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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046158/ionophore-strategy-affects-growth-performance-and-carcass-characteristics-in-feedlot-steers
#1
A J Thompson, Z K F Smith, M J Corbin, L B Harper, B J Johnson
One hundred ninety-two steers (BW = 354 ± 23.5 kg) were used in a randomized block design to evaluate the effects of ionophore and ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) supplementation strategies on performance and carcass characteristics. Twelve pens of 4 steers were assigned to each of the following treatments: unsupplemented control (CON), laidlomycin propionate (12.1 mg/kg DM) with or without RH (LPRH and LP, respectively), and monensin sodium (36.4 mg/kg DM) with RH (MSRH). Steers were fed for 151 d, of which respective treatments received RH (Actogain; Zoetis, Florham Park, NJ) at a rate of 300 mg/(animal · d) for the final 32 d...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043393/anticoccidial-efficacy-testing-in-vitro-eimeria-tenella-assays-as-replacement-for-animal-experiments
#2
Ahmed Thabet, Runhui Zhang, Alaa-Aldin Alnassan, Arwid Daugschies, Berit Bangoura
SCOPE: Availability of an accurate in vitro assay is a crucial demand to determine sensitivity of Eimeria spp. field strains toward anticoccidials routinely. In this study we tested in vitro models of Eimeria tenella using various polyether ionophores (monensin, salinomycin, maduramicin, and lasalocid) and toltrazuril. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC95, MIC50/95) for the tested anticoccidials were defined based on a susceptible reference (Houghton strain), Ref-1. In vitro sporozoite invasion inhibition assay (SIA) and reproduction inhibition assay (RIA) were applied on sensitive laboratory (Ref-1 and Ref-2) and field (FS-1, FS-2, and FS-3) strains to calculate percent of inhibition under exposure of these strains to the various anticoccidials (%ISIA and%IRIA, respectively)...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041730/effects-of-cinnamaldehyde-or-monensin-on-performance-of-weaned-holstein-dairy-heifers
#3
C E Chapman, H Chester-Jones, D Ziegler, J A Clapper, P S Erickson
The objective of this 70-d study was to determine the effects of the essential oil cinnamaldehyde compared with the ionophore monensin on performance of weaned Holstein dairy heifers. Eighty-four Holstein dairy heifers (91 ± 3.33 d of age; 109 ± 7.55 kg) were housed in a naturally ventilated curtain side-wall, straw-bedded barn in 12 pens with 7 heifers/pen (3.98 m(2)/head). Heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a completely randomized design: (1) control (CON; carrier, 908 g of ground corn), (2) monensin sodium [MON; 1 mg/kg of body weight (BW) + carrier], (3) cinnamaldehyde (CIN1; 1 mg/kg of BW + carrier), or (4) cinnamaldehyde (CIN2; 2 mg/kg of BW + carrier)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041725/the-effects-of-elevated-subcutaneous-fat-stores-on-fatty-acid-composition-and-gene-expression-of-proinflammatory-markers-in-periparturient-dairy-cows
#4
Cynthia M Scholte, Pedram Rezamand, Chia-Yu Tsai, Zahra M Amiri, Kirk C Ramsey, Mark A McGuire
During the periparturient period, elevated circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) from excessive lipid mobilization affect not only the circulating fatty acid (FA) composition, but also that of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). However, the changes to specific lipid fractions remain unknown. We hypothesized that elevated lipid mobilization will alter FA profiles and gene expression of selected proinflammatory mediators in PBMC and PMNL. Starting -28 d relative to expected calving (d 0), treatment cows (n = 18) received a dry cow ration plus an additional 10 kg of corn/head per day, while the control cows (n = 16) received the dry cow ration (no additional corn) supplemented with 400 mg of monensin/head per day to minimize lipid mobilization...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030781/effects-of-solid-liquid-separation-and-storage-on-monensin-attenuation-in-dairy-waste-management-systems
#5
Sarah C Hafner, Naoko Watanabe, Thomas Harter, Brian A Bergamaschi, Sanjai J Parikh
Environmental release of veterinary pharmaceuticals has been of regulatory concern for more than a decade. Monensin is a feed additive antibiotic that is prevalent throughout the dairy industry and is excreted in dairy waste. This study investigates the potential of dairy waste management practices to alter the amount of monensin available for release into the environment. Analysis of wastewater and groundwater from two dairy farms in California consistently concluded that monensin is most present in lagoon water and groundwater downgradient of lagoons...
