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drosophila development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450902/identification-and-expression-profiles-of-novel-odorant-binding-proteins-and-functional-analysis-of-obp99a-in-bactrocera-dorsalis
#1
Jing Zhang, Deye Luo, Peng Wu, Haozhe Li, Hongyu Zhang, Weiwei Zheng
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in insects are essential for mating and oviposition host selection. How these OBPs respond to different hosts at the mRNA level and their effects on behavior remain poorly characterized. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is a highly invasive agricultural pest with an extremely broad host range and high fecundity. Based on our previously constructed B. dorsalis transcriptome, six OBPs that were differentially expressed during three different physiological adult stages were identified...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448071/activating-embryonic-development-in-drosophila
#2
REVIEW
Emir E Avilés-Pagán, Terry L Orr-Weaver
The transition from oocyte to embryo marks the onset of development. This process requires complex regulation to link developmental signals with profound changes in mRNA translation, cell cycle control, and metabolism. This control is beginning to be understood for most organisms, and research in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has generated new insights. Recent findings have increased our understanding of the roles played by hormone and Ca 2+ signaling events as well as metabolic remodeling crucial for this transition...
February 12, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447906/cell-death-in-neural-precursor-cells-and-neurons-before-neurite-formation-prevents-the-emergence-of-abnormal-neural-structures-in-the-drosophila-optic-lobe
#3
Yusuke Hara, Tatsuya Sudo, Yu Togane, Hiromi Akagawa, Hidenobu Tsujimura
Programmed cell death is a conserved strategy for neural development both in vertebrates and invertebrates and is recognized at various developmental stages in the brain from neurogenesis to adulthood. To understand the development of the central nervous system, it is essential to reveal not only molecular mechanisms but also the role of neural cell death (Pinto-Teixeira et al., 2016). To understand the role of cell death in neural development, we investigated the effect of inhibition of cell death on optic lobe development...
February 12, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444894/morphometrics-of-complex-cell-shapes-lobe-contribution-elliptic-fourier-analysis-loco-efa
#4
Yara E Sánchez-Corrales, Matthew Hartley, Jop van Rooij, Athanasius F M Marée, Verônica A Grieneisen
Quantifying cell morphology is fundamental to the statistical study of cell populations, and can help unravel mechanisms underlying cell and tissue morphogenesis. Current methods, however, require extensive human intervention, are highly parameter sensitive, or produce metrics difficult to interpret biologically. We therefore developed a method, Lobe Contribution Elliptical Fourier Analysis (LOCO-EFA), which generates from digitalised 2D cell outlines meaningful descriptors that can be directly matched to morphological features...
February 14, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444420/perineurial-barrier-glia-physically-respond-to-alcohol-in-an-akap200-dependent-manner-to-promote-tolerance
#5
Sarah J Parkhurst, Pratik Adhikari, Jovana S Navarrete, Arièle Legendre, Miguel Manansala, Fred W Wolf
Ethanol is the most common drug of abuse. It exerts its behavioral effects by acting on widespread neural circuits; however, its impact on glial cells is less understood. We show that Drosophila perineurial glia are critical for ethanol tolerance, a simple form of behavioral plasticity. The perineurial glia form the continuous outer cellular layer of the blood-brain barrier and are the interface between the brain and the circulation. Ethanol tolerance development requires the A kinase anchoring protein Akap200 specifically in perineurial glia...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443109/methods-for-staging-pupal-periods-and-measurement-of-wing-pigmentation-of-drosophila-guttifera
#6
Yuichi Fukutomi, Keiji Matsumoto, Noriko Funayama, Shigeyuki Koshikawa
Diversified species of Drosophila (fruit fly) provide opportunities to study mechanisms of development and genetic changes responsible for evolutionary changes. In particular, the adult stage is a rich source of morphological traits for interspecific comparison, including wing pigmentation comparison. To study developmental differences among species, detailed observation and appropriate staging are required for precise comparison. Here we describe protocols for staging of pupal periods and quantification of wing pigmentation in a polka-dotted fruit fly, Drosophila guttifera...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443100/single-cell-resolution-fluorescence-live-imaging-of-drosophila-circadian-clocks-in-larval-brain-culture
#7
Virginie Sabado, Emi Nagoshi
The circadian pacemaker circuit orchestrates rhythmic behavioral and physiological outputs coordinated with environmental cues, such as day/night cycles. The molecular clock within each pacemaker neuron generates circadian rhythms in gene expression, which underlie the rhythmic neuronal functions essential to the operation of the circuit. Investigation of the properties of the individual molecular oscillators in different subclasses of pacemaker neurons and their interaction with neuronal signaling yields a better understanding of the circadian pacemaker circuit...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443094/in-vivo-imaging-of-muscle-tendon-morphogenesis-in-drosophila-pupae
