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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821769/patterns-of-transcriptional-parallelism-and-variation-in-the-developing-olfactory-system-of-drosophila-species
#1
Jia Wern Pan, Qingyun Li, Scott Barish, Sumie Okuwa, Songhui Zhao, Charles Soeder, Matthew Kanke, Corbin D Jones, Pelin Cayirlioglu Volkan
Organisms have evolved strikingly parallel phenotypes in response to similar selection pressures suggesting that there may be shared constraints limiting the possible evolutionary trajectories. For example, the behavioral adaptation of specialist Drosophila species to specific host plants can exhibit parallel changes in their adult olfactory neuroanatomy. We investigated the genetic basis of these parallel changes by comparing gene expression during the development of the olfactory system of two specialist Drosophila species to that of four other generalist species...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820389/hippo-pathway-brief-overview-of-its-relevance-in-cancer
#2
A L Zygulska, K Krzemieniecki, P Pierzchalski
The Hippo pathway is the major regulator of organ growth and proliferation. Described initially in Drosophila, it is now recognized as one of the most conserved molecular pathways in all metazoan. Recent studies have revealed the Hippo signalling pathway might contribute to tumorigenesis and cancer development. The core components of the Hippo pathway include the mammalian sterile 20-like kinases (MSTs), large tumour suppressor kinases (LATSs), the adaptor proteins Salvador homologue 1 (SAV1, also called WW45) and Mps One Binder kinase activator proteins...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819196/specialized-odorant-receptors-in-social-insects-that-detect-cuticular-hydrocarbon-cues-and-candidate-pheromones
#3
Gregory M Pask, Jesse D Slone, Jocelyn G Millar, Prithwiraj Das, Jardel A Moreira, Xiaofan Zhou, Jan Bello, Shelley L Berger, Roberto Bonasio, Claude Desplan, Danny Reinberg, Jürgen Liebig, Laurence J Zwiebel, Anandasankar Ray
Eusocial insects use cuticular hydrocarbons as components of pheromones that mediate social behaviours, such as caste and nestmate recognition, and regulation of reproduction. In ants such as Harpegnathos saltator, the queen produces a pheromone which suppresses the development of workers' ovaries and if she is removed, workers can transition to a reproductive state known as gamergate. Here we functionally characterize a subfamily of odorant receptors (Ors) with a nine-exon gene structure that have undergone a massive expansion in ants and other eusocial insects...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815537/from-heterochromatin-to-long-noncoding-rnas-in-drosophila-expanding-the-arena-of-gene-function-and-regulation
#4
Subhash C Lakhotia
Recent years have witnessed a remarkable interest in exploring the significance of pervasive noncoding transcripts in diverse eukaryotes. Classical cytogenetic studies using the Drosophila model system unraveled the perplexing attributes and "functions" of the "gene"-poor heterochromatin. Recent molecular studies in the fly model are likewise revealing the very diverse and significant roles played by long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in development, gene regulation, chromatin organization, cell and nuclear architecture, etc...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815502/flping-genes-on-and-off-in-drosophila
#5
Bonnie M Weasner, Jinjin Zhu, Justin P Kumar
The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been a favorite experimental system of developmental biologists for more than a century. One of the most attractive features of this model system is the clarity by which one can analyze mutant phenotypes. Most genes are found in single copies, and loss-of-function mutants often have obvious phenotypes that can be analyzed during development and in adulthood. As with all metazoans, a significant fraction of Drosophila genes are used during both embryonic and postembryonic development, and null mutants often die during embryogenesis thereby precluding the analysis of postembryonic tissues...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811312/myosin-ii-is-not-required-for-drosophila-tracheal-branch-elongation-and-cell-intercalation
#6
Amanda Ochoa-Espinosa, Stefan Harmansa, Emmanuel Caussinus, Markus Affolter
The Drosophila tracheal system consists of an interconnected network of monolayered epithelial tubes that ensures oxygen transport in the larval and adult body. During tracheal dorsal branch (DB) development, individual DBs elongate as a cluster of cells, led by tip cells at the front and trailing cells in the rear. Branch elongation is accompanied by extensive cell intercalation and cell lengthening of the trailing stalk cells. Although cell intercalation is governed by Myosin II (MyoII)-dependent forces during tissue elongation in the Drosophila embryo that lead to germ-band extension, it remained unclear whether MyoII plays a similar active role during tracheal branch elongation and intercalation...
