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Carlos Torrente Artero
Metabolic acid-base disorders are common in emergency and critically ill patients. Clinicians may have difficulty recognizing their presence when multiple acid-base derangements are present in a single patient simultaneously. The anion gap and the strong ion gap concepts are useful calculations to identify the components of complex metabolic acid-base associated to the presence of unmeasured anions. This article presents their definition, normal values, indications, limitations, and guidelines for interpretation of changes in the clinical setting...
November 25, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Raghupathy Suresh, Senthil Kumar Thiyagarajan, Perumal Ramamurthy
Highly selective fluorogenic detection of the fluoride ion becomes viable due to its propensity towards cleaving Si-O and Si-C bonds, the key reactive elements in fluoride selective chemodosimeters. Herein, acridinedione derived, two novel fluorescent probes bearing tertiarybutyldiphenylsilyloxy (TBDPS) and tertiarybutyldimethylsilyloxy (TBDMS) groups were synthesized and their fluoride selective dosimetric action in organic solvents and in mixed aqueous medium was established through steady state and time resolved fluorescence techniques...
November 30, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
P Sławuta, G Sapikowski, B Sobieraj
: Buffer systems of blood and tissues, which have the ability to bind with and give up hydrogen ions, participate in maintaining the acid-base balance (ABB) of the organism. According to the classic model, the system of carbonic acid and bicarbonates, where the first component serves the role of an acid and the second a base, determines plasma pH. The so-called Stewart model, which assumes that ions in blood serum can be separated into completely dissociated - nonbuffer and not dissociated - buffer ions which may give up or accept H+ions, also describes the ABB of the organism...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Ashima Sharma, Monu Yadav, B Rajesh Kumar, P Sai Lakshman, Raju Iyenger, Gopinath Ramchandran
BACKGROUND: A major change in anesthesia practice as regards to intraoperative infusion therapy is the present requirement. Switching over to balanced fluids can substantially decrease the incidence of lactic acidosis and hyperchloremic acidosis. The deleterious effects of unbalanced fluids are more recognizable during major surgeries. We prospectively studied the influence of Sterofundin (SF) and Ringer lactate (RL) on acid-base changes, hemodynamics, and readiness for extubation during scoliosis surgery...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Anton V Ievlev, Petro Maksymovych, Morgan Trassin, Jan Seidel, Ramamoorthy Ramesh, Sergei V Kalinin, Olga S Ovchinnikova
Domain formation and ferroelectric switching is fundamentally inseparable from polarization screening, which on free surfaces can be realized via band bending and ionic adsorption. In the latter case, polarization switching is intrinsically coupled to the surface electrochemical phenomena, and the electrochemical stage can control kinetics and induce long-range interactions. However, despite extensive evidence towards the critical role of surface electrochemistry, little is known about the nature of the associated processes...
October 11, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Raewyn M Town, Herman P Van Leeuwen
The Counterion Condensation-Donnan (CCD) model for the electrostatic features of soft, charged nanoparticles (NPs) is applied to the determination of the intrinsic stability constants, <i>K</i><sub>int</sub>, for inner-sphere Cd(II) and Cu(II) complexes with humic acid NPs. The novel CCD model accounts for the strong ion condensation potential for higher valency counterions within the intraparticulate double layer zone of the soft NP. The approach offers new insights into the intrinsic heterogeneity of the HA complexes, as revealed by the intraparticulate speciation as a function of the true degree of inner-sphere complexation, <i>θ<sub></i>M<i></sub></i>...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Shrikant S Thakare, Goutam Chakraborty, Parvathi Krishnakumar, Alok K Ray, Dilip Kumar Maity, Haridas Pal, Nagaiyan Sekar
Supramolecular host-guest interaction of neutral and cationic (protonated) forms of two BODIPY-benzimidazole (mono-benzimidazole and di-benzimidazole) conjugate dyes with the macrocyclic host Cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) has been investigated using photophysical and DFT studies. Expectedly, cationic forms of the dyes show exceptionally stronger binding than that of the neutral forms with CB7, which can be ascribed to strong ion-dipole interaction between the positive charge of the dye and highly polarizable carbonyl portals of the host...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Jiaxi Wang, Jie Li, Yanan Wang, Mingxia Gao, Xiangmin Zhang, Pengyuan Yang
Protein N-glycosylation is a ubiquitous and important post-translational modification that has been involved in the development and progression of a series of human-related diseases. Until recently, the highly selective capturing of glycopeptides from complex biosamples was still significant and challenging work due to their changeable structures, ultralow abundance, and strong ion-suppressing effect. Here we first report the preparation and characterization of a novel, hydrophilic, porous biocomposite composed of magnetic graphene functionalized with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) (MG@Zn-MOFs) able to recognize glycopeptides...
