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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531961/challenges-in-photocatalytic-reduction-of-nitrate-as-a-water-treatment-technology
#1
Heather O'Neal Tugaoen, Sergi Garcia-Segura, Kiril Hristovski, Paul Westerhoff
Management of ubiquitous nitrate contamination in drinking water sources is a major engineering challenge due to its negative impacts from eutrophication to immediate risk to human health. Several water treatment technologies exist to manage nitrate pollution in water sources. However, the most widely used technologies are phase separation treatments. In this context, nanoscale photocatalysis emerges as a highly promising transformative technology capable of reducing nitrate to innocuous nitrogen with noticeable selectivity...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526852/health-benefit-of-vegetable-fruit-juice-based-diet-role-of-microbiome
#2
Susanne M Henning, Jieping Yang, Paul Shao, Ru-Po Lee, Jianjun Huang, Austin Ly, Mark Hsu, Qing-Yi Lu, Gail Thames, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
The gut microbiota is an important contributor to human health. Vegetable/fruit juices provide polyphenols, oligosaccharides, fiber and nitrate (beet juice), which may induce a prebiotic-like effect. Juice-based diets are becoming popular. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence of their health benefits. It was our hypothesis that changes in the intestinal microbiota induced by a juice-based diet play an important role in their health benefits. Twenty healthy adults consumed only vegetable/fruit juices for 3 days followed by 14 days of customary diet...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524866/succession-in-the-petroleum-reservoir-microbiome-through-an-oil-field-production-lifecycle
#3
Adrien Vigneron, Eric B Alsop, Bartholomeus P Lomans, Nikos C Kyrpides, Ian M Head, Nicolas Tsesmetzis
Subsurface petroleum reservoirs are an important component of the deep biosphere where indigenous microorganisms live under extreme conditions and in isolation from the Earth's surface for millions of years. However, unlike the bulk of the deep biosphere, the petroleum reservoir deep biosphere is subject to extreme anthropogenic perturbation, with the introduction of new electron acceptors, donors and exogenous microbes during oil exploration and production. Despite the fundamental and practical significance of this perturbation, there has never been a systematic evaluation of the ecological changes that occur over the production lifetime of an active offshore petroleum production system...
May 19, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523838/an-unsaturated-quinolone-n-oxide-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-modulates-growth-and-virulence-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#4
Dávid Szamosvári, Thomas Böttcher
The pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces over 50 different quinolones, 16 of which belong to the class of 2-alkyl-4-quinolone N-oxides (AQNOs) with various chain lengths and degrees of saturation. We present the first synthesis of a previously proposed unsaturated compound that is confirmed to be present in culture extracts of P. aeruginosa, and its structure is shown to be trans-Δ(1) -2-(non-1-enyl)-4-quinolone N-oxide. This compound is the most active agent against S.  aureus, including MRSA strains, by more than one order of magnitude whereas its cis isomer is inactive...
May 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521618/markers-of-oxidative-nitrative-damage-of-plasma-proteins-correlated-with-edss-and-bdi-scores-in-patients-with-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Agnieszka Morel, Michał Bijak, Marta Niwald, Elżbieta Miller, Joanna Saluk
Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate oxidative/nitrative stress in the plasma of 50 patients suffering from the secondary progressive course of multiple sclerosis (MS), and to verify its correlation with physical and mental disability as assessed by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Methods Oxidative and nitrative damage to proteins was determined by the level of carbonyl groups and 3-nitrotyrosine using ELISA test. Based on the reaction with Ellman's reagent, we estimated the concentration of oxidized thiol groups...
May 19, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521169/heterotrophic-ammonia-and-nitrate-bio-removal-over-nitrite-hanbon-performance-and-microflora
#6
Wei Li, Zhao-Yang Cai, Zi-Jun Duo, Yao-Feng Lu, Ke-Xin Gao, Ghulam Abbas, Meng Zhang, Ping Zheng
A novel Heterotrophic Ammonia and Nitrate Bio-removal Over Nitrite (Hanbon) process, combining Short Nitrate Reduction (SNR) with Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidation (Anammox), was developed in a lab-scale continuous up-flow reactor. The substrate effects were investigated to characterize the performance of Hanbon process, and the corresponding microflora information was also revealed. Our results showed that the optimal substrate ratio of NH4(+)-N:NO3(-)-N:COD for the Hanbon process was 0.65:1:2.2. The volumetric nitrogen removal rate was up to 9...
May 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520211/aging-and-parkinson-s-disease-different-sides-of-the-same-coin
#7
REVIEW
Timothy J Collier, Nicholas M Kanaan, Jeffrey H Kordower
Despite abundant epidemiological evidence in support of aging as the primary risk factor for PD, biological correlates of a connection have been elusive. In this article, we address the following question: does aging represent biology accurately characterized as pre-PD? We present evidence from our work on midbrain dopamine neurons of aging nonhuman primates that demonstrates that markers of known correlates of dopamine neuron degeneration in PD, including impaired proteasome/lysosome function, oxidative/nitrative damage, and inflammation, all increase with advancing age and are exaggerated in the ventral tier substantia nigra dopamine neurons most vulnerable to degeneration in PD...
