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Juan I Sbodio, Solomon H Snyder, Bindu D Paul
Golgi stress response is emerging as a physiologic process of comparable importance to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial stress responses. However, unlike ER stress, the identity of the signal transduction pathway involved in the Golgi stress response has been elusive. We show that the Golgi stressor monensin acts via the PKR-like ER kinase/Activating Transcription Factor 4 pathway. ATF4 is the master regulator of amino acid metabolism, which is induced during amino acid depletion and other forms of stress...
January 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Leonardo Frasson Reis, Rejane Santos Sousa, Francisco Leonardo Costa Oliveira, Frederico Augusto Mazzocca Lopes Rodrigues, Carolina Akiko Sato Cabral Araújo, Enoch Brandão Souza Meira-Júnior, Raimundo Alves Barrêto-Júnior, Clara Satsuki Mori, Antonio Humberto Hamad Minervino, Enrico Lippi Ortolani
BACKGROUND: Acute ruminal lactic acidosis (ARLA) is a major nutritional and metabolic disorder usually characterized by excessive or non-adapted intake of diets rich in nonstructural carbohydrates. Feed additives that regulate the ruminal environment have been used to prevent ARLA, such as ionophores and, more recently, yeast culture. Thus, we aimed to compare the efficacy of a yeast-based culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with that of monensin sodium in the prevention of ARLA in sheep...
January 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Fan Xu, Huihai Zhong, Ya Chang, Dongdong Li, Hongyue Jin, Meng Zhang, Huiyuan Wang, Chen Jiang, Youqing Shen, Yongzhuo Huang
Chemoresistance remains a formidable hurdle against cancer therapy. Seeking for novel therapy strategies is an urgent need for those who no longer benefit from chemotherapy. Chemoresistance is usually associated with the dysfunction of intrinsic apoptosis. Targeting extrinsic apoptosis via TRAIL signaling and the death receptors could be a potential solution to treat chemoresistant cancer. A highly biocompatible nano system for codelivery of the TRAIL DNA and the death receptor sensitizer monensin was developed, in which low-molecular-weight PEI (LMW-PEI) was crosslinked by the sulfhydryl cyclodextrin via disulfide bonds, and then bound with DNA, thus forming the bioreducible polyplex cores...
December 22, 2017: Biomaterials
A W Tebbe, D J Wyatt, W P Weiss
The interaction of monensin and 2 supplemental Mg sources (MgO and MgSO4) on total-tract digestion of minerals and organic nutrients and milk production was evaluated in lactating dairy cattle. Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows (139 ± 35 DIM) were used in a split-plot experiment with 0 or 14 mg/kg diet DM of monensin as the whole-plot treatments and Mg source as split-plot treatments. During the entire experiment (42 d), cows remained on the same monensin treatment but received a different Mg source in each period (21 d) of the Latin square...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Z J Li, H Ren, S M Liu, C J Cai, J T Han, F Li, J H Yao
This study aimed to examine the temporal (hourly within a day and daily over the long term) effects of monensin on CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation, and in situ alfalfa degradation in dairy goats during dietary monensin supplementation by controlling the confounding effects of feed intake and ambient temperature. Six ruminally cannulated dairy goats were used, and they were housed in environmental chambers and fed a restricted amount of ration throughout the experiment. The experiment included a baseline period of 20 d followed by a treatment period of 55 d with 32 mg of monensin/d...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Luis Bosch, Alexa M Bersenas, Shane Bateman
OBJECTIVE: To describe a successfully managed case of polyneuropathy and respiratory failure secondary to presumed monensin intoxication. CASE SUMMARY: A 9-month-old Australian Shepherd was evaluated for progressive generalized weakness and respiratory distress. Several days preceding presentation, the dog was seen playing with a monensin capsule, and had free access to a barn where the product was stored and where chewed capsules were subsequently found. The dog was presented with flaccid tetraparesis, hyperthermia, and severe respiratory distress...
