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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668013/drosophila-relics-hobo-and-hobo-mites-transposons-as-raw-material-for-new-regulatory-networks
#1
Elgion L S Loreto, Maríndia Deprá, José F Diesel, Yanina Panzera, Vera Lucia S Valente-Gaiesky
Hypermutable strains of Drosophila simulans have been studied for 20 years. Several mutants were isolated and characterized, some of which had phenotypes associated with alteration in development; for example, showing ectopic legs with eyes being expressed in place of antennae. The causal agent of this hypermutability is a non-autonomous hobo-related sequence (hoboVA). Around 100 mobilizable copies of this element are present in the D. simulans genome, and these are likely mobilized by the autonomous and canonical hobo element...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667128/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-protects-and-prevents-paraquat-induced-oxidative-stress-and-neurodegeneration-in-knockdown-dj-1-%C3%AE-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Daniel A Martinez-Perez, Marlene Jimenez-Del-Rio, Carlos Velez-Pardo
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a polyhydroxyphenol constituent of green tea (e.g., Camellia sinensis) with known antioxidant properties. Due to these properties, others have proposed it as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previously, we demonstrated that EGCG prolonged the lifespan and locomotor activity in wild-type Canton-S flies exposed to the neurotoxicant paraquat (PQ), suggesting neuroprotective properties. Both gene mutations and environmental neurotoxicants (e...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666795/cell-chirality-drives-left-right-asymmetric-morphogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Mikiko Inaki, Takeshi Sasamura, Kenji Matsuno
Most macromolecules found in cells are chiral, meaning that they cannot be superimposed onto their mirror image. However, cells themselves can also be chiral, a subject that has received little attention until very recently. In our studies on the mechanisms of left-right (LR) asymmetric development in Drosophila , we discovered that cells can have an intrinsic chirality to their structure, and that this "cell chirality" is generally responsible for the LR asymmetric development of certain organs in this species...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666236/synthetically-engineered-medea-gene-drive-system-in-the-worldwide-crop-pest-drosophila-suzukii
#4
Anna Buchman, John M Marshall, Dennis Ostrovski, Ting Yang, Omar S Akbari
Synthetic gene drive systems possess enormous potential to replace, alter, or suppress wild populations of significant disease vectors and crop pests; however, their utility in diverse populations remains to be demonstrated. Here, we report the creation of a synthetic Medea gene drive system in a major worldwide crop pest, Drosophila suzukii We demonstrate that this drive system, based on an engineered maternal "toxin" coupled with a linked embryonic "antidote," is capable of biasing Mendelian inheritance rates with up to 100% efficiency...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666197/linking-developmental-diet-to-adult-foraging-choice-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Lucy Rebecca Davies, Mads F Schou, Torsten N Kristensen, Volker Loeschcke
Rather than maximizing intake of available macronutrients, insects increase intake of some nutrients and restrict intake of others. This selective consumption influences, and potentially optimizes developmental time, reproduction and lifespan of the organism. Studies so far have focused on discriminating between protein and carbohydrate and the consequences on fitness components at different life stages. However, it is largely unknown if and how the developmental diets, which may entail habitat specific nutrient restrictions, affect the selective consumption of adults...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666195/effect-of-larval-nutrition-on-maternal-mrna-contribution-to-the-drosophila-egg
#6
Amanda E Crofton, Emily L Cartwright, Anna A Feitzinger, Susan E Lott
Embryonic development begins under the control of maternal gene products, mRNAs and proteins that the mother deposits into the egg; the zygotic genome is activated some time later. Maternal control of early development is conserved across metazoans. Gene products contributed by mothers are critical to many early developmental processes, and set up trajectories for the rest of development. Maternal deposition of these factors is an often-overlooked aspect of parental investment. If the mother experiences challenging environmental conditions, such as poor nutrition, previous studies in Drosophila melanogaster have demonstrated a plastic response wherein these mothers may produce larger eggs to buffer the offspring against the same difficult environment...
April 17, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665857/the-htlv-1-oncoprotein-tax-is-modified-by-the-ubiquitin-related-modifier-1-urm1
#7
Rita Hleihel, Behzad Khoshnood, Ingrid Dacklin, Hayssam Omran, Carine Mouawad, Zeina Dassouki, Marwan El-Sabban, Margret Shirinian, Caroline Grabbe, Ali Bazarbachi
BACKGROUND: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy secondary to chronic human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 infection, triggered by the virally encoded oncoprotein Tax. The transforming activity and subcellular localization of Tax is strongly influenced by posttranslational modifications, among which ubiquitylation and SUMOylation have been identified as key regulators of the nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling of Tax, as well as its ability to activate NF-κB signaling...