#8
Sandra B Lemke, Frank Schnorrer
Muscles together with tendons and the skeleton enable animals including humans to move their body parts. Muscle morphogenesis is highly conserved from animals to humans. Therefore, the powerful Drosophila model system can be used to study concepts of muscle-tendon development that can also be applied to human muscle biology. Here, we describe in detail how morphogenesis of the adult muscle-tendon system can be easily imaged in living, developing Drosophila pupae. Hence, the method allows investigating proteins, cells and tissues in their physiological environment...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443051/detecting-anastasis-in-vivo-by-caspasetracker-biosensor
#9
Ho Man Tang, Ming Chiu Fung, Ho Lam Tang
Anastasis (Greek for "rising to life") is a recently discovered cell recovery phenomenon whereby dying cells can reverse late-stage cell death processes that are generally assumed to be intrinsically irreversible. Promoting anastasis could in principle rescue or preserve injured cells that are difficult to replace such as cardiomyocytes or neurons, thereby facilitating tissue recovery. Conversely, suppressing anastasis in cancer cells, undergoing apoptosis after anti-cancer therapies, may ensure cancer cell death and reduce the chances of recurrence...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442316/odd-paired-the-drosophila-zic-gene
#10
Deborah A Hursh, Brian G Stultz
Zinc finger in the cerebellum (Zic) proteins are a family of transcription factors with multiple roles during development, particularly in neural tissues. The founding member of the Zic family is the Drosophila odd-paired (opa) gene. The Opa protein has a DNA binding domain containing five Cys2His2-type zinc fingers and has been shown to act as a sequence-specific DNA binding protein. Opa has significant homology to mammalian Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 within the zinc finger domain and in two other conserved regions outside that domain...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440694/mutations-in-the-drosophila-homolog-of-human-pla2g6-give-rise-to-age-dependent-loss-of-psychomotor-activity-and-neurodegeneration
#11
Konstantin G Iliadi, Oxana B Gluscencova, Natalia Iliadi, Gabrielle L Boulianne
Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that typically begins within the first few years of life and leads to progressive impairment of movement and cognition. Several years ago, it was shown that >80% of patients with INAD have mutations in the phospholipase gene, PLA2G6. Interestingly, mutations in PLA2G6 are also causative in two other related neurodegenerative diseases, atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy and Dystonia-parkinsonism. While all three disorders give rise to similar defects in movement and cognition, some defects are unique to a specific disorder...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437009/the-bhlh-protein-nulp1-is-essential-for-femur-development-via-acting-as-a-cofactor-in-wnt-signaling-in-drosophila
#12
Q Zeng, Y Wan, P Zhu, M Zhao, F Jiang, J Chen, M Tang, X Zhu, Y Li, H Zha, Y Wang, M Hu, X Mo, Y Zhang, Y Deng, Y Chen, X Fan, Y Chen, X Ye, R Bodmer, K Ocorr, Z Jiang, J Zhuang, W Yuan, X Wu
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein families are a large class of transcription factors, which are associated with cell proliferation, tissue differentiation, and other important development process. We reported that the Nuclear localized protein-1 (Nulp1) might act as a novel bHLH transcriptional factor to mediate cellular functions. However, its role in development in vivo remains unknown. Here we show that Drosophila Nulp1 (dNulp1) mutants, generated by CRISPR/Cas9 targeting the Domain of Unknown Function (DUF654) in its C terminal, are partially homozygous lethal and the rare escapers have bent femurs, which are similar to the major manifestation of congenital bent-bone dysplasia in human Stuve-Weidemann syndrome...
February 12, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435938/transgene-like-animal-models-using-intronic-micrornas
#13
Shi-Lung Lin, Shin-Ju E Chang, Shao-Yao Ying
Transgenic animal models are valuable tools for testing gene functions and drug mechanisms in vivo. They are also the best similitude for a human body for etiological and pathological research of diseases. All pharmaceutically developed medicines must be proven to be safe and effective in animals before approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in clinical trials. To this end, the transgenic animal models of diseases serve as the front line of drug evaluation. However, there is currently no transgenic animal model for microRNA (miRNA)-related research...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432976/epigenomic-and-genomic-landscape-of-drosophila-melanogaster-heterochromatic-genes
#14
Parna Saha, Divya Tej Sowpati, Rakesh K Mishra
Heterochromatin is associated with transcriptional repression. In contrast, several genes in the pericentromeric regions of Drosophila melanogaster are dependent on this heterochromatic environment for their expression. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the epigenetic landscape of heterochromatic genes across all the developmental stages of Drosophila using the available histone modification and expression data from modENCODE. We find that heterochromatic genes exhibit combinations of active and inactive histone marks that correspond to their level of expression during development...