January 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Seongjin Oh, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Shusuke Hayashi, Yutaka Suzuki, Satoshi Koike, Yasuo Kobayashi
Background: Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is an agricultural byproduct containing alkylphenols that has been shown to favorably change the rumen fermentation pattern only under experimentally fixed feeding conditions. Investigation of CNSL potency in rumen modulation under a variety of feeding regimens, and evidence leading to the understanding of CNSL action are obviously necessary for further CNSL applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potency of CNSL for rumen modulation under different dietary conditions, and to visually demonstrate its surfactant action against selected rumen bacteria...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Kemmy M Mizinga, Thomas J Burnett, Sharon L Brunelle, Michael A Wallace, Mark R Coleman
The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service regulatory method for monensin, Chemistry Laboratory Guidebook CLG-MON, is a semiquantitative bioautographic method adopted in 1991. Official Method of AnalysisSM (OMA) 2011.24, a modern quantitative and confirmatory LC-tandem MS method, uses no chlorinated solvents and has several advantages, including ease of use, ready availability of reagents and materials, shorter run-time, and higher throughput than CLG-MON. Therefore, a bridging study was conducted to support the replacement of method CLG-MON with OMA 2011...
December 1, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Shenghan Chen, Hao Wang, Heng Li, Yue Zhang, Qingyu Wu
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiac hormone essential for normal blood pressure and cardiac function. Corin is a transmembrane serine protease that activates ANP. Recently, we identified proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-6 (PCSK6), also called PACE4, as the long-sought corin activator. Both corin and PCSK6 are expressed in cardiomyocytes, but corin activation occurs only on the cell surface. It remains unknown if cell membrane association is needed for PCSK6 to activate corin. Here we expressed corin deletion mutants in HEK293 cells to analyze the domain structures required for PCSK6-mediated activation...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
B A Wenner, B K Wagner, J L Firkins
The objective of this study was to apply digital imaging to improve quantification of rumen protozoal biomass and distinguish treatment differences in cell motility and volume among ruminal protozoa. Observations of protozoa in rumen fluid treated with essential oils (CinnaGar, CIN; Provimi North America, Brookville, OH) or an ionophore (monensin, MON) indicated possible cell shrinkage. We hypothesized that MON would decrease protozoal motility and interact with CIN on cell volume. In addition, we hypothesized that analysis of still frames from video of swimming protozoa would improve volume prediction accuracy...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Joseph M Varberg, Kaice A LaFavers, Gustavo Arrizabalaga, William J Sullivan
Protozoan parasites, including the apicomplexan pathogens Plasmodium falciparum (malaria) and Toxoplasma gondii (toxoplasmosis) infect millions of people world-wide and represent a major human disease burden. Despite their prevalence, therapeutic strategies to treat these infections remain limited and are threatened by the emergence of drug resistance, highlighting the need for the identification of novel drug targets. Recently, homologues of the core autophagy proteins, including Atg8 and Atg3, were identified in many protozoan parasites...
November 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Leila Ahmadzadeh, Ali Hosseinkhani, Hossein Daghighkia
Effect of supplementing a diet, in an attempt to enhance reproduction, with monensin sodium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on reproductive performance was investigated during the breeding season using 44 Ghezel ewes (body weight 56.97±7.47kg, age 2-5 years and body condition score (BCS) 2.5) which were allocated randomly in equal numbers to the four dietary treatments as follows: 1) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450g/ewe/d) plus monensin sodium (30mg/ewe/d) (MS); 2) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450 g/ewe/d) plusSaccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (4×10(9)CFU/ewe/d) (SC); 3) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450g/ewe/d) (FG); 4) Basal diet (only grazing on pasture, Control; G)...
