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Ruth Belostotsky, Roman Lyakhovetsky, Michael Y Sherman, Fanny Shkedy, Shimrit Tzvi-Behr, Roi Bar, Bernd Hoppe, Björn Reusch, Bodo B Beck, Yaacov Frishberg
Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is a severe kidney stone disease caused by abnormalities of the peroxisomal alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT). The most frequent mutation G170R results in aberrant mitochondrial localization of the active enzyme. To evaluate the population of peroxisome-localized AGT, we developed a quantitative Glow-AGT assay based on the self-assembly split-GFP approach and used it to identify drugs that can correct mislocalization of the mutant protein. In line with previous reports, the Glow-AGT assay showed that mitochondrial transport inhibitors DECA and monensin increased peroxisomal localization of the mutant...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
J Oh, M Harper, C H Lang, E H Wall, A N Hristov
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of phytonutrients, compared with monensin as a positive control, on productivity, milk fatty acids, fat mobilization, and blood cells in lactating dairy cows. Thirty-six Holstein cows were used in a 9-wk randomized complete block design study. Following a 2-wk covariate period, cows were blocked by days in milk, parity, and milk yield and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments (12 cows/treatment): 450 mg/cow per day of monensin (MO), 250 mg/cow per day of capsicum plus 450 mg/cow per day of MO (MOCAP), and 1,000 mg/cow per day of a mixture of cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and capsicum (CEC)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Diwakar Vyas, Aklilu W Alemu, Sean M McGinn, Stephane M Duval, Maik Kindermann, Karen A Beauchemin
The study objective was to evaluate the combined effects of supplementing monensin (MON) and the methane (CH4) inhibitor 3-nitrooxypropanol (NOP) on enteric CH4 emissions, growth rate and feed conversion efficiency of backgrounding and finishing beef cattle. Two hundred and forty crossbred steers were used in a 238-d feeding study and fed a backgrounding diet for the first 105-d (backgrounding phase), transition diets for 28 d, followed by a finishing diet for 105-d (finishing phase). Treatments were: 1) Control (no additive); 2) MON (monensin supplemented at 33 mg/kg DM; 3) NOP (3-nitrooxypropanol supplemented at 200 mg/kg DM for backgrounding or 125 mg/kg DM for finishing phase); 4) MONOP (33 mg/kg DM MON supplemented with either 200 mg/kg DM or 125 mg/kg DM NOP)...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Xia Zhao, Bo Wang, Kaizhou Xie, Jianyu Liu, Yangyang Zhang, Yajuan Wang, Yawen Guo, Genxi Zhang, Guojun Dai, Jinyu Wang
A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method and an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determining eight coccidiostat (halofuginone, lasalocid, maduramicin, monensin, narasin, nigericin, robenidine and salinomycin) residues in beef were developed and compared. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetic acid, acetonitrile and ethyl acetate and were then purified on a C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE) column. The purified samples were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS, using 0...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Greta Klejborowska, Maj Ewa, Joanna Wietrzyk, Joanna Stefańska, Adam Huczyński
Monensin A (MON) is a polyether ionophore antibiotic, which shows a wide spectrum of biological activity. New MON derivatives such as double-modified ester-carbonates and double-modified amide-carbonates were obtained by a new and efficient one-pot synthesis with triphosgene as the activating reagent and the respective alcohol or amine. All new derivatives were tested for their antiproliferative activity against two drug-sensitive (MES-SA, LoVo) and two drug-resistant (MES-SA/DX5, LoVo/DX) cancer cell lines, and were also studied for their antimicrobial activity against different Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial strains...
May 2, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Yordanka Gluhcheva, Kalina Kamenova, Petar Dorkov, Yulia Lobanova, Margarita Skalnaya, Juliana Ivanova
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant shown to induce multi organ dysfunction. In this study we present novel data about the effects of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), monensin and salinomycin on the concentration of Cd in skeletal muscles of mice exposed to Cd (II) acetate treatment for 14 days. The impact of Cd and the chelating agents on the endogenous concentrations of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), phosphorous (P), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) was also investigated. Subacute exposure of mice to Cd (II) acetate resulted in a significant accumulation of the toxic metal ion in the skeletal muscles compared to the untreated controls...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Balamurugan Packialakshmi, Xiaoming Zhou
Increases of the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain generally lead to increases of production of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as by-products. MnSOD is the first line of defense against the stress induced by mitochondrial ROS. Our previous studies demonstrated that EAE progression increased Na,K-ATPase activity in the mouse kidney cortex. Since mitochondria are the major source of ATP, our present studies were sought to determine whether EAE progression increased mitochondrial activity...
