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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239688/compromising-asymmetric-stem-cell-division-in-drosophila-central-brain-revisiting-the-connections-with-tumorigenesis
#1
Ana Carmena
Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is an essential process during development for generating cell diversity. In addition, a more recent connection between ACD, cancer and stem cell biology has opened novel and highly intriguing venues in the field. This connection between compromised ACD and tumorigenesis was first demonstrated using Drosophila neural stem cells (neuroblasts, NBs) more than a decade ago and, over the past years, it has also been established in vertebrate stem cells. Here, focusing on Drosophila larval brain NBs, and in light of results recently obtained in our lab, we revisit this connection emphasizing two main aspects: 1) the differences in tumor suppressor activity of different ACD regulators and 2) the potential relevance of environment and temporal window frame for compromised ACD-dependent induction of tumor-like overgrowth...
December 14, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237884/haldane-s-the-causes-of-evolution-and-the-modern-synthesis-in-evolutionary-biology
#2
Sahotra Sarkar
This paper argues that Haldane's The causes of evolution was the most important founding document in the emergence of the received view of evolutionary theory which is typically referred to as the Modern Synthesis. Whether or not this historical development is characterized as a synthesis (which remains controversial), this paper argues the most important component of the emergence of the received view consisted of showing how the formal rules of Mendelian inheritance are based on (or emerge from) the material basis of heredity established by classical genetics primarily through the experimental work on Drosophila genetics of the Morgan school in the 1910s and 1920s...
November 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237851/micrornas-regulate-the-sesquiterpenoid-hormonal-pathway-in-drosophila-and-other-arthropods
#3
Zhe Qu, William G Bendena, Wenyan Nong, Kenneth W Siggens, Fernando G Noriega, Zhen-Peng Kai, Yang-Yang Zang, Alex C Koon, Ho Yin Edwin Chan, Ting Fung Chan, Ka Hou Chu, Hon Ming Lam, Michael Akam, Stephen S Tobe, Jerome Ho Lam Hui
Arthropods comprise the majority of all described animal species, and understanding their evolution is a central question in biology. Their developmental processes are under the precise control of distinct hormonal regulators, including the sesquiterpenoids juvenile hormone (JH) and methyl farnesoate. The control of the synthesis and mode of action of these hormones played important roles in the evolution of arthropods and their adaptation to diverse habitats. However, the precise roles of non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), controlling arthropod hormonal pathways are unknown...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237257/iron-homeostasis-controls-myeloid-blood-cell-differentiation-in-drosophila
#4
Sunggyu Yoon, Bumsik Cho, Mingyu Shin, Ferdinand Koranteng, Nuri Cha, Jiwon Shim
Iron is an essential divalent ion for aerobic life. Life has evolved to maintain iron homeostasis for normal cellular and physiological functions and therefore imbalances in iron levels exert a wide range of consequences. Responses to iron dysregulation in blood development, however, remain elusive. Here, we found that iron homeostasis is critical for differentiation of Drosophila blood cells in the larval hematopoietic organ, called the lymph gland. Supplementation of an iron chelator, bathophenanthroline disulfate (BPS) results in an excessive differentiation of the crystal cell in the lymph gland...
December 14, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233476/e2f-dp-prevents-cell-cycle-progression-in-endocycling-fat-body-cells-by-suppressing-datm-expression
#5
Ana Guarner, Robert Morris, Michael Korenjak, Myriam Boukhali, Maria Paula Zappia, Capucine Van Rechem, Johnathan R Whetstine, Sridhar Ramaswamy, Lee Zou, Maxim V Frolov, Wilhelm Haas, Nicholas J Dyson
To understand the consequences of the complete elimination of E2F regulation, we profiled the proteome of Drosophila dDP mutants that lack functional E2F/DP complexes. The results uncovered changes in the larval fat body, a differentiated tissue that grows via endocycles. We report an unexpected mechanism of E2F/DP action that promotes quiescence in this tissue. In the fat body, dE2F/dDP limits cell-cycle progression by suppressing DNA damage responses. Loss of dDP upregulates dATM, allowing cells to sense and repair DNA damage and increasing replication of loci that are normally under-replicated in wild-type tissues...