October 6, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Niels Van Regenmortel, Walter Verbrugghe, Tim Van den Wyngaert, Philippe G Jorens
BACKGROUND: Abnormal chloride levels are commonly observed in critically ill patients, but their clinical relevance remains a matter of debate. We examined the association between abnormal chloremia and ICU and hospital mortality. To further refine findings and integrate them into the ongoing discussion on the detrimental effects of chloride-rich solutions, the impact of strong ion difference (SID) on the same end points was assessed. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study in an academic tertiary intensive care unit on 8830 adult patients who stayed at least 24 h in the ICU was carried out...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Troels Ring, John A Kellum
Understanding acid-base regulation is often reduced to pigeonholing clinical states into categories of disorders based on arterial blood sampling. An earlier ambition to quantitatively explain disorders by measuring production and elimination of acid has not become standard clinical practice. Seeking back to classical physical chemistry we propose that in any compartment, the requirement of electroneutrality leads to a strong relationship between charged moieties. This relationship is derived in the form of a general equation stating charge balance, making it possible to calculate [H+] and pH based on all other charged moieties...
2016: PloS One
Juanzhu Yan, Haifeng Su, Huayan Yang, Chengyi Hu, Sami Malola, Shuichao Lin, Boon K Teo, Hannu Häkkinen, Nanfeng Zheng
In this work, a facile ion-pairing strategy for asymmetric synthesis of optically active negatively charged chiral metal nanoparticles using chiral ammonium cations is demonstrated. A new thiolated chiral three-concentric-shell cluster, [Ag28Cu12(SR)24](4-), was first synthesized as a racemic mixture and characterized by single-crystal X-ray structure determination. Mass spectrometric measurements revealed relatively strong ion-pairing interactions between the anionic nanocluster and ammonium cations. Inspired by this observation, the as-prepared racemic mixture was separated into enantiomers by employing chiral quaternary ammonium salts as chiral resolution agents...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
The physiologic approach has long been used in assessing acid-base status. This approach considers acids as hydrogen ion donors and bases as hydrogen ion acceptors and the acid-base status of the organism as reflecting the interaction of net hydrogen ion balance with body buffers. In the physiologic approach, the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer pair is used for assessing acid-base status and blood pH is determined by carbonic acid (ie, Paco2) and serum bicarbonate levels. More recently, the physicochemical approach was introduced, which has gained popularity, particularly among intensivists and anesthesiologists...
November 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Rita Jacobs, Patrick M Honore, Marc Diltoer, Herbert D Spapen
BACKGROUND: Citrate, the currently preferred anticoagulant for continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH), may influence acid-base equilibrium. METHODS: The effect of 2 different citrate solutions on acid-base status was assessed according to the Stewart-Figge approach in two consecutive cohorts of critically ill adult patients. The first group received Prismocitrate 10/2 (PC10/2; 10 mmol citrate/L). The next group was treated with Prismocitrate 18/0 (PC18; 18 mmol citrate/L)...