December 25, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998094/transmembrane-fluoride-transport-direct-measurement-and-selectivity-studies
#6
Harriet J Clarke, Ethan N W Howe, Xin Wu, Fabian Sommer, Masafumi Yano, Mark E Light, Stefan Kubik, Philip A Gale
Fluoride has been overlooked as a target in the development of synthetic anion transporters despite natural fluoride transport channels being recently discovered. In this paper we report the direct measurement of fluoride transport across lipid bilayers facilitated by a series of strapped calix[4]pyrroles and show that these compounds facilitate transport via an electrogenic mechanism (determined using valinomycin and monensin coupled transport assays and an additional osmotic response assay). An HPTS transport assay was used to quantify this electrogenic process and assess the interference of naturally occurring fatty acids with the transport process and Cl(-) over H(+)/OH(-) transport selectivity...
December 21, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980114/sodium-pumps-mediate-activity-dependent-changes-in-mammalian-motor-networks
#7
Laurence D Picton, Filipe Nascimento, Matthew J Broadhead, Keith T Sillar, Gareth B Miles
: Ubiquitously expressed sodium pumps are best known for maintaining the ionic gradients and resting membrane potential required for generating action potentials. However, activity- and state-dependent changes in pump activity can also influence neuronal firing and regulate rhythmic network output. Here we demonstrate that changes in sodium pump activity regulate locomotor networks in the spinal cord of neonatal mice. The sodium pump inhibitor, ouabain, increased the frequency and decreased the amplitude of drug-induced locomotor bursting, effects which were dependent on the presence of the neuromodulator dopamine...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943298/a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-for-chickens-exposed-to-feed-supplemented-with-monensin-during-their-lifetime
#8
J Henri, R Carrez, B Méda, M Laurentie, P Sanders
We developed a flow-limited physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for residues of monensin in chickens and evaluated its predictive ability by comparing it with an external data set describing concentration decays after the end of treatment. One advantage of this model is that the values for most parameters (34 of 38) were taken directly from the literature or from field data (for growth and feed intake). Our model included growth (changes in body weight) to describe exposure throughout the life of the chicken...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902917/coccidiosis-in-the-chukar-partridge-alectoris-chukar-a-survey-of-coccidiosis-outbreaks-and-a-test-of-anticoccidial-drugs-against-eimeria-kofoidi
#9
R W Gerhold, A L Fuller, L R McDougald
Field isolates of coccidia from 20 natural outbreaks in the chukar partridge ( Alectoris chukar ) were received from gamebird farms in 10 U.S. states. These were propagated in the laboratory and identified by microscopy and PCR. Of 20 samples, 18 were Eimeria kofoidi, two were Eimeria legionensis only, and one was a mixture of the two species. One isolate of E. kofoidi also contained an unidentified species detected only by PCR, nucleotide sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. The efficacy of anticoccidial drugs against chukar coccidia was tested with experimental infections in battery cages...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898865/monensin-virginiamycin-and-flavomycin-in-a-no-roughage-finishing-diet-fed-to-zebu-cattle
#10
B J M Lemos, F G F Castro, L S Santos, B P C Mendonça, V R M Couto, J J R Fernandes
Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of monensin, virginiamycin, and flavomycin on growth performance, carcass characteristics, apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation of zebu cattle fed a no-roughage finishing diet (whole shelled corn [WSC] based). In Exp. 1, 100 crossbred bulls (; 392 kg [SD 46.8] average initial BW) were blocked by initial BW in a 101-d feedlot trial. Five treatments were evaluated using 4 pens per treatment (5 bulls/pen): monensin at 30 mg/kg DM, virginiamycin at 25 mg/kg DM, monensin at 20 mg/kg DM plus virginiamycin at 25 mg/kg DM, flavomycin at 4...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863002/development-of-a-single-run-analytical-method-for-the-detection-of-ten-multiclass-emerging-contaminants-in-agricultural-soil-using-an-acetate-buffered-quechers-method-coupled-with-lc-ms-ms
#11
Young-Jun Lee, Jeong-Heui Choi, A M Abd El-Aty, Hyung Suk Chung, Han Sol Lee, Sung-Woo Kim, Md Musfiqur Rahman, Byung-Jun Park, Jang-Eok Kim, Ho-Chul Shin, Jae-Han Shim
This study was undertaken to develop and validate a single multiresidue method for the monitoring of ten multiclass emerging contaminants, viz. ceftiofur, clopidol, florfenicol, monensin, salinomycin, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethoxazole, tiamulin, and tylosin in agricultural soil. Samples were extracted using an acetate-buffered, modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric analysis in positive ion mode. Separation on an Eclipse Plus C18 column was conducted in gradient elution mode using a mobile phase of methanol (A) and distilled water (B), each containing 0...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799422/monensin-sensitivity1-mon1-calcium-caffeine-zinc-sensitivity1-ccz1-mediated-rab7-activation-regulates-tapetal-programmed-cell-death-and-pollen-development
#12
Yong Cui, Qiong Zhao, Hong-Tao Xie, Wing Shing Wong, Xiangfeng Wang, Caiji Gao, Yu Ding, Yuqi Tan, Takashi Ueda, Yan Zhang, Liwen Jiang
Programmed cell death (PCD)-triggered degradation of plant tapetum is essential for microspore development and pollen coat formation; however, little is known about the cellular mechanism regulating tapetal PCD Here, we demonstrate that Rab7-mediated vacuolar transport of tapetum degradation-related cysteine proteases is crucial for tapetal PCD and pollen development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), with the following evidence: (1) The monensin sensitivity1 (mon1) mutants, which are defective in Rab7 activation, showed impaired male fertility due to a combined defect in both tapetum and male gametophyte development...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793906/monensin-induces-pc-3-prostate-cancer-cell-apoptosis-via-ros-production-and-ca2-homeostasis-disruption
#13
Sang-Hun Kim, Kwang-Youn Kim, Sun-Nyoung Yu, Sul-Gi Park, Hak-Sun Yu, Young-Kyo Seo, Soon-Cheol Ahn
BACKGROUND: Monensin is a carboxyl polyether ionophore that potently inhibits the growth of various cancer cells. Recently, the anticancer effects of monensin have been recognized based on its ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, anticancer effect of monensin and its mechanism of action have yet to be investigated, especially against human prostate cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability assay, western blot, cell-cycle arrest, annexin V/propidium iodide assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and intracellular Ca(2+) flux were assayed...
2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783300/effect-of-ionophores-on-activity-of-na-cl-hco-3-atpase
#14
V A Yurkiv, V I Melikhov, V S Shubin
We studied the effects of ionophores on activity of Na(+),Cl(-)(HCO 3(-) )-ATPase. The most significant effect on the activity of this enzyme was produced by protonophore 2,4-dinitrophenol. The effect of this drug largely depended on the cation and anion composition and pH of the incubation medium and its pH. Activity of Na(+),Cl(-)(HCO 3(-) )-ATPase increased at neutral and weakly alkaline pH and decreased at pH below 6.5-6.7. In control animals (without histamine injection) with very weak or absent Na(+),Cl(-)(HCO 3(-) )-ATPase activity, the observed effect of the protonophore on ATPase activity was also virtually absent...