August 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809832/phagocytosis-assay-for-apoptotic-cells-in-drosophila-embryos
#7
Saori Nonaka, Aki Hori, Yoshinobu Nakanishi, Takayuki Kuraishi
The molecular mechanisms underlying the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells need to be elucidated in more detail because of its role in immune and inflammatory intractable diseases. We herein developed an experimental method to investigate phagocytosis quantitatively using the fruit fly Drosophila, in which the gene network controlling engulfment reactions is evolutionally conserved from mammals. In order to accurately detect and count engulfing and un-engulfing phagocytes using whole animals, Drosophila embryos were homogenized to obtain dispersed cells including phagocytes and apoptotic cells...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809158/germ-cell-connectivity-enhances-cell-death-in-response-to-dna-damage-in-the-drosophila-testis
#8
Kevin L Lu, Yukiko M Yamashita
Two broadly known characteristics of germ cells in many organisms are their development as a 'cyst' of interconnected cells and their high sensitivity to DNA damage. Here we provide evidence that in the Drosophila testis, connectivity serves as a mechanism that confers to spermatogonia a high sensitivity to DNA damage. We show that all spermatogonia within a cyst die synchronously even when only a subset of them exhibit detectable DNA damage. Mutants of the fusome, an organelle that is known to facilitate intracyst communication, compromise synchronous spermatogonial death and reduces overall germ cell death...
August 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808138/an-ampk-dependent-regulatory-pathway-in-tau-mediated-toxicity
#9
Alessia Galasso, Charles S Cameron, Bruno G Frenguelli, Kevin G Moffat
Neurodegenerative tauopathies are characterized by accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates primarily degraded by autophagy.The 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is expressed in most cells, including neurons. Alongside its metabolic functions, it is also known to be activated in Alzheimer's brains, phosphorylate tau and be a critical autophagy activator. Whether it plays a neurotoxic or neuroprotective role remains unclear. Complexly in tauopathies, while stress conditions can result in AMPK activation enhancing tau-mediated toxicity, AMPK activation is not always concomitant with autophagic induction...
August 14, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807882/control-of-nucleus-positioning-in-mouse-oocytes
#10
REVIEW
Maria Almonacid, Marie-Emilie Terret, Marie-Hélène Verlhac
The position of the nucleus in a cell can instruct morphogenesis in some cases, conveying spatial and temporal information and abnormal nuclear positioning can lead to disease. In oocytes from worm, sea urchin, frog and some fish, nucleus position regulates embryo development, it marks the animal pole and in Drosophila it defines the future dorso-ventral axis of the embryo and of the adult body plan. However, in mammals, the oocyte nucleus is centrally located and does not instruct any future embryo axis. Yet an off-centre nucleus correlates with poor outcome for mouse and human oocyte development...
August 11, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802042/orco-mutagenesis-causes-loss-of-antennal-lobe-glomeruli-and-impaired-social-behavior-in-ants
#11
Waring Trible, Leonora Olivos-Cisneros, Sean K McKenzie, Jonathan Saragosti, Ni-Chen Chang, Benjamin J Matthews, Peter R Oxley, Daniel J C Kronauer
Life inside ant colonies is orchestrated with diverse pheromones, but it is not clear how ants perceive these social signals. It has been proposed that pheromone perception in ants evolved via expansions in the numbers of odorant receptors (ORs) and antennal lobe glomeruli. Here, we generate the first mutant lines in the clonal raider ant, Ooceraea biroi, by disrupting orco, a gene required for the function of all ORs. We find that orco mutants exhibit severe deficiencies in social behavior and fitness, suggesting they are unable to perceive pheromones...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798946/ex-vivo-ooplasmic-extract-from-developing-drosophila-oocytes-for-quantitative-tirf-microscopy-analysis
#12
Imre Gaspar, Anne Ephrussi
Understanding the dynamic behavior and the continuously changing composition of macromolecular complexes, subcellular structures and organelles is one of areas of active research in both cell and developmental biology, as these changes directly relate to function and subsequently to the development and homeostasis of the organism. Here, we demonstrate the use of the developing Drosophila oocyte to study dynamics of messenger ribonucleoprotein complexes (mRNPs) with high spatiotemporal resolution. The combination of Drosophila genetics with total internal reflection (TIRF) microscopy, image processing and data analysis gives insight into mRNP motility and composition dynamics with unprecedented precision...
July 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797121/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice-with-heterozygous-mutation-in-tmed2
#13
Wenyang Hou, Swati Gupta, Marie-Claude Beauchamp, Libin Yuan, Loydie A Jerome-Majewska
The transmembrane emp24 domain/p24 (TMED) family are essential components of the vesicular transport machinery. Members of the TMED family serve as cargo receptors implicated in selection and packaging of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal proteins into coatomer (COP) II coated vesicles for anterograde transport to the Golgi. Deletion or mutations of Tmed genes in yeast and Drosophila results in ER-stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR leads to expression of genes and proteins important for expanding the folding capacity of the ER, degrading misfolded proteins, and reducing the load of new proteins entering the ER...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796386/heat-shock-protein-70-from-a-thermotolerant-diptera-species-provides-higher-thermoresistance-to-drosophila-larvae-than-correspondent-endogenous-gene
#14
V Y Shilova, O G Zatsepina, D G Garbuz, S Y Funikov, E S Zelentsova, N G Schostak, A M Kulikov, M B Evgen'ev
Heat shock proteins (Hsp70s) from two Diptera species that drastically differ in their heat shock response and longevity were investigated. Drosophila melanogaster is characterized by the absence of Hsp70 and other hsps under normal conditions and the dramatic induction of hsp synthesis after temperature elevation. The other Diptera species examined belongs to the Stratiomyidae family (Stratiomys singularior) and exhibits high levels of inducible Hsp70 under normal conditions coupled with a thermotolerant phenotype and much longer lifespan...