December 1, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229844/cytokine-signaling-through-drosophila-mthl10-ties-lifespan-to-environmental-stress
#6
Eui Jae Sung, Masasuke Ryuda, Hitoshi Matsumoto, Outa Uryu, Masanori Ochiai, Molly E Cook, Na Young Yi, Huanchen Wang, James W Putney, Gary S Bird, Stephen B Shears, Yoichi Hayakawa
A systems-level understanding of cytokine-mediated, intertissue signaling is one of the keys to developing fundamental insight into the links between aging and inflammation. Here, we employed Drosophila, a routine model for analysis of cytokine signaling pathways in higher animals, to identify a receptor for the growth-blocking peptide (GBP) cytokine. Having previously established that the phospholipase C/Ca2+ signaling pathway mediates innate immune responses to GBP, we conducted a dsRNA library screen for genes that modulate Ca2+ mobilization in Drosophila S3 cells...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225579/regulation-of-tissue-growth-by-the-mammalian-hippo-signaling-pathway
#7
REVIEW
Kevin I Watt, Kieran F Harvey, Paul Gregorevic
The integrative control of diverse biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and metabolism is essential to maintain cellular and tissue homeostasis. Disruption of these underlie the development of many disease states including cancer and diabetes, as well as many of the complications that arise as a consequence of aging. These biological outputs are governed by many cellular signaling networks that function independently, and in concert, to convert changes in hormonal, mechanical and metabolic stimuli into alterations in gene expression...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225171/ctbp-represses-dpp-signaling-as-a-dimer
#8
B I Cai-Li, Fei Meng, Lin Yang, Lin Cheng, Ping Wang, C H E N Meng-Meng, Ming Fang, Hao Xie
C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) is a highly conserved transcriptional co-repressor in animal development and human diseases. In Drosophila, CtBP is critical for fly development and is thought to exert its repressive roles in many signaling pathways including Dpp/BMP pathway. Here we provide evidence that although wild type CtBP negatively and dominantly influences Dpp signaling in fly presumptive wings, mutant CtBP unable to form dimer does not, indicating that dimerization is required for the repression role of CtBP in Dpp signaling in vivo...
December 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218879/an-ultra-fast-and-scalable-quantification-pipeline-for-transposable-elements-from-next-generation-sequencing-data
#9
Hyun-Hwan Jeong, Hari Krishna Yalamanchili, Caiwei Guo, Joshua M Shulman, Zhandong Liu
Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences which are capable of moving from one location to another and represent a large proportion (45%) of the human genome. TEs have functional roles in a variety of biological phenomena such as cancer, neurodegenerative disease, and aging. Rapid development in RNA-sequencing technology has enabled us, for the first time, to study the activity of TE at the systems level.However, efficient TE analysis tools are not yet developed. In this work, we developed SalmonTE, a fast and reliable pipeline for the quantification of TEs from RNA-seq data...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217730/in-vivo%C3%A2-functional-analysis-of-drosophila-robo1-fibronectin-type-iii-repeats
#10
Haley E Brown, Marie C Reichert, Timothy A Evans
The repellant ligand Slit and its Roundabout (Robo) family receptors regulate midline crossing of axons during development of the embryonic CNS. Slit proteins are produced at the midline and signal through Robo receptors to repel axons from the midline. Disruption of Slit-Robo signaling causes ectopic midline crossing phenotypes in the CNS of a broad range of animals, including insects and vertebrates. While previous studies have investigated the roles of Drosophila melanogaster Robo1's five Immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domains, little is known about the importance of the three evolutionarily conserved Fibronectin (Fn) type-III repeats...
December 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217522/drosophila-syd-1-has-rhogap-activity-that-is-required-for-presynaptic-clustering-of-bruchpilot-elks-but-not-neurexin-1
#11
Michael A Spinner, David A Walla, Tory G Herman
Syd-1 proteins are required for presynaptic development in worm, fly, and mouse. Syd-1s in all three species contain a Rho GTPase activating protein (GAP)-like domain of unclear significance. Invertebrate Syd-1s are thought to lack GAP activity, and mouse mSYD1A has GAP activity that is thought to be dispensible for its function. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster Syd-1 can interact with all six fly Rhos and has GAP activity toward Rac1 and Cdc42. During development, fly Syd-1 clusters multiple presynaptic proteins at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), including the cell adhesion molecule Neurexin (Nrx-1) and the active zone (AZ) component Bruchpilot (Brp), both of which Syd-1 binds directly...
December 7, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214995/normalizing-brain-activity-across-individuals-using-functional-reference-mapping
#12
Eugenio Martinelli, Alja Lüdke, Piergiorgio Adamo, Martin Strauch, Corrado Di Natale, C Giovanni Galizia
Neural activity can be mapped across individuals using brain atlases, but when spatial relationships are not equal, these techniques collapse. We map activity across individuals using functional registration, based on physiological responses to predetermined reference stimuli. Data from several individuals are integrated into a common multidimensional stimulus space, where dimensionality and axes are defined by these reference stimuli. We used this technique to discriminate volatile compounds with a cohort of Drosophila flies, by recording odor responses in receptor neurons on the flies' antennae...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214211/targeted-kinase-inhibition-relieves-slowness-and-tremor-in-a-drosophila-model-of-lrrk2-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Amy C Cording, Nicolas Shiaelis, Stavroula Petridi, C Adam Middleton, Laurence G Wilson, Christopher J H Elliott
In a number of Drosophila models of genetic Parkinson's disease (PD) flies climb more slowly than wild-type controls. However, this assay does not distinguish effects of PD-related genes on gravity sensation, "arousal", central pattern generation of leg movements, or muscle. To address this problem, we have developed an assay for the fly proboscis extension response (PER). This is attractive because the PER has a simple, well-identified reflex neural circuit, in which sucrose sensing neurons activate a pair of "command interneurons", and thence motoneurons whose activity contracts the proboscis muscle...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213118/vitamin-k2-prevents-lymphoma-in-drosophila
#14
Maytham A Dragh, Zhiliang Xu, Zainab S Al-Allak, Ling Hong
Previous studies have established the anticancer effect of vitamin K2 (VK2). However, its effect on lymphoma induced by UBIAD1/heix mutation in Drosophila remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to develop an in vivo model of lymphoma for the precise characterization of lymphoma phenotypes. We also aimed to improve the understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the preventative effects of VK2 on lymphoma. Our results demonstrated that VK2 prevents lymphoma by acting as an electron carrier and by correcting the function and structure of mitochondria by inhibiting mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production mtROS...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211718/pirna-mediated-regulation-of-transposon-alternative-splicing-in-the-soma-and-germ-line
#15
Felipe Karam Teixeira, Martyna Okuniewska, Colin D Malone, Rémi-Xavier Coux, Donald C Rio, Ruth Lehmann
Transposable elements can drive genome evolution, but their enhanced activity is detrimental to the host and therefore must be tightly regulated. The Piwi-interacting small RNA (piRNA) pathway is vital for the regulation of transposable elements, by inducing transcriptional silencing or post-transcriptional decay of mRNAs. Here we show that piRNAs and piRNA biogenesis components regulate precursor mRNA splicing of P-transposable element transcripts in vivo, leading to the production of the non-transposase-encoding mature mRNA isoform in Drosophila germ cells...