October 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757749/effects-of-alkaloid-extracts-of-mesquite-pod-on-the-products-of-in-vitro-rumen-fermentation
#15
Taiala Cristina de Jesus Pereira, Mara Lúcia Albuquerque Pereira, Jeruzia Vitória Moreira, José Augusto Gomes Azevêdo, Ronan Batista, Vanderlúcia Fonseca de Paula, Brena Santos Oliveira, Edileusa de Jesus Dos Santos
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of alkaloid extracts of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) D.C. pods obtained by two extraction methods as compared with sodium monensin on the gas production kinetic, mitigation of methane, and rumen fermentation products using wheat bran or Tifton 85 hay as substrates, by the semi-automatic in vitro gas production technique. A completely randomized design was adopted, and two natural additives were tested made from mesquite pod (alkaloid extract I and alkaloid extract II) at three levels (3...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718094/dasr-positively-controls-monensin-production-at-two-level-regulation-in-streptomyces-cinnamonensis
#16
Yue Zhang, Chun-Yan Lin, Xiao-Mei Li, Zheng-Kun Tang, Jianjun Qiao, Guang-Rong Zhao
The polyether ionophore antibiotic monensin is produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis and is used as a coccidiostat for chickens and growth-promoting agent for cattle. Monensin biosynthetic gene cluster has been cloned and partially characterized. The GntR-family transcription factor DasR regulates antibiotic production and morphological development in Streptomyces coelicolor and Saccharopolyspora erythraea. In this study, we identified and characterized the two-level regulatory cascade of DasR to monensin production in S...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716805/how-metabolic-diseases-impact-the-use-of-antimicrobials-a-formal-demonstration-in-the-field-of-veterinary-medicine
#17
Didier Raboisson, Maxime Barbier, Elise Maigné
Decreasing the use of antimicrobials has become a primary objective for both human and veterinary medicine in many countries. Medical prevention and good nutrition are seen as key parameters for reducing antimicrobial use. However, little consideration has been given to how metabolic diseases may influence the use of antimicrobials in humans and animals through limiting the prevalence and severity of infectious diseases. To quantify this relationship using the example of a common metabolic disease in dairy cows (subclinical ketosis, SCK), we constructed a stochastic model reporting the total quantity of curative antimicrobials for a given population with the prevalence of cows at risk for SCK...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671775/cell-lipid-metabolism-modulators-2-bromopalmitate-d609-monensin-u18666a-and-probucol-shift-discoidal-hdl-formation-to-the-smaller-sized-particles-implications-for-the-mechanism-of-hdl-assembly
#18
Duyen Quach, Cecilia Vitali, Fiona M La, Angel X Xiao, John S Millar, Chongren Tang, Daniel J Rader, Michael C Phillips, Nicholas N Lyssenko
ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates formation of disc-shaped high-density lipoprotein (HDL) from cell lipid and lipid-free apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I). Discoidal HDL particles are heterogeneous in physicochemical characteristics for reasons that are understood incompletely. Discoidal lipoprotein particles similar in characteristics and heterogeneity to cell-formed discoidal HDL can be reconstituted from purified lipids and apo A-I by cell-free, physicochemical methods. The heterogeneity of reconstituted HDL (rHDL) is sensitive to the lipid composition of the starting lipid/apo A-I mixture...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671235/lung-retention-by-lysosomal-trapping-of-inhaled-drugs-can-be-predicted-in%C3%A2-vitro-with-lung-slices
#19
Erica Bäckström, Elin Boger, Anders Lundqvist, Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes, Markus Fridén
Modulating and optimizing the local pharmacokinetics of inhaled drugs by chemical design or formulation is challenged by the lack of predictive in vitro systems and in vivo techniques providing a detailed description of drug location in the lung. The present study investigated whether a new experimental setup of freshly prepared agarose-filled lung slices can be used to estimate lung retention in vitro, by comparing with in vivo lung retention after intratracheal instillation. Slices preloaded with inhaled β-adrenergic compounds (salbutamol, formoterol, salmeterol, indacaterol or AZD3199) were incubated in a large volume of buffer (w/wo monensin to assess the role of lysosomal trapping), and the amount remaining in slices at different time points was determined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588351/na-k-pump-interacts-with-the-h-current-to-control-bursting-activity-in-central-pattern-generator-neurons-of-leeches
#20
Daniel Kueh, William H Barnett, Gennady S Cymbalyuk, Ronald L Calabrese
The dynamics of different ionic currents shape the bursting activity of neurons and networks that control motor output. Despite being ubiquitous in all animal cells, the contribution of the Na(+)/K(+) pump current to such bursting activity has not been well studied. We used monensin, a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, to examine the role of the pump on the bursting activity of oscillator heart interneurons in leeches. When we stimulated the pump with monensin, the period of these neurons decreased significantly, an effect that was prevented or reversed when the h-current was blocked by Cs(+)...
2016: ELife
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