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Michalis Agrafiotis, Dimitrios Mpliamplias, Maria Papathanassiou, Fotini Ampatzidou, Georgios Drossos
PURPOSE: To suggest a simplified method for strong ion gap ([SIG]) calculation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To simplify [SIG] calculation, we used the following assumptions: (1) the major determinants of apparent strong ion difference ([SIDa ]) are [Na+ ], [K+ ] and [Cl- ] (2) [Ca2+ ] and [Mg2+ ] do not contribute significantly to [SIDa ] variation and can be replaced by their reference concentrations (3) physiologically relevant pH variation is at the order of 10-2 and therefore we can assume a standard value of 7...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
Hyun Jeong Kwak, Oh Kyung Lim, Jae Myung Baik, Youn Yi Jo
Background: To compare the effects of intraoperative infusions of balanced electrolyte solution (BES)-based hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and saline-based albumin on metabolic acidosis and acid/base changes during major abdominal surgery conducted using Stewart's approach. Methods: Forty patients, aged 20-65 years, undergoing major abdominal surgery, were randomly assigned to the HES group (n = 20; received 500 ml of BES-based 6% HES 130/0.4) or the albumin group (n = 20; received 500 ml of normal saline-based 5% albumin)...
April 24, 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Tao Yu, Shi-Jie Chen
The interaction between metal ions, especially Mg2+ ions, and RNA plays a critical role in RNA folding. Upon binding to RNA, a metal ion that is fully hydrated in bulk solvent can become dehydrated. Here we use molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the dehydration of bound hexahydrated Mg2+ ions. We find that a hydrated Mg2+ ion in the RNA groove region can involve significant dehydration in the outer hydration shell. The first or innermost hydration shell of the Mg2+ ion, however, is retained during the simulation because of the strong ion-water electrostatic attraction...
March 27, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Christos Filis, Ioannis Vasileiadis, Antonia Koutsoukou
Chloride represents-quantitatively-the most prevalent, negatively charged, strong plasma electrolyte. Control of chloride concentration is a probable major mechanism for regulating the body's acid-base balance and for maintaining homeostasis of the entire internal environment. The difference between the concentrations of chloride and sodium constitutes the major contributor to the strong ion difference (SID); SID is the key pH regulator in the body, according to the physicochemical approach. Hyperchloraemia resulting from either underlying diseases or medical interventions is common in intensive care units...
March 27, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
Jesse Gatten McDaniel
Organic electrolytes are unique in that their constituent solvents may be of much lower dielectric strength than water. This is because the ions of organic electrolytes are often those that comprise room-temperature ionic liquids, which are surprisingly miscible with many different organic solvents of low dielectric strength. Strong ion correlation results from the relatively low dielectric screening of the solvent, resulting in properties that can substantially deviate from Debye-Huckel descriptions; in addition remains the fundamental question of why the ionic liquids and low dielectric solvents are even miscible in the first place...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Katja N Adamik, Rafael Obrador, Judith Howard
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a 6% hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.42) in either a buffered, electrolyte-balanced (HES-BAL) or saline (HES-SAL) carrier solution on electrolyte concentrations and acid-base parameters in healthy anaesthetized dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomised clinical study. ANIMALS: A group of 40 client-owned dogs undergoing general anaesthesia for elective surgical procedures or diagnostic imaging. METHODS: During anaesthesia, dogs were intravenously administered 15 mL kg-1 of either HES-SAL (n = 20) or HES-BAL (n = 20) over 30-40 minutes...
May 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Kai-Chih Chang, Chin-Yi Chung, Chen-Hsing Yeh, Kuo-Hsiu Hsu, Ya-Ching Chin, Sin-Siang Huang, Bo-Rong Liu, Hsi-An Chen, Anren Hu, Po-Chi Soo, Wen-Ping Peng
The appearance and spread of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) pose a challenge for optimization of antibiotic therapies and outbreak preventions. The carbapenemase production can be detected through culture-based methods (e.g. Modified Hodge Test-MHT) and DNA based methods (e.g. Polymerase Chain Reaction-PCR). The culture-based methods are time-consuming, whereas those of PCR assays need only a few hours but due to its specificity, can only detect known genetic targets encoding carbapenem-resistance genes...