April 17, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665376/insect-cell-produced-recombinant-protein-subunit-vaccines-protect-against-zika-virus-infection
#8
Panke Qu, Wei Zhang, Dapeng Li, Chao Zhang, Qingwei Liu, Xueyang Zhang, Xuesong Wang, Wenlong Dai, Yongfen Xu, Qibin Leng, Jin Zhong, Xia Jin, Zhong Huang
Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) may lead to severe neurologic disorders. It is of significant importance and urgency to develop safe and effective vaccines to prevent ZIKV infection. Here we report the development of ZIKV subunit vaccines based on insect cell-produced recombinant proteins. The N-terminal approximately 80% region (designated as E80) and the domain III (designated as EDIII) of ZIKV envelope (E) protein were efficiently produced as secreted proteins in a Drosophila S2 cell expression system. Both E80 and EDIII could inhibit ZIKV infection in vitro, suggesting that they may have folded properly to display native conformations...
April 14, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663194/centrosome-inheritance-does-not-regulate-cell-fate-in-granule-neuron-progenitors-of-the-developing-cerebellum
#9
Anindo Chatterjee, Kaviya Chinnappa, Narendrakumar Ramanan, Shyamala Mani
An inherent asymmetry exists between the two centrosomes of a dividing cell. One centrosome is structurally more mature (mother centrosome) than the other (daughter centrosome). Post division, one daughter cell inherits the mother centrosome while the other daughter cell inherits the daughter centrosome. Remarkably, the kind of centrosome inherited is associated with cell fate in several developmental contexts such as in radial glial progenitors in the developing mouse cortex, Drosophila neuroblast divisions and in Drosophila male germline stem cells...
April 16, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662087/accurate-identification-of-rna-editing-sites-from-primitive-sequence-with-deep-neural-networks
#10
Zhangyi Ouyang, Feng Liu, Chenghui Zhao, Chao Ren, Gaole An, Chuan Mei, Xiaochen Bo, Wenjie Shu
RNA editing is a post-transcriptional RNA sequence alteration. Current methods have identified editing sites and facilitated research but require sufficient genomic annotations and prior-knowledge-based filtering steps, resulting in a cumbersome, time-consuming identification process. Moreover, these methods have limited generalizability and applicability in species with insufficient genomic annotations or in conditions of limited prior knowledge. We developed DeepRed, a deep learning-based method that identifies RNA editing from primitive RNA sequences without prior-knowledge-based filtering steps or genomic annotations...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660410/the-spatial-and-developmental-expression-of-mouse-vwa8-von-willebrand-domain-containing-protein-8
#11
Brian S Grewe, Janet E Richmond, David E Featherstone
The Drosophila gene c12.2 was isolated in a screen examining mRNA binding proteins. Drosophila c12.2 is the mouse Vwa8 homolog. Various genome-wide associated studies have linked human Vwa8 to both neurological and oncological pathologies, which include autism, bipolar disorder, comorbid migraine, and acute myeloid leukemia, however, the function and role of the VWA8 protein remain poorly understood. To further analyze the Vwa8 gene in mouse, gene structure, protein homology modeling, and gene expression patterns were examined throughout mouse development...
April 13, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660312/the-egf-ras-pathway-controls-growth-in-drosophila-via-ribosomal-rna-synthesis
#12
Shrivani Sriskanthadevan-Pirahas, Joshua Lee, Savraj S Grewal
The Ras small G-protein is a conserved regulator of cell and tissue growth during animal development. Studies in Drosophila have shown how Ras can stimulate a Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway to control cell growth and proliferation in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. This work has also defined several transcription factors that can function as downstream growth effectors of EGF/Ras/ERK pathway by stimulating mRNA transcription. Here we report on stimulation of RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-mediated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis as a growth effector of Ras/ERK signalling in Drosophila...