May 18, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516763/first-assessment-of-nox-sources-at-a-regional-background-site-in-north-china-using-isotopic-analysis-linked-with-modeling
#8
Zheng Zong, Xiaoping Wang, Chongguo Tian, Yingjun Chen, Yunting Fang, Fan Zhang, Cheng Li, Jianzhong Sun, Jun Li, Gan Zhang
Nitrogen oxides (NOx, including NO and NO2) play an important role in the formation of atmospheric particles. Thus, NOx emission reduction is critical for improving air quality, especially in severely air-polluted regions (e.g., North China). In this study, the source of NOx was investigated by the isotopic composition (δ15N) of particulate nitrate (p-NO3-) at Beihuangcheng Island (BH), a regional background site in North China. It was found that the δ15N-NO3- (n = 120) values varied between -1.7 and +24...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514452/isotopic-evidence-of-multiple-controls-on-atmospheric-oxidants-over-climate-transitions
#9
Lei Geng, Lee T Murray, Loretta J Mickley, Pu Lin, Qiang Fu, Andrew J Schauer, Becky Alexander
The abundance of tropospheric oxidants, such as ozone (O3) and hydroxyl (OH) and peroxy radicals (HO2 + RO2), determines the lifetimes of reduced trace gases such as methane and the production of particulate matter important for climate and human health. The response of tropospheric oxidants to climate change is poorly constrained owing to large uncertainties in the degree to which processes that influence oxidants may change with climate and owing to a lack of palaeo-records with which to constrain levels of atmospheric oxidants during past climate transitions...
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514152/hepatoprotective-properties-of-a-polyphenols-enriched-fraction-from-annona-crassiflora-mart-fruit-peel-against-diabetes-induced-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress
#10
Allisson B Justino, Mariana N Pereira, Leonardo G Peixoto, Danielle D Vilela, Douglas C Caixeta, Adriele V de Souza, Renata R Teixeira, Heitor C G Silva, Francyelle B R de Moura, Izabela B Moraes, Foued Salmen Espindola
A polyphenols-enriched fraction from Annona crassiflora fruit peel (Ac-Pef) containing chlorogenic acid, (epi)catechin, procyanidin B2 and caffeoyl-glucoside was investigated against hepatic oxidative and nitrosative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Serum biochemical parameters, hepatic oxidative and nitrosative status, glutathione defense system analysis, and in silico assessment of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) of the main compounds of Ac-Pef were carried out...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512791/peptide-functionalized-fluorescent-particles-for-in-situ-detection-of-nitric-oxide-via-peroxynitrite-mediated-nitration
#11
Jason Y H Chang, Lesley W Chow, W Michael Dismuke, C Ross Ethier, Molly M Stevens, W Daniel Stamer, Darryl R Overby
Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in modulating physiological homeostasis across multiple biological systems. NO dysregulation is linked to the pathogenesis of multiple diseases; therefore, its quantification is important for understanding pathophysiological processes. The detection of NO is challenging, typically limited by its reactive nature and short half-life. Additionally, the presence of interfering analytes and accessibility to biological fluids in the native tissues make the measurement technically challenging and often unreliable...
May 17, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509762/beetroot-juice-increases-human-muscle-force-without-changing-ca2-handling-proteins
#12
Jamie Whitfield, Daniel Gamu, George J F Heigenhauser, Luc J C van Loon, Lawrence L Spriet, A Russell Tupling, Graham P Holloway
Dietary inorganic nitrate (NO3) supplementation improves skeletal muscle (SkM) contractile efficiency, and while rodent literature has suggested improvements in calcium handling or redox modifications as likely explanations, the direct mechanism-of-action in humans remains unknown. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 7-d of beetroot juice (BRJ) supplementation on SkM contractile characteristics and function. METHODS: Recreationally active males (n=8) underwent transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation of the vastus lateralis for evaluation of contractile characteristics before (pre) and after (post) 7-d of BRJ supplementation (280 mL/day, ~26 mmol NO3)...
