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drosophila development

Min Zhu, Xiaolong Hu, Guangli Cao, Renyu Xue, Chengliang Gong
A large number of DNAs in eukaryote genomes can code for atypical transcripts, and their functions are controversial. It has been reported that the transcripts contain many small open reading frames (sORFs), which were originally considered as non-translatable RNAs. However, increasing evidence has suggested that some of these sORFs can encode for small peptides and some are conserved across large evolutionary distances. It has been reported that the small peptides have functions and may be involved in varieties of cellular processes, playing important roles in development, physiology, and metabolism...
June 16, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Desiree M Markantone, Atif Towheed, Aaron T Crain, Jessica M Collins, Alicia M Celotto, Michael J Palladino
Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies (MEs) result from mutations in mitochondrial genes critical to oxidative phosphorylation. Severe and untreatable ME results from mutations affecting each endogenous mitochondrial encoded gene, including all 13 established protein coding genes. Effective techniques to manipulate mitochondrial genome are limited and targeted mitochondrial protein expression is currently unavailable. Here we report the development of a mitochondrial-targeted RNA expression (mtTRES) vector capable of protein expression within mitochondria (mtTRESPro )...
June 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Sergio González-Itier, Esteban G Contreras, Juan Larraín, Álvaro Glavic, Fernando Faunes
Insect metamorphosis has been a classic model to understand the role of hormones in growth and timing of developmental transitions. In addition to hormones, transitions in some species are regulated by genetic programs, such as the heterochronic gene network discovered in C. elegans. However, the functional link between hormones and heterochronic genes is not clear. The heterochronic gene lin-28 is involved in the maintenance of stem cells, growth and developmental timing in vertebrates. In this work, we used gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments to study the role of Lin-28 in larval growth and the timing of metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster...
June 13, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Freja Scheys, Els Jm Van Damme, Kristof De Schutter, An Staes, Kris Gevaert, Guy Smagghe
N-glycosylation is one of the most abundant and conserved protein modifications in eukaryotes. The attachment of N-glycans to proteins can modulate their properties and influences numerous important biological processes, such as protein folding and cellular attachment. Recently, it has been shown that protein N-glycosylation plays a vital role in insect development and survival, which makes the glycans an interesting target for pest control. Despite the importance of protein N-glycosylation in insects, knowledge about insect N-glycoproteomes is scarce...
June 12, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Milda Mickute, Milda Nainyte, Lina Vasiliauskaite, Alexandra Plotnikova, Viktoras Masevicius, Saulius Klimašauskas, Giedrius Vilkaitis
S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent 2'-O-methylati-on of the 3'-terminal nucleotide plays important roles in biogenesis of eukaryotic small non-coding RNAs, such as siRNAs, miRNAs and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Here we demonstrate that, in contrast to Mg2+/Mn2+-dependent plant and bacterial homologues, the Drosophila DmHen1 and human HsHEN1 piRNA methyltransferases require cobalt cations for their enzymatic activity in vitro. We also show for the first time the capacity of the animal Hen1 to catalyse the transfer of a variety of extended chemical groups from synthetic analogues of the AdoMet cofactor onto a wide range (22-80 nt) of single-stranded RNAs permitting their 3'-terminal functionalization and labelling...
June 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Ayla Karatas, Emel Ozgumus Demir
Due to the increased interest shown in kefir, the present study examined its effects on some developmental characteristics in Drosophila. To compare the results related to kefir, another fermented product, i.e., yogurt, and the raw material of kefir, i.e., milk, were included in the experiment. All three foods were fed to Drosophila by addition to the medium. The results showed that the three foods delayed development in generations F1 and F2. In both generations, the number of adults was lower than that of the control group, but the comparison of the foods among themselves showed no significant difference...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Amandine Palandri, Elodie Martin, Maria Russi, Michael Rera, Hervé Tricoire, Véronique Monnier
Friedreich's ataxia (FA) is caused by reduced levels of frataxin, a highly conserved mitochondrial protein. There is currently no effective treatment for this disease, characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and cardiomyopathy, the latter being the most common cause of death in patients. We previously developed a Drosophila melanogaster cardiac model of FA, in which the fly frataxin is inactivated specifically in the heart, leading to heart dilatation and impaired systolic function. Methylene Blue (MB) was highly efficient to prevent these cardiac dysfunctions...