April 13, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660116/a-novel-histochemistry-assay-to-assess-and-quantify-focal-cytochrome-c-oxidase-deficiency
#13
Marie-Lune Simard, Arnaud Mourier, Laura C Greaves, Robert W Taylor, James B Stewart
Defects in the respiratory chain, interfering with energy production in the cell, are major underlying causes of mitochondrial diseases. In spite of this, the surprising variety of clinical symptoms, disparity between ages of onset as well as the involvement of mitochondrial impairment in ageing and age-related diseases, continues to challenge our understanding of the pathogenic processes. This complexity can be in part attributed to the unique metabolic needs of organs or of various cell types. In this view, it remains essential to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction at the cellular level...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659604/similarity-in-replication-timing-between-polytene-and-diploid-cells-is-associated-with-the-organization-of-the-drosophila-genome
#14
Tatyana D Kolesnikova, Fedor P Goncharov, Igor F Zhimulev
Morphologically, polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster consist of compact "black" bands alternating with less compact "grey" bands and interbands. We developed a comprehensive approach that combines cytological mapping data of FlyBase-annotated genes and novel tools for predicting cytogenetic features of chromosomes on the basis of their protein composition and determined the genomic coordinates for all black bands of polytene chromosome 2R. By a PCNA immunostaining assay, we obtained the replication timetable for all the bands mapped...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658928/a-burrowing-tunneling-assay-for-detection-of-hypoxia-in-drosophila-melanogaster-larvae
#15
Karen M Qiang, Fanli Zhou, Kathleen M Beckingham
Oxygen deprivation in animals can result from exposure to low atmospheric oxygen levels or from internal tissue damage that interferes with oxygen distribution. It is also possible that aberrant behavior of oxygen-sensing neurons could induce hypoxia-like behavior in the presence of normal oxygen levels. In D. melanogaster, development at low oxygen levels results in inhibition of growth and sluggish behavior during the larval phases. However, these established manifestations of oxygen deficit overlap considerably with the phenotypes of many mutations that regulate growth, stress responses or locomotion...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658881/negative-regulation-of-g2-m-by-atr-mei-41-chk1-grapes-facilitates-tracheoblast-growth-and-tracheal-hypertrophy-in-drosophila
#16
Amrutha Kizhedathu, Archit V Bagul, Arjun Guha
Imaginal progenitors in Drosophila are known to arrest in G2 during larval stages and proliferate thereafter. Here we investigate the mechanism and implications of G2 arrest in progenitors of the adult thoracic tracheal epithelium (tracheoblasts). We report that tracheoblasts pause in G2 for ~48-56 h and grow in size over this period. Surprisingly, tracheoblasts arrested in G2 express drivers of G2-M like Cdc25/String (Stg). We find that mechanisms that prevent G2-M are also in place in this interval. Tracheoblasts activate Checkpoint Kinase 1/Grapes (Chk1/Grp) in an ATR/mei-41-dependent manner...
April 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658159/the-influence-of-developmental-environment-on-courtship-song-in-cactophilic-drosophila
#17
P P Iglesias, E M Soto, I M Soto, B Colines, E Hasson
Closely related species often differ in the signals involved in sexual communication and mate recognition. Determining the factors influencing signal quality (i.e. signal's content and conspicuousness) provides an important insight into the potential pathways by which these interspecific differences evolve. Host specificity could bias the direction of the evolution of sexual communication and the mate recognition system, favoring sensory channels that work best in the different host conditions. In this study, we focus on the cactophilic sibling species Drosophila buzzatii and D...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656148/basement-membrane-mechanics-shape-development-lesson-from-the-fly
#18
REVIEW
William Ramos-Lewis, Andrea Page-McCaw
Basement membrane plays a foundational role in the structure and maintenance of many tissues throughout the animal kingdom. In addition to signaling to cells through cell-surface receptors, basement membrane directly influences the development and maintenance of organ shape via its mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of basement membrane are dictated by its composition, geometry, and crosslinking. Distinguishing between the ways the basement membrane influences morphology in vivo poses a major challenge...
April 12, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655867/short-term-sleep-deprivation-with-exposure-to-nocturnal-light-alters-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-in-drosophila
#19
Nathane Rosa Rodrigues, Giulianna Echeverria Macedo, Illana Kemmerich Martins, Karen Kich Gomes, Nélson Rodrigues de Carvalho, Thaís Posser, Jeferson Luis Franco
Many studies have shown the effects of sleep deprivation in several aspects of health and disease. However, little is known about how mitochondrial bioenergetics function is affected under this condition. To clarify this, we developed a simple model of short-term sleep deprivation, in which fruit-flies were submitted to a nocturnal light condition and then mitochondrial parameters were assessed by high resolution respirometry (HRR). Exposure of flies to constant light was able to alter sleep patterns, causing locomotor deficits, increasing ROS production and lipid peroxidation, affecting mitochondrial activity, antioxidant defense enzymes and caspase activity...
April 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650755/thermosensory-perception-regulates-speed-of-movement-in-response-to-temperature-changes-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Andrea Soto-Padilla, Rick Ruijsink, Ody C M Sibon, Hedderik van Rijn, Jean-Christophe Billeter
Temperature influences physiology and behavior of all organisms. For ectotherms, which lack central temperature regulation, temperature adaptation requires sheltering from or moving to a heat source. As temperature constrains the rate of metabolic reactions, it can directly affect ectotherm physiology and thus behavioral performance. This direct effect is particularly relevant for insects whose small body readily equilibrates with ambient temperature. In fact, models of enzyme kinetics applied to insect behavior predict performance at different temperatures, suggesting that thermal physiology governs behavior...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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