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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913640/the-drosophila-hox-gene-ultrabithorax-acts-both-in-muscles-and-motoneurons-to-orchestrate-formation-of-specific-neuromuscular-connections
#1
Christian Hessinger, Gerhard M Technau, Ana Rogulja-Ortmann
Hox genes are known to specify motoneuron pools in the developing vertebrate spinal cord and to control motoneuronal targeting in several species. However, the mechanisms controlling axial diversification of muscle innervation patterns are still largely unknown. We present data showing that the Drosophila Hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) acts in the late embryo to establish target specificity of ventrally projecting RP motoneurons. In abdominal segments A2 to A7, RP motoneurons innervate the ventro-lateral muscles VL1-4, with VL1 and VL2 being innervated in a Wnt4-dependent manner...
December 2, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913118/forces-controlling-organ-growth-and-size
#2
REVIEW
Dominik Eder, Christof Aegerter, Konrad Basler
One of the fundamental questions in developmental biology is what determines the final size and shape of an organ. Recent research strongly emphasizes that besides cell-cell communication, biophysical principals govern organ development. The architecture and mechanics of a tissue guide cellular processes such as movement, growth or differentiation. Furthermore, mechanical cues do not only regulate processes at a cellular level but also provide constant feedback about size and shape on a tissue scale. Here we review several models and experimental systems which are contributing to our understanding of the roles mechanical forces play during organ development...
November 29, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911738/can-the-drosophila-model-help-in-paving-the-way-for-translational-medicine-in-heart-failure
#3
REVIEW
Lisha Ma
Chronic heart failure is a common consequence of various heart diseases. Mechanical force is known to play a key role in heart failure development through regulating cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In order to understand the complex disease mechanism, this article discussed a multi-disciplinary approach that may aid the illustration of heart failure molecular process.
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911728/modulation-of-bmp-signalling-by-integrins
#4
REVIEW
Hilary L Ashe
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway is a major conserved signalling pathway with diverse roles in development and homeostasis. Given that cells exist in three-dimensional environments, one important area is to understand how the BMP pathway operates within such complex cellular environments. The extracellular matrix contains information regarding tissue architecture and its mechanical properties that is transmitted to the cell via integrin receptors. In this review, I describe various examples of modulation of the BMP pathway by integrins...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908785/disco-interacting-protein-2-regulates-axonal-bifurcation-and-guidance-of-drosophila-mushroom-body-neurons
#5
Yohei Nitta, Daisuke Yamazaki, Atsushi Sugie, Makoto Hiroi, Tetsuya Tabata
Axonal branching is one of the key processes within the enormous complexity of the nervous system to enable a single neuron to send information to multiple targets. However, the molecular mechanisms that control branch formation are poorly understood. In particular, previous studies have rarely addressed the mechanisms underlying axonal bifurcation, in which axons form new branches via splitting of the growth cone. We demonstrate that DISCO Interacting Protein 2 (DIP2) is required for precise axonal bifurcation in Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neurons by suppressing ectopic bifurcation and regulating the guidance of sister axons...
November 28, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906621/isolation-of-a-novel-protein-p12-from-adult-drosophila-melanogaster-that-inhibits-deoxyribonucleoside-and-protein-kinase-activities-and-activates-3-5-exonuclease-activity
#6
Louise Slot Christiansen, Gabriella van Zanten, Dvora Berenstein, Marianne Lauridsen, Søren Kjærulff, Leif Søndergaard, Birgitte Munch-Petersen
We have previously found that Drosophila melanogaster only has one deoxyribonucleoside kinase, Dm-dNK, however, capable to phosphorylate all four natural deoxyribonucleosides. Dm-dNK was originally isolated from an embryonic cell line. We wanted to study the expression of Dm-dNK during development from embryonic cells to adult flies and found declining Dm-dNK activity during development and no activity in adult flies. Surprisingly, the extract from adult flies exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on deoxyribonucloside kinase activity...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906168/immunofluorescent-antibody-staining-of-intact-drosophila-larvae
#7
Laurina Manning, Chris Q Doe
Antibody staining is a vital technique for studying the development of many model organisms, including Drosophila. Reliable protocols have long been available for antibody staining of Drosophila whole-mount embryos and dissected larvae. By contrast, methods for staining whole larvae have rarely been reported, are unreliable, and fail to work on large third-instar larvae. This has become a major limitation to understanding the role of multitissue interactions such as neural circuit formation and cell metastasis...