April 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
K M Frizzell, M J Jendral, I M Maclean, W T Dixon, C T Putman
1. Post-mortem decline in muscle pH has traditionally been attributed to glycogenolysis-induced lactate accumulation. However, muscle pH ([H+ ]) is controlled by complex physicochemical relationships encapsulated in the Stewart model of acid-base chemistry and is determined by three system-independent variables - strong ion difference ([SID]), total concentration of weak acids ([Atot ]) and partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2 ). 2. This study investigated these system-independent variables in post-mortem pectoralis major muscles of Shaver White, Lohmann Lite and Lohmann Brown laying hens housed in conventional cages (CC) or furnished cages (FC) and evaluated the model by comparing calculated [H+ ] with previously measured [H+ ] values...
March 23, 2018: British Poultry Science
Yukako Hayashi, Kazuaki Ohara, Rika Taki, Tomomi Saeki, Kentaro Yamaguchi
The crystalline sponge (CS) method, which employs single-crystal X-ray diffraction to determine the structure of an analyte present as a liquid or an oil and having a low melting point, was used in combination with laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). 1,3-Benzodioxole derivatives were encapsulated in CS and their structures were determined by combining X-ray crystallography and MS. After the X-ray analysis, the CS was subjected to imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) with an LDI spiral-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS)...
March 12, 2018: Analyst
Lee Chuin Chen, Satoru Tsutsui, Tsubasa Naito, Satoshi Ninomiya, Kenzo Hiraoka
A new electrospray source design is introduced by having an extractor electrode placed at 1 to 2 mm behind the emitter tip. The extractor was integrated into the sprayer body as a single device. An insulating tube was used to isolate the emitter from the extractor and to deliver the sheath gas for the electrospray. The electric field strength at the emitter was primarily determined by the relative position and the potential between the needle and the extractor; therefore, the spraying condition was insusceptible to the change of sprayer position or orientation with respect to the ion sampling inlet...
May 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Patrick Dillane, Lea Krump, Aideen Kennedy, Ríona G Sayers, Gearóid P Sayers
Calf mortality and morbidity commonly occurs within the first month of life postpartum. Standard health ranges are invaluable aids in diagnostic veterinary medicine to confirm normal or the degree and nature of abnormal parameters in (sub)clinically ill animals. Extensive research has indicated significant differences between the physiologies of neonate and adult cattle, particularly for blood parameters such as pH, base excess, anion gap, and bicarbonate (HCO3 - ). The objective of this research was to determine the influence of age, sex, and breed type, in addition to environmental factors, on the normal blood gas profiles of neonatal calves, and thus develop a scientifically validated reference range accounting for any significant factors...
April 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Jesse P Goff
Several minerals are required for life to exist. In animals, 7 elements (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, and S) are required to be present in the diet in fairly large amounts (grams to tens of grams each day for the dairy cow) and are termed macrominerals. Several other elements are termed microminerals or trace minerals because they are required in much smaller amounts (milligrams to micrograms each day). In most cases the mineral in the diet must be absorbed across the gastrointestinal mucosa and enter the blood if it is to be of value to the animal...
April 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Yuan Xiang, Rong-Guang Xu, Yongsheng Leng
We carried out umbrella sampling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate molecular interactions between sulfobetaine zwitterions or between sulfobetaine brushes in different media. Simulation results show that it is more energetically favorable for the two sulfobetaine zwitterions or brushes to be fully hydrated in aqueous solutions than in vacuum where strong ion pairs are formed. Structural properties of the hydrated sulfobetaine brush array and its antifouling behavior against a foulant gel are subsequently studied through steered MD simulations...