2018: PloS One
Konrad Pietruk, Małgorzata Olejnik, Andrzej Posyniak
A confirmatory multi-residue method was developed for the determination in milk of 19 coccidiostats (amprolium, arprinocid, clazuril, clopidol, decoquinate, diclazuril, ethopabate, halofuginone, lasalocid, maduramicin, monensin, narasin, nicarbazin, nequinate, robenidine, salinomycin, semduramicin, toltrazuril sulfone and toltrazuril sulfoxide). Sample preparation utilizing extraction with organic solvent and clean up by solid phase extraction and freezing was found reliable and time-efficient. Optimized chromatography and mass spectrometry conditions with positive and negative electrospray ionization achieved sufficient sensitivity and selectivity...
April 12, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
D L Morris, S H Kim, P J Kononoff, C Lee
This study investigated the effects of continuous feeding of high inclusion of reduced-fat corn distillers grains with solubles with and without monensin on dry matter intake (DMI), production, milk fatty acid profile, and plasma AA profile in lactating cows. The experiment was conducted for 12 wk (1-wk covariate, 2-wk diet adaptation, and 9-wk experimental period of data collection) with 36 Holstein cows in a randomized complete block design. Cows were blocked by parity, days in milk, and milk yield and assigned to the following diets: (1) control (CON), (2) CON with reduced-fat corn distillers grains with solubles included at 28...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Courtney N Hemphill, Tryon A Wickersham, Jason E Sawyer, T M Brown-Brandl, Harvey C Freetly, Kristin E Hales
The objective of this study was to determine if feeding monensin would improve diet digestion, energy and nitrogen balance in bred heifers receiving a limit-fed corn stalk-based diet. Sixteen pregnant Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) III composite heifers were used in a 161-d completely randomized design. Heifers were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, no monensin (CON) or 150 mg/d monensin (MON), with eight heifers in each treatment group. Heifers were limit-fed a corn stalk-based diet at 100% of MEm requirements...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
D Ye, S K R Karnati, B Wagner, J L Firkins, M L Eastridge, J M Aldrich
The interaction of monensin and essential oil was hypothesized to suppress protozoa and methane production while maintaining normal rumen function. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding monensin (MON) and CinnaGar (CIN, a commercial blend of cinnamaldehyde and garlic oil) on ruminal fermentation characteristics. Continuous culture fermentors (n = 4) were maintained in 4 experimental periods in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Four dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial: (1) control diet, 37 g/d of dry matter (40 g/d at ∼92...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Janis Hausmann, Carolin Deiner, Amlan K Patra, Irmgard Immig, Alexander Starke, Jörg R Aschenbach
The aim of this study was to test whether a combination of plant bioactive lipid compounds (also termed 'essential oils') and biotin (PBLC+B) could decrease the mobilization of body reserves and ketosis incidence in postpartum dairy cows. We compared non-supplemented control (CON) cows with cows receiving monensin (MON) as a controlled-release capsule at d -21, and with cows receiving PBLC+B from day (d) -21 before calving until calving (Phase 1) and further until d 37 after calving (Phase 2), followed by PBLC+B discontinuation from d 38 to d 58 (Phase 3)...
2018: PloS One
K A de Souza, R F Cooke, K M Schubach, A P Brandão, T F Schumaher, I N Prado, R S Marques, D W Bohnert
With increased regulations regarding the use of feed-grade antimicrobials in livestock systems, alternative strategies to enhance growth and immunity of feedlot cattle are warranted. Hence, this experiment compared performance, health and physiological responses of cattle supplemented with feed-grade antibiotics or alternative feed ingredients during the initial 60 days in the feedlot. Angus×Hereford calves (63 steers+42 heifers) originating from two cow-calf ranches were weaned on day -3, obtained from an auction yard on day -2 and road-transported (800 km; 12 h) to the feedlot...