January 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904993/molecular-mechanisms-of-heart-failure-insights-from-drosophila
#8
Shasha Zhu, Zhe Han, Yan Luo, Yulin Chen, Qun Zeng, Xiushan Wu, Wuzhou Yuan
Heart failure places an enormous burden on health and economic systems worldwide. It is a complex disease that is profoundly influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Neither the molecular mechanisms underlying heart failure nor effective prevention strategies are fully understood. Fortunately, relevant aspects of human heart failure can be experimentally studied in tractable model animals, including the fruit fly, Drosophila, allowing the in vivo application of powerful and sophisticated molecular genetic and physiological approaches...
December 1, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901078/asian-citrus-psyllid-rnai-pathway-rnai-evidence
#9
Clauvis N T Taning, Eduardo C Andrade, Wayne B Hunter, Olivier Christiaens, Guy Smagghe
Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Emerging biotechnologies, such as RNA interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. In this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the RNAi core genes are present in the Asian psyllid genome and if the RNAi machinery could be exploited to develop a management strategy for this pest...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900550/biogenesis-of-diverse-plant-phasirnas-involves-an-mirna-trigger-and-dicer-processing
#10
Reina Komiya
It has been almost 30 years since RNA interference (RNAi) was shown to silence genes via double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) in Caenorhabditis elegans (Fire et al. 1998). 20-30-nucleotide (nt) small non-coding RNAs are a key element of the RNAi machinery. Recently, phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs), small RNAs that are generated from a long RNA precursor at intervals of 21 to 26-nt, have been identified in plants and animals. In Drosophila, phasiRNAs are generated by the endonuclease, Zucchini (Zuc), in germlines...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900010/a-novel-mutation-of-the-fat2-gene-in-spinal-meningioma
#11
Genshu Tate, Koji Kishimoto, Toshiyuki Mitsuya
Meningiomas may be classified as neurofibromin 2 (NF2)-associated and non-NF2 meningiomas depending on the presence or absence of molecular alterations in the NF2 gene. One of the characteristic histological features of meningiomas is the whorl formation of neoplastic arachnoid cells. NF2 is a human homolog of the Drosophila gene, Merlin (Mer). In humans, NF2 is the gene responsible for the disease neurofibromatosis type II, which results in the development of brain tumors, including acoustic neurinoma and meningioma...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899511/drosophila-crumbs-prevents-ectopic-notch-activation-in-developing-wings-by-inhibiting-ligand-independent-endocytosis
#12
Linda Nemetschke, Elisabeth Knust
Many signalling components are apically restricted in epithelial cells, and receptor localisation and abundance is key for morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Hence, controlling apicobasal epithelial polarity is crucial for proper signalling. Notch is a ubiquitously expressed, apically localised receptor, which performs a plethora of functions; therefore, its activity has to be tightly regulated. Here, we show that Drosophila Crumbs, an evolutionarily conserved polarity determinant, prevents Notch endocytosis in developing wings through direct interaction between the two proteins...
December 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899510/identification-and-in-silico-modeling-of-enhancers-reveals-new-features-of-the-cardiac-differentiation-network
#13
Denis Seyres, Yad Ghavi-Helm, Guillaume Junion, Ouarda Taghli-Lamallem, Céline Guichard, Laurence Röder, Charles Girardot, Eileen E M Furlong, Laurent Perrin
Developmental patterning and tissue formation are regulated through complex gene regulatory networks (GRNs) driven through the action of transcription factors (TFs) converging on enhancer elements. Here, as a point of entry to dissect the poorly defined GRN underlying cardiomyocyte differentiation, we apply an integrated approach to identify active enhancers and TFs involved in Drosophila heart development. The Drosophila heart consists of 104 cardiomyocytes, representing less than 0.5% of all cells in the embryo...