December 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211252/ilex-paraguariensis-extracts-extend-the-lifespan-of-drosophila-melanogaster-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#16
A C Colpo, M E Lima, H S da Rosa, A P Leal, C C Colares, A C Zago, A C F Salgueiro, P R Bertelli, L Minetto, S Moura, A S L Mendez, V Folmer
Studies have suggested that total energy intake and diet composition affect lifespan and ageing. A high-fat diet induces oxidative stress and affects the development of diseases. In contrast, antioxidants are capable of reducing its harmful effects. Yerba mate beverages are an important source of antioxidants, but there is scarce knowledge about their effects on suppressing fat accumulation. Here, we investigated the compounds present in yerba mate extracts and assessed their effects on Drosophila melanogaster given a high cholesterol diet...
November 30, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209177/a-new-behavioral-test-and-associated-genetic-tools-highlight-the-function-of-ventral-abdominal-muscles-in-adult-drosophila
#17
Marine Pons, Claire Soulard, Laurent Soustelle, Marie-Laure Parmentier, Yves Grau, Sophie Layalle
The function of the nervous system in complex animals is reflected by the achievement of specific behaviors. For years in Drosophila, both simple and complex behaviors have been studied and their genetic bases have emerged. The neuromuscular junction is maybe one of the prototypal simplest examples. A motor neuron establishes synaptic connections on its muscle cell target and elicits behavior: the muscle contraction. Different muscles in adult fly are related to specific behaviors. For example, the thoracic muscles are associated with flight and the leg muscles are associated with locomotion...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208230/learning-from-connectomics-on-the-fly
#18
REVIEW
Philipp Schlegel, Marta Costa, Gregory Sxe Jefferis
Parallels between invertebrates and vertebrates in nervous system development, organisation and circuits are powerful reasons to use insects to study the mechanistic basis of behaviour. The last few years have seen the generation in Drosophila melanogaster of very large light microscopy data sets, genetic driver lines and tools to report or manipulate neural activity. These resources in conjunction with computational tools are enabling large scale characterisation of neuronal types and their functional properties...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207260/a-balance-of-yki-sd-activator-and-e2f1-sd-repressor-complexes-controls-cell-survival-and-affects-organ-size
#19
Peng Zhang, Chunli Pei, Xi Wang, Jinyi Xiang, Bao-Fa Sun, Yongsheng Cheng, Xiaolong Qi, Marco Marchetti, Jia-Wei Xu, Ying-Pu Sun, Bruce A Edgar, Zengqiang Yuan
The Hippo/Yki and RB/E2F pathways both regulate tissue growth by affecting cell proliferation and survival, but interactions between these parallel control systems are poorly defined. In this study, we demonstrate that interaction between Drosophila E2F1 and Sd disrupts Yki/Sd complex formation and thereby suppresses Yki target gene expression. RBF modifies these effects by reducing E2F1/Sd interaction. This regulation has significant effects on apoptosis, organ size, and progenitor cell proliferation. Using a combination of DamID-seq and RNA-seq, we identified a set of Yki targets that play a diversity of roles during development and are suppressed by E2F1...
December 4, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205681/meroistic-oogenesis-of-drosophila-in-section-in-situ
#20
Alexandra L Mattei, Mariana F Wolfner
Some insects, such as Drosophila melanogaster, produce eggs by meroistic oogenesis. In this process, the developing oocyte remains connected by cytoplasmic bridges to its sister "nurse" cells, which synthesize molecules and organelles for the future embryo. In the ovary, shown brighter in this micro-CT (X-ray computed tomography) scan of the abdomen of a female fly at 8 h post-mating, egg-chambers made of oocyte and nurse cells are lined up progressively in tubules called ovarioles.
December 4, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
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