June 13, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Melanie Morris, Ariel Shaw, Madison Lambert, Haley Halperin Perry, Eve Lowenstein, David Valenzuela, Norma Andrea Velazquez-Ulloa
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women may be exposed to nicotine if they smoke or use tobacco products, nicotine replacement therapy, or via e-cigarettes. Prenatal nicotine exposure has been shown to have deleterious effects on the nervous system in mammals including changes in brain size and in the dopaminergic system. The genetic and molecular mechanisms for these changes are not well understood. A Drosophila melanogaster model for these effects of nicotine exposure could contribute to faster identification of genes and molecular pathways underlying these effects...
June 14, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Monalisa Mishra, Bedanta Kumar Barik
Developmental biology is a fascinating branch of science which helps us to understand the mechanism of development, thus the findings are used in various therapeutic approach. Drosophila melanogaster served as a model to find the key molecules that initiate and regulate the mechanism of development. Various genes, transcription factors, and signaling pathways helping in development are identified in Drosophila. Many toxic compounds, which can affect the development, are also recognized using Drosophila model...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Dong Li, Xiaolin Bi
Prenatal exposure to various environmental teratogens such as drugs, toxins, and infectious etiologies results in a wide range of developmental abnormalities, including growth deficiency, developmental delay, structural defects, functional CNS abnormalities, and fetal death. Here, we describe the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism for investigating teratogenic effects on embryonic development.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sofia Alves-Pimenta, Bruno Colaço, Paula A Oliveira, Carlos Venâncio
During pregnancy fetus can be exposed to a variety of chemicals which may induce abortion and malformations. Due to the amounts of new substances coming into the market every year, a high demand for a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective method to detect potential toxicity is necessary. Different species have been used as animal models for teratogen screening, most of them sharing similar development processes with humans. However, the application of embryology knowledge to teratology is hampered by the complexity of the reproduction processes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Holger Apitz, Iris Salecker
Visual motion detection in sighted animals is essential to guide behavioral actions ensuring their survival. In Drosophila, motion direction is first detected by T4/T5 neurons. Their axons innervate one of the four lobula plate layers. How T4/T5 neurons with layer-specific representation of motion-direction preferences are specified during development is unknown. We show that diffusible Wingless (Wg) between adjacent neuroepithelia induces its own expression to form secondary signaling centers. These activate Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signaling in adjacent lateral tertiary neuroepithelial domains dedicated to producing layer 3/4-specific T4/T5 neurons...
June 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Zohreh Fattahi, Taimoor I Sheikh, Luciana Musante, Memoona Rasheed, Ibrahim Ihsan Taskiran, Ricardo Harripaul, Hao Hu, Somayeh Kazeminasab, Muhammad Rizwan Alam, Masoumeh Hosseini, Farzaneh Larti, Zhila Ghaderi, Arzu Celik, Muhammad Ayub, Muhammad Ansar, Mohammad Haddadi, Thomas F Wienker, Hans Hilger Ropers, Kimia Kahrizi, John B Vincent, H Najmabadi
Exploring genes and pathways underlying Intellectual Disability (ID) provides insight into brain development and function, clarifying the complex puzzle of how cognition develops. As part of ongoing systematic studies to identify candidate ID genes, linkage analysis and next generation sequencing revealed ZBTB11, as a novel candidate ID gene. ZBTB11 encodes a less-studied transcription regulator and the two identified missense variants in this study may disrupt canonical Zn2+-binding residues of its C2H2 zinc finger domain, leading to possible altered DNA binding...
June 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Suyeun Kim, Taejoon Kim, Yuji Jeong, Saeyan Choi, Masamitsu Yamaguchi, Im-Soon Lee
The Drosophila nuclear receptor-binding SET domain protein (NSD) gene encodes the Drosophila ortholog of mammalian NSD family members that are important in many aspects of development and disease in humans. In this study, we observed that overexpression of Drosophila NSD in imaginal discs induces organ atrophy. Thus, to gain an understanding of the transcriptional regulation of the gene, we analyzed the NSD promoter region. First, we identified the presence of three putative DNA replication-related element (DRE) sequences in its promoter region, where DRE-binding factor (DREF) could bind for transcriptional activation...