May 15, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509546/growth-of-nitrosococcus-related-ammonia-oxidizing-bacteria-coincides-with-extremely-low-ph-values-in-high-strength-nitrogen-wastewater
#13
Alexandra Fumasoli, Helmut Buergmann, David G Weissbrodt, George F Wells, Karin Beck, Joachim Mohn, Eberhard Morgenroth, Kai M Udert
Ammonia oxidation decreases the pH in wastewaters where the alkalinity is limited relative to the total ammonia. The activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), however, typically decreases with pH and often ceases completely in slightly acidic wastewaters. Nevertheless, low pH nitrification has been reported in reactors treating human urine, but it is not clear which organisms are involved. In this study, we followed the population dynamics of ammonia oxidizing organisms and reactor performance in synthetic, synthetic fully hydrolysed urine as the pH decreased over time in response to a decrease in the loading rate...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508372/effect-of-second-hand-tobacco-smoke-on-the-nitration-of-brain-proteins-a-systems-biology-and-bioinformatics-approach
#14
Firas H Kobeissy, Joy Guingab-Cagmat, Adriaan W Bruijnzeel, Mark S Gold, Kevin Wang
Second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure leads to the death of approximately 48,000 nonsmokers per year in the United States alone. SHS exposure has been associated with cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurodegenerative diseases. While cardiac function abnormalities and lung cancer due to SHS have been well characterized, brain injury due to SHS has not undergone a full systematic evaluation. Oxidative stress and nitration have been associated with smoking and SHS exposure. Animal studies suggest that exposure to tobacco smoke increases oxidative stress...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507041/publisher-s-note-relating-to-the-retraction-of-oxidative-stress-inactivates-vegf-survival-signaling-in-retinal-endothelial-cells-via-pi-3-kinase-tyrosine-nitration-azza-b-el-remessy-%C3%A2-manuela-bartoli-%C3%A2-danial-h-platt-%C3%A2-david-fulton-%C3%A2-ruth-b-caldwell-j-cell
#15
COMMENT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506130/fullerenol-nanoparticles-decrease-ischaemia-induced-brain-injury-and-oedema-through-inhibition-of-oxidative-damage-and-aquaporin-1-expression-in-ischaemic-stroke
#16
Shamsi Darabi, Mohammad Taghi Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: We examined the possible protective effects of fullerenol nanoparticles on brain injuries and oedema in experimental model of ischaemic stroke through inhibition of oxidative damage and aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) expression. METHODS: Experiment was done in three groups of rats (N = 66): sham, control ischaemia and ischaemic treatment. Ischaemia was induced by 90-minutes middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Rats received a dose of 10 mg/kg of fullerenol 30 minutes before MCAO...
May 16, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501483/reversal-of-bioenergetics-dysfunction-by-diphenyl-diselenide-is-critical-to-protection-against-the-acetaminophen-induced-acute-liver-failure
#17
Nélson R Carvalho, Cintia C Tassi, Fernando Dobraschinski, Guilherme P Amaral, Ana P Zemolin, Ronaldo M Golombieski, Cristiane L Dalla Corte, Jeferson L Franco, José L Mauriz, Javier González-Gallego, Félix A Soares
Physiopathological conditions such as acute liver failure (ALF) induced by acetaminophen (APAP) can often impair the mitochondrial bioenergetics. Diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] has been shown protects against APAP-induced ALF. The present study aimed to clarify the signaling mechanism involved in the protection of bioenergetics dysfunction associated with ALF-induced by APAP overdose. Mice received APAP (600mg/kg) or (PhSe)2 (15.6mg/kg) alone, or APAP+(PhSe)2, all the solutions were administered by the intraperitoneal (i...
May 10, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500760/the-opposite-effects-of-nitric-oxide-donor-s-nitrosoglutathione-on-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-mice
#18
Yi Liu, Chenhai Xia, Rutao Wang, Jinglong Zhang, Tao Yin, Yanzuo Ma, Ling Tao
Nitric oxide is a potent anti-apoptotic and cardioprotective molecule in healthy animals. However, Recent study demonstrates that overexpression of eNOS exacerbates the liver injury in diabetic animals. whether diabetes may also alter NO's biologic activity in ischemic/reperfused heart remains unknown. The present experiment was designed to determine whether the nitric oxide donor, S-nitrosoglutathione, may exert different effects on diabetic and non-diabetic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Diabetic state was induced in mice by multiple intraperitoneal injections of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)...
May 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499237/the-protective-effect-of-propofol-against-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-apoptosis-was-mediated-via-inhibiting-inos-no-production-and-maintaining-intracellular-ca-2-homeostasis-in-mouse-hippocampal-ht22-cells
#19
Zheng Xu, Yan Lu, Jiaqiang Wang, Xiaowei Ding, Jiawei Chen, Changhong Miao
AIM: Inflammation cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induces apoptosis in neuronal cells. We hypothesized that propofol may attenuate TNF-α-induced apoptosis in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells and aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Mouse hippocampal HT22 cells were pretreated with propofol, and then stimulated with TNF-α. Cell viability was measured by cell counting kit 8 (CCK8). Cell apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry analysis. The effect of propofol on TNF-α-modulated nitric oxide production was measured by a nitrate reductase assay kit, intracellular calcium release and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization were measured by flow cytometry analysis, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) family and caspases were detected by Western blot...
May 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497908/the-molybdenum-cofactor-enzyme-marc-moonlighting-or-promiscuous-enzyme
#20
REVIEW
Angel Llamas, Alejandro Chamizo-Ampudia, Manuel Tejada-Jimenez, Aurora Galvan, Emilio Fernandez
Molybdenum (Mo) is present in the active center of eukaryotic enzymes as a tricyclic pyranopterin chelate compound forming the Mo Cofactor (Moco). Four Moco containing enzymes are known in eukaryotes, nitrate reductase (NR), sulfite oxidase (SO), xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), and aldehyde oxidase (AO). A fifth Moco enzyme has been recently identified. Because of the ability of this enzyme to convert by reduction several amidoximes prodrugs into their active amino forms, it was named mARC (mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Component)...
May 12, 2017: BioFactors
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