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Leila Ahmadzadeh, Ali Hosseinkhani, Hossein Daghighkia
Effect of supplementing a diet, in an attempt to enhance reproduction, with monensin sodium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on reproductive performance was investigated during the breeding season using 44 Ghezel ewes (body weight 56.97±7.47kg, age 2-5 years and body condition score (BCS) 2.5) which were allocated randomly in equal numbers to the four dietary treatments as follows: 1) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450g/ewe/d) plus monensin sodium (30mg/ewe/d) (MS); 2) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450 g/ewe/d) plusSaccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (4×10(9)CFU/ewe/d) (SC); 3) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450g/ewe/d) (FG); 4) Basal diet (only grazing on pasture, Control; G)...
November 11, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
Pingdong Liang, Mónica Rosas-Lemus, Dhwani Patel, Xuan Fang, Karina Tuz, Oscar Juárez
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen responsible for the most prevalent sexually-transmitted infection in the world. For decades C. trachomatis has been considered an "energy parasite" that relies entirely on the uptake of ATP from the host cell. The genomic data suggest that C. trachomatis respiratory chain could produce a sodium gradient that may sustain the energetic demands required for its rapid multiplication. However, this mechanism awaits experimental confirmation. Moreover, the relationship of Chlamydiae with the host cell, in particular its energy dependency, is not well understood...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jan Baumann, Tatiana I Ignashkova, Sridhar R Chirasani, Silvia Ramírez-Peinado, Hamed Alborzinia, Mathieu Gendarme, Kyra Kuhnigk, Valentin Kramer, Ralph K Lindemann, Jan H Reiling
The secretory pathway is a major determinant of cellular homoeostasis. While research into secretory stress signaling has so far mostly focused on the ER, emerging data suggests that the Golgi itself serves as an important signaling hub capable of initiating stress responses. To systematically identify novel Golgi stress mediators, we performed a transcriptomic analysis of cells exposed to three different pharmacological compounds known to elicit Golgi fragmentation: brefeldin A (BFA), golgicide A (GCA) and monensin (MON)...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
W L Crossland, L O Tedeschi, T R Callaway, M D Miller, W B Smith, M Cravey
Ionophores and antibiotics have been shown to decrease ruminal methanogenesis both in vitro and in vivo but have shown little evidence toward a sustainable means of mitigation. Feed additive rotation was proposed and investigated for methane, VFA, and microbial population response. In the present study, cannulated steers ( = 12) were fed a moderate-forage basal diet in a Calan gate facility for 13 wk. In addition to the basal diet, steers were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments: 1) control, no additive; 2) bambermycin, 20 mg bambermycin/d; 3) monensin, 200 mg monensin/d; 4) the basal diet + weekly rotation of bambermycin and monensin treatments (B7M); 5) the basal diet + rotation of bambermycin and monensin treatments every 14 d (B14M); and 6) the basal diet + rotation of bambermycin and monensin treatments every 21 d (B21M)...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
G Andres Contreras, Clarissa Strieder-Barboza, Jenne De Koster
Despite major advances in our understanding of transition and early lactation cow physiology and the use of advanced dietary, medical, and management tools, at least half of early lactation cows are reported to develop disease and over half of cow deaths occur during the first week of lactation. Excessive lipolysis, usually measured as plasma concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA), is a major risk factor for the development of displaced abomasum, ketosis, fatty liver, and metritis, and may also lead to poor lactation performance...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Mathieu Gendarme, Jan Baumann, Tatiana I Ignashkova, Ralph K Lindemann, Jan H Reiling
The Golgi apparatus is increasingly recognized as a major hub for cellular signaling and is involved in numerous pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. The study of Golgi stress-induced signaling pathways relies on the selectivity of the available tool compounds of which currently only a few are known. To discover novel Golgi-fragmenting agents, transcriptomic profiles of cells treated with brefeldin A, golgicide A or monensin were generated and compared to a database of gene expression profiles from cells treated with other bioactive small molecules...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Alexander Mayer, Dirk Weuster-Botz
Acetogenesis with CO 2 :H 2 or CO via the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway does not provide any net ATP formation in homoacetogenic bacteria. Autotrophic energy conservation is coupled to the generation of chemiosmotic H + or Na + gradients across the cytoplasm membrane using either a ferredoxin:NAD + oxidoreductase (Rnf), a ferredoxin:H + oxidoreductase (Ech) or substrate-level phosphorylation via cytochromes. The first isolated acetogenic bacterium Clostridium aceticum shows both cytochromes and Rnf-complex putting it into an outstanding position...