May 2018: Genes & Genomics
Stephanie Post, Galina Karashchuk, John D Wade, Waseem Sajid, Pierre De Meyts, Marc Tatar
Insulin and IGF signaling (IIS) is a complex system that controls diverse processes including growth, development, metabolism, stress responses, and aging. Drosophila melanogaster IIS is propagated by eight Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs), homologs of both mammalian insulin and IGFs, with various spatiotemporal expression patterns and functions. DILPs 1-7 are thought to act through a single Drosophila insulin/IGF receptor, InR, but it is unclear how the DILPs thereby mediate a range of physiological phenotypes...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Sarah D Neuman, Arash Bashirullah
All animals must coordinate growth rate and timing of maturation to reach the appropriate final size. Here, we describe hobbit , a novel and conserved gene identified in a forward genetic screen for Drosophila animals with small body size. hobbit is highly conserved throughout eukaryotes, but its function remains unknown. We demonstrate that hobbit mutant animals have systemic growth defects because they fail to secrete insulin. Other regulated secretion events also fail in hobbit mutant animals, including mucin-like 'glue' protein secretion from the larval salivary glands...
June 11, 2018: Development
Mikiko Inaki, Ryo Hatori, Naotaka Nakazawa, Takashi Okumura, Tomoki Ishibashi, Junichi Kikuta, Masaru Ishii, Kenji Matsuno, Hisao Honda
Polarized epithelial morphogenesis is an essential process in animal development. While this process is mostly attributed to directional cell intercalation, it can also be induced by other mechanisms. Using live-imaging analysis and a three-dimensional vertex model, we identified 'cell sliding,' a novel mechanism driving epithelial morphogenesis, in which cells directionally change their position relative to their subjacent (posterior) neighbors by sliding in one direction. In Drosophila embryonic hindgut, an initial left-right (LR) asymmetry of the cell shape (cell chirality in three dimensions), which occurs intrinsically before tissue deformation, is converted through LR asymmetric cell sliding into a directional axial twisting of the epithelial tube...
June 12, 2018: ELife
Jung-Eun Park, Eun Ji Lee, Jung Kwan Kim, Youngsup Song, Jang Hyun Choi, Min-Ji Kang
Triglyceride homeostasis is a key process of normal development and is essential for the maintenance of energy metabolism. Dysregulation of this process leads to metabolic disorders such as obesity and hyperlipidemia. Here, we report a novel function of the Drosophila flightless-I (fliI) gene in lipid metabolism. Drosophila fliI mutants were resistant to starvation and showed increased levels of triglycerides in the fat body and intestine, whereas fliI overexpression decreased triglyceride levels. These flies suffered from metabolic stress indicated by increased levels of trehalose in hemolymph and enhanced phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α)...
June 12, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Henk Roelink
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) coordinates Zn2+ in a manner that resembles that of peptidases. The ability of Shh to undergo autoproteolytic processing is impaired in mutants that affect the Zn2+ coordination, while mutating residues essential for catalytic activity results in more stable forms of Shh. The residues involved in Zn2+ coordination in Shh are found to be mutated in some individuals with the congenital birth defect holoprosencephaly, demonstrating their importance in development. Highly conserved Shh domains are found in parts of some bacterial proteins that are members of the larger family of DD-peptidases, supporting the notion that Shh acts as a peptidase...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Yiwen Wang, Bernard Moussian, Elke Schaeffeler, Matthias Schwab, Anne T Nies
Solute carrier membrane transporters (SLCs) control cell exposure to small-molecule drugs, thereby contributing to drug efficacy and failure and/or adverse effects. Moreover, SLCs are genetically linked to various diseases. Hence, in-depth knowledge of SLC function is fundamental for a better understanding of disease pathophysiology and the drug development process. Given that the model organism Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) expresses SLCs, such as for the excretion of endogenous and toxic compounds by the hindgut and Malpighian tubules, equivalent to human intestine and kidney, this system appears to be a promising preclinical model to use to study human SLCs...
June 8, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
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