December 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898696/regulation-of-gonad-morphogenesis-in-drosophila-melanogaster-by-btb-family-transcription-factors
#14
Diane Silva, Kenneth W Olsen, Magdalena N Bednarz, Andrew Droste, Christopher P Lenkeit, Edwin Chaharbakhshi, Emily R Temple-Wood, Jennifer C Jemc
During embryogenesis, primordial germ cells (PGCs) and somatic gonadal precursor cells (SGPs) migrate and coalesce to form the early gonad. A failure of the PGCs and SGPs to form a gonad with the proper architecture not only affects germ cell development, but can also lead to infertility. Therefore, it is critical to identify the molecular mechanisms that function within both the PGCs and SGPs to promote gonad morphogenesis. We have characterized the phenotypes of two genes, longitudinals lacking (lola) and ribbon (rib), that are required for the coalescence and compaction of the embryonic gonad in Drosophila melanogaster...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897227/fold-formation-at-the-compartment-boundary-of-drosophila-wing-requires-yki-signaling-to-suppress-jnk-dependent-apoptosis
#15
Suning Liu, Jie Sun, Dan Wang, Gert O Pflugfelder, Jie Shen
Compartment boundaries prevent cell populations of different lineage from intermingling. In many cases, compartment boundaries are associated with morphological folds. However, in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc, fold formation at the anterior/posterior (A/P) compartment boundary is suppressed, probably as a prerequisite for the formation of a flat wing surface. Fold suppression depends on optomotor-blind (omb). Omb mutant animals develop a deep apical fold at the A/P boundary of the larval wing disc and an A/P cleft in the adult wing...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897178/functional-exploration-of-colorectal-cancer-genomes-using-drosophila
#16
Erdem Bangi, Claudio Murgia, Alexander G S Teague, Owen J Sansom, Ross L Cagan
The multigenic nature of human tumours presents a fundamental challenge for cancer drug discovery. Here we use Drosophila to generate 32 multigenic models of colon cancer using patient data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. These models recapitulate key features of human cancer, often as emergent properties of multigenic combinations. Multigenic models such as ras p53 pten apc exhibit emergent resistance to a panel of cancer-relevant drugs. Exploring one drug in detail, we identify a mechanism of resistance for the PI3K pathway inhibitor BEZ235...
November 29, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889707/transgenerational-programming-of-longevity-through-e-z-mediated-histone-h3k27-trimethylation-in-drosophila
#17
Brian Xia, Ed Gerstin, Dustin E Schones, Wendong Huang, J Steven de Belle
Transgenerational effects on health and development of early-life nutrition have gained increased attention recently. However, the underlying mechanisms of transgenerational transmission are only starting to emerge, with epigenetics as perhaps the most important mechanism. We recently reported the first animal model to study transgenerational programming of longevity after early-life dietary manipulations, enabling investigations to identify underlying epigenetic mechanisms. We report here that post-eclosion dietary manipulation (PDM) with a low-protein (LP) diet upregulates the protein level of E(z), an H3K27 specific methyltransferase, leading to higher levels of H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3)...
November 25, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888195/remodeling-of-adhesion-and-modulation-of-mechanical-tensile-forces-during-apoptosis-in-drosophila-epithelium
#18
Xiang Teng, Lei Qin, Roland Le Borgne, Yusuke Toyama
Apoptosis is a mechanism of eliminating damaged or unnecessary cells during development and tissue homeostasis. During apoptosis within a tissue, the adhesions between dying and neighboring non-dying cells need to be remodeled so that the apoptotic cell is expelled. In parallel, the contraction of actomyosin cables formed in apoptotic and neighboring cells drive cell extrusion. To date, the coordination between the dynamics of cell adhesion and the progressive changes in tissue tension around an apoptotic cell is not fully understood...
November 25, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888110/tubby-domain-superfamily-protein-is-required-for-the-formation-of-the-7s-snare-complex-in-drosophila
#19
Eun Jang Yoon, Yong Taek Jeong, Ji Eun Lee, Seok Jun Moon, Chul Hoon Kim
Tubby domain superfamily protein (TUSP) is a distant member of the Tubby-like protein (TULP) family. Although other TULPs play important roles in sensation, metabolism, and development, the molecular functions of TUSP are completely unknown. Here, we explore the function of TUSP in the Drosophila nervous system where it is expressed in all neurons. Tusp mutant flies exhibit a temperature-sensitive paralysis. This paralysis can be rescued by tissue-specific expression of Tusp in the giant fibers and peripherally synapsing interneurons of the giant fiber system, a well-characterized neuronal circuit that mediates rapid escape behavior in flies...
November 22, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887593/expression-of-barhl2-and-its-relationship-with-pax6-expression-in-the-forebrain-of-the-mouse-embryo
#20
Elisa V Parish, John O Mason, David J Price
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor Barhl2 is an antiproneural transcription factor with roles in neuronal differentiation. The functions of its homologue in Drosophila development are better understood than its functions in mammalian brain development. Existing evidence suggests that its expression in the embryonic forebrain of the mouse is regional and may complement that of another transcription factor that is important for forebrain development, Pax6. The aim of this study is to provide a more detailed description of the Barhl2 expression pattern in the embryonic forebrain than is currently available, to relate its expression domains to those of Pax6 and to examine the effects of Pax6 loss on Barhl2 expression...
November 25, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
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