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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214893/the-role-of-netrins-and-their-receptors-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-plasticity-during-development
#1
Michael J Murray
Transitions between mesenchymal and epithelial cells are underpinned by changes in motility, adhesion, and polarity. Netrins and their receptors can control each of these cellular properties, and are emerging as important regulators of epithelial mesenchymal plasticity (EMP). Netrins were first identified in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as secreted chemoattractants/repellents that could guide migrating mesodermal cells and axonal growth cones. Orthologues were subsequently found to play conserved roles in vertebrates and in the vinegar fly Drosophila...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214560/mitochondrial-genotype-modulates-mtdna-copy-number-and-organismal-phenotype-in-drosophila
#2
Tiina S Salminen, Marcos T Oliveira, Giuseppe Cannino, Päivi Lillsunde, Howard T Jacobs, Laurie S Kaguni
We evaluated the role of natural mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation on mtDNA copy number, biochemical features and life history traits in Drosophila cybrid strains. We demonstrate the effects of both coding region and non-coding A+T region variation on mtDNA copy number, and demonstrate that copy number correlates with mitochondrial biochemistry and metabolically important traits such as development time. For example, high mtDNA copy number correlates with longer development times. Our findings support the hypothesis that mtDNA copy number is modulated by mtDNA genome variation and suggest that it affects OXPHOS efficiency through changes in the organization of the respiratory membrane complexes to influence organismal phenotype...
February 15, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213553/automated-cell-tracking-identifies-mechanically-oriented-cell-divisions-during-drosophila-axis-elongation
#3
Michael F Z Wang, Miranda Hunter, Gang Wang, Christopher McFaul, Christopher M Yip, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez
Embryos extend their anterior-posterior (AP) axis in the conserved process of axis elongation. Drosophila axis elongation occurs in an epithelial monolayer, the germband, and is driven by cell intercalation, cell shape changes, and oriented cell divisions at the posterior germband. Anterior germband cells also divide during axis elongation. We developed image analysis and pattern recognition methods to track dividing cells from confocal microscopy movies in a generally-applicable approach. Mesectoderm cells, forming the ventral midline, divided parallel to the AP axis, while lateral cells displayed a uniform distribution of division orientations...
February 17, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213359/methylation-of-the-phosphatase-transcription-activator-eya1-by-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-1-mechanistic-functional-and-structural-studies
#4
Xingguo Li, Allison Eberhardt, Jeanne N Hansen, Dirk Bohmann, Haitao Li, Nina F Schor
The eyes absent (EYA) family proteins are conserved transcriptional coactivators with intrinsic protein phosphatase activity. They play an essential role in the development of various organs in metazoans. These functions are associated with a unique combination of phosphatase and transactivation activities. However, it remains poorly understood how these activities and the consequent biologic functions of EYA are regulated. Here, we demonstrate that 2 conserved arginine residues, R304 and R306, of EYA1 are essential for its in vitro phosphatase activity and in vivo function during Drosophila eye development...
February 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211869/non-apoptotic-cell-death-in-animal-development
#5
REVIEW
Lena M Kutscher, Shai Shaham
Programmed cell death (PCD) is an important process in the development of multicellular organisms. Apoptosis, a form of PCD characterized morphologically by chromatin condensation, membrane blebbing, and cytoplasm compaction, and molecularly by the activation of caspase proteases, has been extensively investigated. Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, mice, and the developing chick have revealed, however, that developmental PCD also occurs through other mechanisms, morphologically and molecularly distinct from apoptosis...
February 17, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211790/flpstop-a-tool-for-conditional-gene-control-in-drosophila
#6
Yvette Erica Fisher, Helen H Yang, Jesse Isaacman-Beck, Marjorie Xie, Daryl M Gohl, Thomas R Clandinin
Manipulating gene function cell type-specifically is a common experimental goal in Drosophila research and has been central to studies of neural development, circuit computation, and behavior. However, current cell type-specific gene disruption techniques in flies often reduce gene activity incompletely or rely on cell division. Here we describe FlpStop, a generalizable tool for conditional gene disruption and rescue in post-mitotic cells. In proof-of-principle experiments, we manipulated apterous, a regulator of wing development...
February 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209644/mitochondrial-dysfunction-induces-dendritic-loss-via-eif2%C3%AE-phosphorylation
#7
Taiichi Tsuyama, Asako Tsubouchi, Tadao Usui, Hiromi Imamura, Tadashi Uemura
Mitochondria are key contributors to the etiology of diseases associated with neuromuscular defects or neurodegeneration. How changes in cellular metabolism specifically impact neuronal intracellular processes and cause neuropathological events is still unclear. We here dissect the molecular mechanism by which mitochondrial dysfunction induced by Prel aberrant function mediates selective dendritic loss in Drosophila melanogaster class IV dendritic arborization neurons. Using in vivo ATP imaging, we found that neuronal cellular ATP levels during development are not correlated with the progression of dendritic loss...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209589/second-generation-drosophila-chemical-tags-sensitivity-versatility-and-speed
#8
Ben Sutcliffe, Julian Ng, Thomas O Auer, Mathias Pasche, Richard Benton, Gregory S X E Jefferis, Sebastian Cachero
Labeling and visualizing cells and subcellular structures within thick tissues, whole organs and even intact animals is key to studying biological processes. This is particularly true for studies of neural circuits where neurons form submicron synapses but have arbors that may span millimeters in length. Traditionally, labeling is achieved by immunofluorescence; however diffusion of antibody molecules (>100 kDa) is slow and often results in uneven labeling with very poor penetration into the centre of thick specimens; these limitations can be partially addressed by extending staining protocols to over a week (Drosophila brain) and months (mice)...