February 13, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Jason D Guffey, Curtis E Haas, Amber Crowley, Kathryn A Connor, David C Kaufman
BACKGROUND: Older reports of use of hydrochloric acid (HCl) infusions for treatment of metabolic alkalosis document variable dosing strategies and risk. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize use of HCl infusions in surgical intensive care unit patients for the treatment of metabolic alkalosis. METHODS: This retrospective review included patients who received a HCl infusion for >8 hours. The primary end point was to evaluate the utility of common acid-base equations for predicting HCl dose requirements...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Dilshadbek T Usmanov, Khatam B Ashurov, Satoshi Ninomiya, Kenzo Hiraoka, Hiroshi Wada, Hiroshi Nakano, Masaya Matsumura, Sachiyo Sanada-Morimura, Hiroshi Nonami
RATIONALE: Probe electrospray ionization (PESI) is only applicable to liquid or wet samples. In this study, a sheath-flow PESI method for remote sampling mass spectrometry that can be applied to dry samples was developed. METHODS: An acupuncture needle (0.12 mm outer diameter, 700 nm tip diameter) was inserted into a gel-loading tip with a 0.1 mm protrusion out of the tip. Analytes were extracted by filling the latter tip with solvent and softly touching the sample surface for a short time (<1 s)...
March 15, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
S Redlberger, S Fischer, H Köhler, R Diller, P Reinhold
There is a paucity of published data reporting acid-base equilibrium in goats, and no information is available on how the acid-base complexity changes when suckling goat kids become ruminants. The aims of this study were to evaluate young healthy goats for age-related changes in serum proteins, metabolites, and electrolytes; differences in results when the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation or strong ion approaches were used were also assessed. To assess biological variability and reproducibility, two consecutive long-term studies, each lasting from the 6th to 56th week of life (wl), were performed in 15 (Study 1) and 10 (Study 2) animals...
November 2017: Veterinary Journal
Laurence Weinberg, Elizabeth Chiam, James Hooper, Frank Liskaser, Angela Kim Hawkins, Denise Massie, Andrew Ellis, Chong O Tan, David Story, Rinaldo Bellomo
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of acid-base changes during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that, when used as CPB pump prime solutions, Plasma-Lyte 148 (PL) and Hartmann's solution (HS) have differential mechanisms of action in their contribution to acid-base changes. METHODS: We performed a prospective, double-blind, randomized trial in adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with CPB. Participants received a CPB prime solution of 2000 mL, with either PL or HS...
November 1, 2017: Perfusion
Devon Samuel, Carl Steinhauser, Jeffrey G Smith, Aaron Kaufman, Maxwell D Radin, Junichi Naruse, Hidehiko Hiramatsu, Donald J Siegel
One obstacle to realizing a practical, rechargeable magnesium-ion battery is the development of efficient Mg electrolytes. Electrolytes based on simple Mg(BH4 )2 salts suffer from poor salt solubility and/or low conductivity, presumably due to strong ion pairing. Understanding the molecular-scale processes occurring in these electrolytes would aid in overcoming these performance limitations. Toward this goal, the present study examines the solvation, agglomeration, and transport properties of a family of Mg electrolytes based on the Mg(BH4 )2 salt using classical molecular dynamics...
December 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hoong Sern Lim, Neil Howell
BACKGROUND: Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is increasingly used in cardiogenic shock, but outcomes may differ between patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or end-stage heart failure (ESHF). This study aimed to describe the characteristics of patients with cardiogenic shock due to AMI and ESHF. METHODS: Single centre study of consecutive patients with cardiogenic shock due to AMI (n = 26) and ESHF (n = 42) who underwent MCS (extracorporeal life support, Impella or temporary ventricular assist devices)...
November 3, 2017: Shock
Eva Kranjc, Alen Albreht, Irena Vovk, Vesna Glavnik
We developed first HPTLC and HPTLC-MS/MS methods which enable characterization of structurally similar and complex biologically active compounds - physalins - from crude extracts of Chinese lantern (Physalis alkekengi L.). Separation on HPTLC silica gel plates developed with ethyl acetate-toluene-formic acid (7:3:0.2, v/v) enabled densitometric screening of physalins in absorption and, after post-chromatographic derivatization with sulfuric acid reagent, also in fluorescence mode. Compared to existing (U)HPLC methods, in this case TLC provides an alternative selectivity, better sensitivity and higher resolution, which was exemplified by the separation of physalin L standard and its impurity, identified as 2,3,25,27-tetrahydrophysalin A...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
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