October 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Geir Bjørklund, Joachim Mutter, Jan Aaseth
This article reviews the clinical use of the metal chelators sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate (DMPS), meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and calcium disodium edetate (CaEDTA, calcium EDTA) in overexposure and poisonings with salts of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As). DMSA has considerably lower toxicity than the classic heavy metal antagonist BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) and is also less toxic than DMPS. Because of its adverse effects, CaEDTA should be replaced by DMSA as the antidote of choice in treating moderate Pb poisoning...
October 24, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
B Kieronczyk, M Sassek, E Pruszynska-Oszmalek, P Kolodziejski, M Rawski, S Swiatkiewicz, D Józefiak
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with nisin alone or in combination with salinomycin or monensin on broiler chickens in terms of growth performance, selected blood parameters, digestive enzyme activity, apparent nutrient digestibility, and tibiotarsus mineralization, as well as selected gastrointestinal tract (GIT) organ weights, intestinal length, and central immune organ weights. Two independent experiments, each including 400 one-day-old female Ross 308 chicks differing in ionophore coccidiostats, i...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
C A Zotti, A P Silva, R Carvalho, C T Marino, P H M Rodrigues, L F P Silva, T A McAllister, P R Leme
Monensin and functional oils (FO) were supplemented to a high-concentrate diet abruptly fed to 12 ruminally cannulated Zebu steers to study their effects on rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and , , and relative population. A randomized complete block design with repeated measures over time within 2 experimental periods of 21 d each was used. Treatments were a control (CTR; with no additives), FO (included at 400 mg/kg), and monensin included at 30 mg/kg (M30) or 40 mg/kg (M40). All steers were fed the same high-concentrate basal diet, which consisted of 92...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
A Romero-Pérez, E K Okine, L L Guan, S M Duval, M Kindermann, K A Beauchemin
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol (NOP), a known methane (CH) inhibitor; the ionophore monensin (MON); and their combination on in vitro CH production in a high-grain diet (85% barley grain, 10% barley silage, and 5% vitamin-mineral supplement; DM basis) using a rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). Sixteen fermentation vessels in 2 Rusitec apparatuses (blocks) were used in a completely randomized block design with 4 treatments: Control, NOP (200 µg/g DM), MON (200 µg/g DM), and the combination of 200 µg NOP/g DM and 200 µg MON/g DM (NOP + MON)...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Felix P Mayer, Nadine V Burchardt, Ann M Decker, John S Partilla, Yang Li, Gavin McLaughlin, Pierce V Kavanagh, Walter Sandtner, Bruce E Blough, Simon D Brandt, Michael H Baumann, Harald H Sitte
A variety of new psychoactive substances (NPS) are appearing in recreational drug markets worldwide. NPS are compounds that target various receptors and transporters in the central nervous system to achieve their psychoactive effects. Chemical modifications of existing drugs can generate NPS that are not controlled by current legislation, thereby providing legal alternatives to controlled substances such as cocaine or amphetamine. Recently, 3-fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM), a derivative of the anorectic compound phenmetrazine, appeared on the recreational drug market and adverse clinical effects have been reported...
October 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
Milton Thomas, Megan Webb, Sudeep Ghimire, Amanda Blair, Kenneth Olson, Gavin John Fenske, Alex Thomas Fonder, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Derek Brake, Joy Scaria
In North America, antibiotic feed additives such as monensin and tylosin are added to the finishing diets of feedlot cattle to counter the ill-effects of feeding diets with rapidly digestible carbohydrates. While these feed additives have been proven to improve feed efficiency and reduce liver abscess incidence, how these products impact the gastrointestinal microbiota is not completely understood. In this study, we analyzed the impact of providing antibiotic feed additives to feedlot cattle using metagenome sequencing of treated and control animals...