February 9, 2018: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432563/traumatic-injury-induces-stress-granule-formation-and-enhances-motor-dysfunctions-in-als-ftd-models
#15
Eric N Anderson, Lauren Gochenaur, Aditi Singh, Rogan Grant, Krishani Patel, Simon Watkins, Jane Y Wu, Udai Bhan Pandey
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been predicted to be a predisposing factor for Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other neurological disorders. Despite the importance of TBI in ALS progression, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are still an enigma. Here, we examined the contribution of TBI as an extrinsic factor and investigated if TBI influences the susceptibility of developing neurodegenerative symptoms. To evaluate the effects of TBI in vivo, we applied mild to severe trauma to Drosophila and found that TBI leads to the induction of stress granules (SGs) in the brain...
February 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429875/molecular-mechanistic-insights-into-drosophila-dhx36-mediated-g-quadruplex-unfolding-a-structure-based-model
#16
Wei-Fei Chen, Stephane Rety, Hai-Lei Guo, Yang-Xue Dai, Wen-Qiang Wu, Na-Nv Liu, Daniel Auguin, Qian-Wen Liu, Xi-Miao Hou, Shuo-Xing Dou, Xu-Guang Xi
Helicase DHX36 plays essential roles in cell development and differentiation at least partially by resolving G-quadruplex (G4) structures. Here we report crystal structures of the Drosophila homolog of DHX36 (DmDHX36) in complex with RNA and a series of DNAs. By combining structural, small-angle X-ray scattering, molecular dynamics simulation, and single-molecule fluorescence studies, we revealed that positively charged amino acids in RecA2 and OB-like domains constitute an elaborate structural pocket at the nucleic acid entrance, in which negatively charged G4 DNA is tightly bound and partially destabilized...
January 29, 2018: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428618/robustness-of-expression-pattern-formation-due-to-dynamic-equilibrium-in-gap-gene-system-of-an-early-drosophila-embryo
#17
Ekaterina Myasnikova, Alexander Spirov
The first manifestation of a segmentation pattern in the early Drosophila development is the formation of expression domains of genes belonging to the gap class. In our previous research the phenomenon of the gap system's robustness, exhibited as the ability to reduce highly variable gene expression in the course of development, was explained as a result of gene cross-regulation. In this paper we formulate the rigorous robustness conditions using the inherent properties of gap gene family. We propose an approach based on the observation that for the formation of a pattern with well-established domain borders it is necessary that there exist a stationary nucleus in which the gene expression level is almost constant in time...
February 8, 2018: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424688/a-sleep-state-in-drosophila-larvae-required-for-neural-stem-cell-proliferation
#18
Milan Szuperak, Matthew A Churgin, Austin J Borja, David M Raizen, Christopher Fang-Yen, Matthew S Kayser
Sleep during development is involved in refining brain circuitry, but a role for sleep in the earliest periods of nervous system elaboration, when neurons are first being born, has not been explored. Here we identify a sleep state in Drosophila larvae that coincides with a major wave of neurogenesis. Mechanisms controlling larval sleep are partially distinct from adult sleep: octopamine, the Drosophila analog of mammalian norepinephrine, is the major arousal neuromodulator in larvae, but dopamine is not required...
February 9, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424424/adult-specific-insulin-producing-neurons-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Yuya Ohhara, Satoru Kobayashi, Kimiko Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Naoki Yamanaka
Holometabolous insects undergo metamorphosis to reorganize their behavioral and morphological features into adult-specific ones. In the central nervous system (CNS), some larval neurons undergo programmed cell death, whereas others go through remodeling of axonal and dendritic arbors to support functions of re-established adult organs. Although there are multiple neuropeptides that have stage-specific roles in holometabolous insects, the reorganization pattern of the entire neuropeptidergic system through metamorphosis still remains largely unclear...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423937/mutually-exclusive-alternative-splicing-of-pre-mrnas
#20
REVIEW
Yongfeng Jin, Haiyang Dong, Yang Shi, Lina Bian
Pre-mRNA alternative splicing is an important mechanism used to expand protein diversity in higher eukaryotes, and mutually exclusive splicing is a specific type of alternative splicing in which only one of the exons in a cluster is included in functional transcripts. The most extraordinary example of this is the Drosophila melanogaster Down's syndrome cell adhesion molecule gene (Dscam), which potentially encodes 38,016 different isoforms through mutually exclusive splicing. Mutually exclusive splicing is a unique and challenging model that can be used to elucidate the evolution, regulatory mechanism, and function of alternative splicing...
February 9, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
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