March 26, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Wenxia Wang, Xiaohong Gu, Lijun Zhou, Huihui Chen, Qingfei Zeng, Zhigang Mao
Antibiotics are widely used in aquaculture, however, this often results in undesirable ecological effects. To evaluate the occurrence, temporal variations, and ecological risk of antibiotics in five crab ponds of Lake Guchenghu Basin, China, 44 antibiotics from nine classes were analyzed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS). Twelve antibiotics belonging to six classes were detected in the aqueous phase of five crab ponds, among which sulfonamides and macrolides were the predominant classes, and six compounds (sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, erythromycin-H₂O, monensin, and florfenicol) were frequently detected at high concentrations...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
J N Reiners, J E Held, C L Wright, D W Brake
We conducted 2 experiments to determine lysine loss from 2 lipid-coated lysine products after mixing with silage. In our first experiment, we mixed 2 lipid-coated lysine products, crystalline lysine or crystalline lysine and amounts of lipid identical to amounts included in lipid-coated lysine products, with alfalfa or corn silage that had 2 different amounts of acidity. Lysine appeared to disassociate from lipid-coated lysine products in a nonlinear manner after mixing with either alfalfa or corn silage at different amounts of acidity...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
A W Tebbe, W P Weiss
Nutrient balance studies require measuring urine volume, and urinary excretion can be used to assess Mg bioavailability. A less laborious method than total collection of urine could make balance studies more feasible and expand the utility of using urinary Mg as an index of bioavailability, but the method needs to be accurate and sensitive. Sampling interval can affect accuracy because excretion must be at steady state. Two experiments were conducted to (1) determine whether urinary creatinine could be used to accurately estimate urinary output of nutrients markedly excreted via urine (N, K, Na, S, and Mg; experiment 1) and (2) determine the appropriate sampling schedule to evaluate Mg excretion after abrupt diet changes (experiment 2)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Catherine M Spirito, Sarah E Daly, Jeffrey J Werner, Largus T Angenent
The antibiotic monensin is fed to dairy cows to increase milk production efficiency. A fraction of this monensin is excreted into the cow manure. Previous studies have found that cow manure containing monensin can negatively impact the performance of anaerobic digesters, especially upon first introduction. Few studies have examined whether the anaerobic digester microbiome can adapt to monensin during the operating time. Here, we conducted a long-term, time-series study of four lab-scale anaerobic digesters fed with cow manure...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Marina de Toledo Ferraz Dellias, Clóvis Daniel Borges, Mário Lúcio Lopes, Sandra Helena da Cruz, Henrique Vianna de Amorim, Siu Mui Tsai
Industrial ethanol fermentation is subject to bacterial contamination that causes significant economic losses in ethanol fuel plants. Chronic contamination has been associated with biofilms that are normally more resistant to antimicrobials and cleaning efforts than planktonic cells. In this study, contaminant species of Lactobacillus isolated from biofilms (source of sessile cells) and wine (source of planktonic cells) from industrial and pilot-scale fermentations were compared regarding their ability to form biofilms and their sensitivity to different antimicrobials...
February 24, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Kentaro Oh-Hashi, Ayano Soga, Yoshihisa Naruse, Kanto Takahashi, Kazutoshi Kiuchi, Yoko Hirata
CREB3 is an ER membrane-bound transcription factor; however, post-translational regulation of CREB3, including expression, processing, and activation, is not fully characterized. We therefore constructed several types of mouse CREB3 expression genes and elucidated their expression in Neuro2a cells by treatment with stimuli and co-transfection with genes associated with ER-Golgi homeostasis, such as mutant Sar1 [H79G], GRP78, and KDEL receptor 1 (KDELR1). Interestingly, treatment of Neuro2a cells expressing Flag-tagged full-length CREB3 with monensin and nigericin induced the expression of the approximately 50 kDa N-terminal fragment; however, its cleavage was not parallel to the levels of GADD153 and LC3-II...
February 17, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Yuanhong Zhou, Qiang Liu, Xiangchen Dai, Yuling Yan, Ying Yang, Hua Li, Xiaoling Zhou, Wenqi Gao, Xiaolan Li, Zuyang Xi
Dormant tumor cells (DTCs) serve a crucial role in the pathogenesis of metastasis and may compromise the efficacy of existing therapeutic modalities aimed at fully eradicating cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the dormant-to-proliferating switch of DTCs remain largely unknown. The lung is one of the most common sites of metastatic recurrence. The transdifferentiation of alveolar epithelial cells II (AEC IIs) to AEC Is is a hallmark of alveolar epithelial stimulation. However, the role of AEC II transdifferentiation during the reactivation of DTCs has not been fully elucidated...
April 2018: Oncology Reports
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