September 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kirsi Ketola, Ravi S N Munuganti, Alastair Davies, Ka Mun Nip, Jennifer L Bishop, Amina Zoubeidi
Purpose: Prostate cancer was recently classified to three clinically relevant subtypes (PCS) demarcated by unique pathway activation and clinical aggressiveness. In this preclinical study, we investigated molecular targets and therapeutics for PCS1, the most aggressive and lethal subtype, with no treatment options available in the clinic.Experimental Design: We utilized the PCS1 gene set and our model of enzalutamide (ENZ(R)) castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) to identify targetable pathways and inhibitors for PCS1...
September 12, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
X Markantonatos, G A Varga
Eight multiparous periparturient Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannula were used in a split plot design to evaluate the effects of monensin on plasma glucose metabolism. Diets were top-dressed daily with 0 mg/cow of monensin (control) or 300 mg/cow of monensin (MON) both pre- and postpartum. Plasma glucose kinetic parameters on d -13 ± 2.0 and 19 ± 1.6 relative to parturition were determined by using stable isotopes. Na-1-(13)C3-Propionate (labeled propionate) was infused into the rumen to measure glucose synthesis originating from ruminal propionate, and U-(13)C-glucose (labeled glucose) was injected into the jugular vein to determine total glucose kinetics...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Michael D Flythe, Isabelle A Kagan, Yuxi Wang, Nelmy Narvaez
Antibiotics can improve ruminant growth and efficiency by altering rumen fermentation via selective inhibition of microorganisms. However, antibiotic use is increasingly restricted due to concerns about the spread of antibiotic-resistance. Plant-based antimicrobials are alternatives to antibiotics in animal production. The hops plant (Humulus lupulus L.) produces a range of bioactive secondary metabolites, including antimicrobial prenylated phloroglucinols, which are commonly called alpha- and beta-acids. These latter compounds can be considered phyto-ionophores, phytochemicals with a similar antimicrobial mechanism of action to ionophore antibiotics (e...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Ahmed Thabet, Johannes Schmidt, Sven Baumann, Walther Honscha, Martin VON Bergen, Arwid Daugschies, Berit Bangoura
Monensin (Mon) is an anticoccidial polyether ionophore widely used to control coccidiosis. The extensive use of polyether ionophores on poultry farms resulted in widespread resistance, but the underlying resistance mechanisms are unknown in detail. For analysing the mode of action by which resistance against polyether ionophores is obtained, we induced in vitro Mon resistance in Toxoplasma gondii-RH strain (MonR-RH) and compared it with the sensitive parental strain (Sen-RH). The proteome assessment of MonR-RH and Sen-RH strains was obtained after isotopic labelling using stable isotope labelling by amino acid in cell culture...
September 5, 2017: Parasitology
Zheng-Kun Tang, Xiao-Mei Li, Ai-Ping Pang, Chun-Yan Lin, Yue Zhang, Jie Zhang, Jianjun Qiao, Guang-Rong Zhao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
K E Hales, J E Wells, E D Berry, N Kalchayanand, J L Bono, M Kim
Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of monensin dose on growth performance and O157:H7 shedding in finishing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 198 heifers (298 ± 1.1 kg BW) were allocated to 1 of 2 treatments consisting of 1) 200 mg/heifer daily of monensin and 2) 400 mg/heifer daily of monensin and fed for 151 d. In Exp. 2, 199 steers (430 ± 1.9 kg BW) were stratified by BW and allocated to 1 of 2 treatments consisting of 1) 0 mg/steer daily of monensin and 2) 400 mg/steer daily of monensin and fed for 128 d...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
K A Bruno, E S Vanzant, A W Altman, M Kudupoje, K A Vanzant, K R McLeod
Growth in cattle may be related to animal temperament via alterations in intake or feed conversion. However, temperament is ill-defined, and different temperament measures may relate differently to production traits or interact with dietary factors in their effects. To examine relationships between diet, temperament, growth, and health, 160 crossbred steers (262 ± 22 kg) were used in a 56-d RCBD experiment with a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial treatment structure with 5 pens/treatment. Steers were pen fed a corn silage-based diet with or without monensin (41...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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