November 11, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
Pingdong Liang, Mónica Rosas-Lemus, Dhwani Patel, Xuan Fang, Karina Tuz, Oscar Juárez
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen responsible for the most prevalent sexually-transmitted infection in the world. For decades C. trachomatis has been considered an "energy parasite" that relies entirely on the uptake of ATP from the host cell. The genomic data suggest that C. trachomatis respiratory chain could produce a sodium gradient that may sustain the energetic demands required for its rapid multiplication. However, this mechanism awaits experimental confirmation. Moreover, the relationship of Chlamydiae with the host cell, in particular its energy dependency, is not well understood...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jan Baumann, Tatiana I Ignashkova, Sridhar R Chirasani, Silvia Ramírez-Peinado, Hamed Alborzinia, Mathieu Gendarme, Kyra Kuhnigk, Valentin Kramer, Ralph K Lindemann, Jan H Reiling
The secretory pathway is a major determinant of cellular homoeostasis. While research into secretory stress signaling has so far mostly focused on the ER, emerging data suggests that the Golgi itself serves as an important signaling hub capable of initiating stress responses. To systematically identify novel Golgi stress mediators, we performed a transcriptomic analysis of cells exposed to three different pharmacological compounds known to elicit Golgi fragmentation: brefeldin A (BFA), golgicide A (GCA) and monensin (MON)...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
W L Crossland, L O Tedeschi, T R Callaway, M D Miller, W B Smith, M Cravey
Ionophores and antibiotics have been shown to decrease ruminal methanogenesis both in vitro and in vivo but have shown little evidence toward a sustainable means of mitigation. Feed additive rotation was proposed and investigated for methane, VFA, and microbial population response. In the present study, cannulated steers ( = 12) were fed a moderate-forage basal diet in a Calan gate facility for 13 wk. In addition to the basal diet, steers were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments: 1) control, no additive; 2) bambermycin, 20 mg bambermycin/d; 3) monensin, 200 mg monensin/d; 4) the basal diet + weekly rotation of bambermycin and monensin treatments (B7M); 5) the basal diet + rotation of bambermycin and monensin treatments every 14 d (B14M); and 6) the basal diet + rotation of bambermycin and monensin treatments every 21 d (B21M)...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
G Andres Contreras, Clarissa Strieder-Barboza, Jenne De Koster
Despite major advances in our understanding of transition and early lactation cow physiology and the use of advanced dietary, medical, and management tools, at least half of early lactation cows are reported to develop disease and over half of cow deaths occur during the first week of lactation. Excessive lipolysis, usually measured as plasma concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA), is a major risk factor for the development of displaced abomasum, ketosis, fatty liver, and metritis, and may also lead to poor lactation performance...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Mathieu Gendarme, Jan Baumann, Tatiana I Ignashkova, Ralph K Lindemann, Jan H Reiling
The Golgi apparatus is increasingly recognized as a major hub for cellular signaling and is involved in numerous pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. The study of Golgi stress-induced signaling pathways relies on the selectivity of the available tool compounds of which currently only a few are known. To discover novel Golgi-fragmenting agents, transcriptomic profiles of cells treated with brefeldin A, golgicide A or monensin were generated and compared to a database of gene expression profiles from cells treated with other bioactive small molecules...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Alexander Mayer, Dirk Weuster-Botz
Acetogenesis with CO 2 :H 2 or CO via the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway does not provide any net ATP formation in homoacetogenic bacteria. Autotrophic energy conservation is coupled to the generation of chemiosmotic H + or Na + gradients across the cytoplasm membrane using either a ferredoxin:NAD + oxidoreductase (Rnf), a ferredoxin:H + oxidoreductase (Ech) or substrate-level phosphorylation via cytochromes. The first isolated acetogenic bacterium Clostridium aceticum shows both cytochromes and Rnf-complex putting it into an outstanding position...
October 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Geir Bjørklund, Joachim Mutter, Jan Aaseth
This article reviews the clinical use of the metal chelators sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate (DMPS), meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and calcium disodium edetate (CaEDTA, calcium EDTA) in overexposure and poisonings with salts of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As). DMSA has considerably lower toxicity than the classic heavy metal antagonist BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) and is also less toxic than DMPS. Because of its adverse effects, CaEDTA should be replaced by DMSA as the antidote of choice in treating moderate Pb poisoning...
October 24, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
B Kieronczyk, M Sassek, E Pruszynska-Oszmalek, P Kolodziejski, M Rawski, S Swiatkiewicz, D Józefiak
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with nisin alone or in combination with salinomycin or monensin on broiler chickens in terms of growth performance, selected blood parameters, digestive enzyme activity, apparent nutrient digestibility, and tibiotarsus mineralization, as well as selected gastrointestinal tract (GIT) organ weights, intestinal length, and central immune organ weights. Two independent experiments, each including 400 one-day-old female Ross 308 chicks differing in ionophore coccidiostats, i...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
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