August 10, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794168/notch-signaling-in-development-tissue-homeostasis-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Chris Siebel, Urban Lendahl
Notch signaling is an evolutionarily highly conserved signaling mechanism, but in contrast to signaling pathways such as Wnt, Sonic Hedgehog, and BMP/TGF-β, Notch signaling occurs via cell-cell communication, where transmembrane ligands on one cell activate transmembrane receptors on a juxtaposed cell. Originally discovered through mutations in Drosophila more than 100 yr ago, and with the first Notch gene cloned more than 30 yr ago, we are still gaining new insights into the broad effects of Notch signaling in organisms across the metazoan spectrum and its requirement for normal development of most organs in the body...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793250/mir-7-buffers-differentiation-in-the-developing-drosophila-visual-system
#16
Elizabeth E Caygill, Andrea H Brand
The 40,000 neurons of the medulla, the largest visual processing center of the Drosophila brain, derive from a sheet of neuroepithelial cells. During larval development, a wave of differentiation sweeps across the neuroepithelium, converting neuroepithelial cells into neuroblasts that sequentially express transcription factors specifying different neuronal cell fates. The switch from neuroepithelial cells to neuroblasts is controlled by a complex gene regulatory network and is marked by the expression of the proneural gene l'sc...
August 8, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791646/studying-nonproliferative-roles-for-egfr-signaling-in-tissue-morphogenesis-using-dorsal-closure-of-the-drosophila-embryo
#17
Bruce Reed, Nicholas Harden
For several decades, genetic analysis in Drosophila has made important contributions to the understanding of signaling by Egfr. Egfr has been well characterized with regard to its oncogenic potential but is also being studied for its roles in organismal development. We have recently developed dorsal closure of the Drosophila embryo as a system for characterizing Egfr regulation of events that do not involve proliferation, as no cell divisions occur during this process. Dorsal closure is essentially a developmental wound healing event with parallels to vertebrate developmental epithelial fusions such as neural tube closure and palate fusion...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790398/shedding-light-on-alzheimer-s-%C3%AE-amyloidosis-photosensitized-methylene-blue-inhibits-self-assembly-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptides-and-disintegrates-their-aggregates
#18
Byung Il Lee, Yoon Seok Suh, You Jung Chung, Kweon Yu, Chan Beum Park
Abnormal aggregation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides is a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In spite of numerous attempts to prevent the β-amyloidosis, no effective drugs for treating AD have been developed to date. Among many candidate chemicals, methylene blue (MB) has proved its therapeutic potential for AD in a number of in vitro and in vivo studies; but the result of recent clinical trials performed with MB and its derivative was negative. Here, with the aid of multiple photochemical analyses, we first report that photoexcited MB molecules can block Aβ42 aggregation in vitro...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782527/glue-protein-production-can-be-triggered-by-steroid-hormone-signaling-independent-of-the-developmental-program-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Yuya Kaieda, Ryota Masuda, Ritsuo Nishida, MaryJane Shimell, Michael B O'Connor, Hajime Ono
Steroid hormones regulate life stage transitions, allowing animals to appropriately follow a developmental timeline. During insect development, the steroid hormone ecdysone is synthesized and released in a regulated manner by the prothoracic gland (PG) and then hydroxylated to the active molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), in peripheral tissues. We manipulated ecdysteroid titers, through temporally controlled over-expression of the ecdysteroid-inactivating enzyme, CYP18A1, in the PG using the GeneSwitch-GAL4 system in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster...
August 4, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781712/trom-a-testing-based-method-for-finding-transcriptomic-similarity-of-biological-samples
#20
Wei Vivian Li, Yiling Chen, Jingyi Jessica Li
Comparative transcriptomics has gained increasing popularity in genomic research thanks to the development of high-throughput technologies including microarray and next-generation RNA sequencing that have generated numerous transcriptomic data. An important question is to understand the conservation and divergence of biological processes in different species. We propose a testing-based method TROM (Transcriptome Overlap Measure) for comparing transcriptomes within or between different species, and provide a different perspective, in contrast to traditional correlation analyses, about capturing transcriptomic similarity...
June 2017: Statistics in Biosciences
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