February 16, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207183/combining-the-auxin-inducible-degradation-system-with-crispr-cas9-based-genome-editing-for-the-conditional-depletion-of-endogenous-drosophila-melanogaster-proteins
#9
Melinda Bence, Ferenc Jankovics, Tamás Lukácsovich, Miklós Erdélyi
Inducible protein degradation techniques have considerable advantages over classical genetic approaches, which generate loss-of-function phenotypes at the gene or mRNA level. The plant-derived auxin-inducible degradation system (AID) is a promising technique which enables the degradation of target proteins tagged with the AID motif in non-plant cells. Here, we present a detailed characterization of this method employed during the adult oogenesis of Drosophila. Furthermore, with the help of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing, we improve the utility of the AID system in the conditional elimination of endogenously expressed proteins...
February 16, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206686/nte-pnpla6-is-expressed-in-mature-schwann-cells-and-is-required-for-glial-ensheathment-of-remak-fibers
#10
Janis McFerrin, Bruce L Patton, Elizabeth R Sunderhaus, Doris Kretzschmar
Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) or patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 6 (PNPLA6) was first linked with a neuropathy occurring after organophosphate poisoning and was later also found to cause complex syndromes when mutated, which can include mental retardation, spastic paraplegia, ataxia, and blindness. NTE/PNPLA6 is widely expressed in neurons but experiments with its Drosophila orthologue Swiss-cheese (SWS) suggested that it may also have glial functions. Investigating whether NTE/PNPLA6 is expressed in glia, we found that NTE/PNPLA6 is expressed by Schwann cells in the sciatic nerve of adult mice with the most prominent expression in nonmyelinating Schwann cells...
February 16, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205624/the-small-molecule-auten-99-autophagy-enhancer-99-prevents-the-progression-of-neurodegenerative-symptoms
#11
Tibor Kovács, Viktor Billes, Marcell Komlós, Bernadette Hotzi, Anna Manzéger, Anna Tarnóci, Diána Papp, Fanni Szikszai, Janka Szinyákovics, Ákos Rácz, Béla Noszál, Szilvia Veszelka, Fruzsina R Walter, Mária A Deli, Laszlo Hackler, Robert Alfoldi, Orsolya Huzian, Laszlo G Puskas, Hanna Liliom, Krisztián Tárnok, Katalin Schlett, Adrienn Borsy, Ervin Welker, Attila L Kovács, Zsolt Pádár, Attila Erdős, Adam Legradi, Annamaria Bjelik, Károly Gulya, Balázs Gulyás, Tibor Vellai
Autophagy functions as a main route for the degradation of superfluous and damaged constituents of the cytoplasm. Defects in autophagy are implicated in the development of various age-dependent degenerative disorders such as cancer, neurodegeneration and tissue atrophy, and in accelerated aging. To promote basal levels of the process in pathological settings, we previously screened a small molecule library for novel autophagy-enhancing factors that inhibit the myotubularin-related phosphatase MTMR14/Jumpy, a negative regulator of autophagic membrane formation...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205321/an-investigative-graduate-laboratory-course-for-teaching-modern-dna-techniques
#12
Alexandre de Lencastre, A Thomas Torello, Lani C Keller
This graduate-level DNA methods laboratory course is designed to model a discovery-based research project and engages students in both traditional DNA analysis methods and modern recombinant DNA cloning techniques. In the first part of the course, students clone the Drosophila ortholog of a human disease gene of their choosing using Gateway(®) cloning. In the second part of the course, students examine the expression of their gene of interest in human cell lines by reverse transcription PCR and learn how to analyze data from quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments...