2016: BMC Nephrology
Xiao Shen, Lu Ke, Dongliang Yang, Jing Sun, Zhihui Tong, Baiqiang Li, Gang Li, Weiqin Li, Jieshou Li, Rinaldo Bellomo
PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the predictive value of Stewart-derived parameters for the development of severe type of acute pancreatitis (AP) and for AP-related mortality. METHODS: We studied 186 patients admitted to the hospital with AP. We performed blood gas and biochemical analysis for each patient on admission. We calculated multiple metrics according to the Stewart's acid-base theory and assessed their accuracy as predictors of AP severity and mortality...
July 9, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Luca Zazzeron, Davide Ottolina, Eleonora Scotti, Michele Ferrari, Paola Bruzzone, Silvio Sibilla, Cristina Marenghi, Luciano Gattinoni, Pietro Caironi
BACKGROUND: Although the loop-diuretic furosemide is widely employed in critically ill patients with known long-term effects on plasma electrolytes, accurate data describing its acute effects on renal electrolyte handling and the generation of plasma electrolyte alterations are lacking. We hypothesized that the long-term effects of furosemide on plasma electrolytes and acid-base depend on its immediate effects on electrolyte excretion rate and patient clinical baseline characteristics...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Yoshifumi Kotake
The presence of acid-base disturbances, especially metabolic acidosis may negatively affect the outcome of critically ill patients. Lactic acidosis is the most frequent etiology and has largest impact on the prognosis. Since lactate measurement might not have always been available at bedside, it had been regarded as one of the unmeasured anions. Therefore, anion gap and strong ion gap has been used to as a surrogate of lactate concentration. From this perspective, the relationship between either anion gap or strong ion gap and mortality has been explored...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
Joseph A Fournier, William Carpenter, Luigi De Marco, Andrei Tokmakoff
The long-range influence of ions in solution on the water hydrogen-bond (H-bond) network remains a topic of vigorous debate. Recent spectroscopic and theoretical studies have, for the most part, reached the consensus that weakly coordinating ions only affect water molecules in the first hydration shell. Here, we apply ultrafast broadband two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy to aqueous nitrate and carbonate in neat H2O to study the solvation structure and dynamics of ions on opposite ends of the Hofmeister series...
August 3, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Kwok M Ho, Norris S H Lan, Teresa A Williams, Yusra Harahsheh, Andrew R Chapman, Geoffrey J Dobb, Sheldon Magder
BACKGROUND: This cohort study compared the prognostic significance of strong ion gap (SIG) with other acid-base markers in the critically ill. METHODS: The relationships between SIG, lactate, anion gap (AG), anion gap albumin-corrected (AG-corrected), base excess or strong ion difference-effective (SIDe), all obtained within the first hour of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and the hospital mortality of 6878 patients were analysed. The prognostic significance of each acid-base marker, both alone and in combination with the Admission Mortality Prediction Model (MPM0 III) predicted mortality, were assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC)...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
Sara Peirce, Veymar G Tacias-Pascacio, Maria Elena Russo, Antonio Marzocchella, José J Virgen-Ortíz, Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente
Lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB) was immobilized on octyl agarose (OC) and physically modified with polyethyleneimine (PEI) in order to confer a strong ion exchange character to the enzyme and thus enable the immobilization of other enzymes on its surface. The enzyme activity was fully maintained during the coating and the thermal stability was marginally improved. The enzyme release from the support by incubation in the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 was more difficult after the PEI-coating, suggesting that some intermolecular physical crosslinking had occurred, making this desorption more difficult...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yosuke Toyonaga, Mutsuhito Kikura
AIM: Hyperchloremic acidosis may have an important role as a precursor of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the hyperchloremic environment induced by chloride-rich fluids, but this remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that hyperchloremic acidosis assessed by the Stewart approach is associated with postoperative AKI. METHODS: A historical cohort study was conducted in adult patients who had normal renal function preoperatively and required admission to the intensive care unit after elective abdominal surgery...
June 16, 2016: Nephrology
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