhibits spray in the vertical direction when impacting sapphire and silicon...
October 25, 2017: Soft Matter
Cheng Luo, Manjarik Mrinal, Xiang Wang
In this work, we explored self-propulsion of a Leidenfrost drop between non-parallel structures. A theoretical model was first developed to determine conditions for liquid drops to start moving away from the corner of two non-parallel plates. These conditions were then simplified for the case of a Leidenfrost drop. Furthermore, ejection speeds and travel distances of Leidenfrost drops were derived using a scaling law. Subsequently, the theoretical models were validated by experiments. Finally, three new devices have been developed to manipulate Leidenfrost drops in different ways...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ivan U Vakarelski, Evert Klaseboer, Aditya Jetly, Mohammad M Mansoor, Andres A Aguirre-Pablo, Derek Y C Chan, Sigurdur T Thoroddsen
Minimizing the retarding force on a solid moving in liquid is the canonical problem in the quest for energy saving by friction and drag reduction. For an ideal object that cannot sustain any shear stress on its surface, theory predicts that drag force will fall to zero as its speed becomes large. However, experimental verification of this prediction has been challenging. We report the construction of a class of self-determined streamlined structures with this free-slip surface, made up of a teardrop-shaped giant gas cavity that completely encloses a metal sphere...
September 2017: Science Advances
Qibin Li, Yitian Xiao, Xiaoyang Shi, Shufeng Song
To reveal the mechanism of energy storage in the water/graphene system and water/grapheme-oxide system, the processes of rapid evaporation of water molecules on the sheets of graphene and graphene-oxide are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that both the water/graphene and water/grapheme-oxide systems can store more energy than the pure water system during evaporation. The hydroxyl groups on the surface of graphene-oxide are able to reduce the attractive interactions between water molecules and the sheet of graphene-oxide...
September 7, 2017: Nanomaterials
Hong Hu, Cheng Xu, Yang Zhao, Kirk J Ziegler, J N Chung
All power production, refrigeration, and advanced electronic systems depend on efficient heat transfer mechanisms for achieving high power density and best system efficiency. Breakthrough advancement in boiling and quenching phase-change heat transfer processes by nanoscale surface texturing can lead to higher energy transfer efficiencies, substantial energy savings, and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. This paper reports breakthrough advancements on both fronts of boiling and quenching. The critical heat flux (CHF) in boiling and the Leidenfrost point temperature (LPT) in quenching are the bottlenecks to the heat transfer advancements...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Corey M Leidenfrost, Ronald M Schoelerman, Michael Maher, Daniel Antonius
Providing cost-effective means to treat the influx of individuals with serious mental illness entering the correctional system is a major challenge. Failure to provide appropriate mental health treatment may lead to poor outcomes, including recidivism and suicide. Group intervention is an effective and cost efficient way to provide mental health treatment. However, it has been understudied in jail settings. To meet the needs of jail-inmates with serious mental illness, an eight-week group-based module curriculum was developed and studied through analyses of perceived usefulness, retention of key material, and associations with cognitive ability, improvement in psychiatric symptoms, and level of motivation...
June 24, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Clint Y H Wong, Mokhtar Adda-Bedia, Dominic Vella
We consider the flotation of deformable, non-wetting drops on a liquid interface. We consider the deflection of both the liquid interface and the droplet itself in response to the buoyancy forces, density difference and the various surface tensions within the system. Our results suggest new insight into a range of phenomena in which such drops occur, including Leidenfrost droplets and floating liquid marbles. In particular, we show that the floating state of liquid marbles is very sensitive to the tension of the particle-covered interface and suggest that this sensitivity may make such experiments a useful assay of the properties of these complex interfaces...
August 9, 2017: Soft Matter
Manjarik Mrinal, Xiang Wang, Cheng Luo
A Leidenfrost drop is capable of self-propelling on a ratchet, which consists of asymmetric teeth. In this work, the corresponding movements were first experimentally investigated. Because the detected motion could not be interpreted using existing propulsive mechanisms, a new propulsive mechanism was then developed, followed by force analysis using a scaling law.
June 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Mady Elbahri, Ramzy Abdelaziz, Duygu Disci-Zayed, Shahin Homaeigohar, Justyna Sosna, Dieter Adam, Lorenz Kienle, Torben Dankwort, Moheb Abdelaziz
The dynamic underwater chemistry seen in nature is inspiring for the next generation of eco-friendly nanochemistry. In this context, green synthesis of size-tailored nanoparticles in a facile and scalable manner via a dynamic process is an interesting challenge. Simulating the volcano-induced dynamic chemistry of the deep ocean, here we demonstrate the Leidenfrost dynamic chemistry occurring in an underwater overheated confined zone as a new tool for customized creation of nanoclusters of zinc peroxide. The hydrodynamic nature of the phenomenon ensures eruption of the nanoclusters towards a much colder region, giving rise to growth of monodisperse, size-tailored nanoclusters...
May 12, 2017: Nature Communications
Lieshuang Zhong, Zhiguang Guo
When deposited on a superheated surface, a droplet can be levitated by its own vapour layer, a phenomenon that is referred to as the Leidenfrost effect. This dynamic effect has attracted interest for many potential applications, such as cooling, drag reduction and drop transport. A lot of effort has been paid to this mechanism over the past two and half centuries. Herein, we not only review the classical theories but also present the most recent theoretical advances in understanding the Leidenfrost effect. We first review the basic theories of the Leidenfrost effect, which mainly focuses on the relationship between the drop shape, vapour layer and lifetime...
May 18, 2017: Nanoscale
Dilshadbek Tursunbayevich Usmanov, Satoshi Ninomiya, Lee Chuin Chen, Subhrakanti Saha, Mridul Kanti Mandal, Yuji Sakai, Rio Takaishi, Ahsan Habib, Kenzo Hiraoka, Kentaro Yoshimura, Sen Takeda, Hiroshi Wada, Hiroshi Nonami
In mass spectrometry, analytes must be released in the gas phase. There are two representative methods for the gasification of the condensed samples, i.e., ablation and desorption. While ablation is based on the explosion induced by the energy accumulated in the condensed matrix, desorption is a single molecular process taking place on the surface. In this paper, desorption methods for mass spectrometry developed in our laboratory: flash heating/rapid cooling, Leidenfrost phenomenon-assisted thermal desorption (LPTD), solid/solid friction, liquid/solid friction, electrospray droplet impact (EDI) ionization/desorption, and probe electrospray ionization (PESI), will be described...
2017: Mass Spectrometry
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