February 16, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199840/citron-kinase-deficiency-leads-to-chromosomal-instability-and-tp53-sensitive-microcephaly
#13
Federico Tommaso Bianchi, Chiara Tocco, Gianmarco Pallavicini, Yifan Liu, Fiammetta Vernì, Chiara Merigliano, Silvia Bonaccorsi, Nadia El-Assawy, Lorenzo Priano, Marta Gai, Gaia Elena Berto, Alessandra Maria Adelaide Chiotto, Francesco Sgrò, Alessia Caramello, Laura Tasca, Ugo Ala, Francesco Neri, Salvatore Oliviero, Alessandro Mauro, Stephan Geley, Maurizio Gatti, Ferdinando Di Cunto
Mutations in citron (CIT), leading to loss or inactivation of the citron kinase protein (CITK), cause primary microcephaly in humans and rodents, associated with cytokinesis failure and apoptosis in neural progenitors. We show that CITK loss induces DNA damage accumulation and chromosomal instability in both mammals and Drosophila. CITK-deficient cells display "spontaneous" DNA damage, increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation, and defective recovery from radiation-induced DNA lesions. In CITK-deficient cells, DNA double-strand breaks increase independently of cytokinesis failure...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199832/age-related-changes-in-insulin-like-signaling-lead-to-intermediate-term-memory-impairment-in-drosophila
#14
Kento Tanabe, Motoyuki Itoh, Ayako Tonoki
Insulin and insulin-growth-factor-like signaling (IIS) plays important roles in the regulation of development, growth, metabolic homeostasis, and aging, as well as in brain functions such as learning and memory. The temporal-spatial role of IIS in learning and memory and its effect on age-dependent memory impairment remain unclear. Here, we report that intermediate-term memory (ITM), but not short-term memory (STM), in Drosophila aversive olfactory memory requires transient IIS during adulthood. The expression of Drosophila insulin-like peptide 3 (Dilp3) in insulin-producing cells and insulin receptor function in the fat body are essential for ITM...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198506/inhibition-of-mitochondrial-calcium-uptake-1-in-drosophila-neurons
#15
P G M'Angale, B E Staveley
The mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 (MICU1) is a regulatory subunit of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter that plays an important role in calcium sensing. It contains two EF-hand domains that are well conserved across diverse species from protozoa to plants and metazoans. The loss of MICU1 function in mammals is attributed to several neurological disorders that involve movement dysfunction. The CG4495 gene in Drosophila melanogaster was identified as a putative homolog of MICU1 in the HomoloGene database of the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)...
February 8, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197917/sumo-in-drosophila-development
#16
Joseph Cao, Albert J Courey
The ubiquitin -like protein SUMO is conjugated covalently to hundreds of target proteins in organisms throughout the eukaryotic domain. Genetic and biochemical studies using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster are beginning to reveal many essential functions for SUMO in cell biology and development. For example, SUMO regulates multiple signaling pathways such as the Ras/MAPK, Dpp, and JNK pathways. In addition, SUMO regulates transcription through conjugation to many transcriptional regulatory proteins, including Bicoid, Spalt , Scm, and Groucho...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196412/mapk3-at-the-autism-linked-human-16p11-2-locus-influences-precise-synaptic-target-selection-at-drosophila-larval-neuromuscular-junctions
#17
Sang Mee Park, Hae Ryoun Park, Ji Hye Lee
Proper synaptic function in neural circuits requires precise pairings between correct pre- and post-synaptic partners. Errors in this process may underlie development of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Development of ASD can be influenced by genetic factors, including copy number variations (CNVs). In this study, we focused on a CNV occurring at the 16p11.2 locus in the human genome and investigated potential defects in synaptic connectivity caused by reduced activities of genes located in this region at Drosophila larval neuromuscular junctions, a well-established model synapse with stereotypic synaptic structures...
February 15, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195572/dna-methylation-as-a-putative-mechanism-for-reduced-dendritic-spine-density-in-the-superior-temporal-gyrus-of-subjects-with-schizophrenia
#18
B McKinney, Y Ding, D A Lewis, R A Sweet
Reduced dendritic spine density (DSD) in cortical layer 3 of the superior temporal gyrus (STG), and multiple other brain regions, is consistently observed in postmortem studies of schizophrenia (SZ). Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of this intermediate phenotype holds promise for understanding SZ pathophysiology, identifying SZ treatment targets and developing animal models. DNA methylation (DNAm), the addition of a methyl group to a cytosine nucleotide, regulates gene transcription and is a strong candidate for such a mechanism...
February 14, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195429/double-stranded-rna-delivery-through-soaking-mediates-silencing-of-the-muscle-protein-20-and-increases-mortality-to-the-asian-citrus-psyllid-diaphorina-citri
#19
Xiudao Yu, Gowda Siddarame, Nabil Killiny
BACKGROUND: Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the most important economic pest of citrus because it transmits Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB). Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising approach for controlling D. citri. RNAi-based insect management strategies depend on the selection of suitable target genes. RESULTS: The muscle protein 20 gene DcMP20 was characterized from D. citri in an effort to impair proper muscle development through RNAi...
February 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195208/a-pupal-transcriptomic-screen-identifies-ral-as-a-target-of-store-operated-calcium-entry-in-drosophila-neurons
#20
Shlesha Richhariya, Siddharth Jayakumar, Katharine Abruzzi, Michael Rosbash, Gaiti Hasan
Transcriptional regulation by Store-operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) is well studied in non-excitable cells. However, the role of SOCE has been poorly documented in neuronal cells with more complicated calcium dynamics. Previous reports demonstrated a requirement for SOCE in neurons that regulate Drosophila flight bouts. We refine this requirement temporally to the early pupal stage and use RNA-sequencing to identify SOCE mediated gene expression changes in the developing Drosophila pupal nervous system. Down regulation of dStim, the endoplasmic reticular calcium sensor and a principal component of SOCE in the nervous system, altered the expression of 131 genes including Ral, a small GTPase...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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