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Xiaofei Zeng, Abhijeet P Borole, Spyros G Pavlostathis
Furanic and phenolic compounds are problematic compounds resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is a promising technology to convert furanic and phenolic compounds to renewable H2 . The objective of the research presented here was to elucidate the processes and electron equivalents flow during the conversion of two furanic (furfural, FF; 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, HMF) and three phenolic (syringic acid, SA; vanillic acid, VA; 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, HBA) compounds in the MEC bioanode...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Buchun Si, Jiaming Li, Zhangbing Zhu, Mengmeng Shen, Jianwen Lu, Na Duan, Yuanhui Zhang, Qiang Liao, Yun Huang, Zhidan Liu
One critical challenge of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is its complex aqueous product, which has a high concentration of organic pollutants (up to 100gCOD/L) and diverse fermentation inhibitors, such as furfural, phenolics and N-heterocyclic compounds. Here we report continuous anaerobic digestion of HTL wastewater via an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed reactor (UASB) and packed bed reactor (PBR). Specifically, we investigated the transformation of fermentation inhibitors and microbial response. GC-MS identified the complete degradation of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and partial degradation (54...
March 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jia Wu, Adam Elliston, Gwenaelle Le Gall, Ian J Colquhoun, Samuel R A Collins, Ian P Wood, Jo Dicks, Ian N Roberts, Keith W Waldron
Background: Rice straw and husk are globally significant sources of cellulose-rich biomass and there is great interest in converting them to bioethanol. However, rice husk is reportedly much more recalcitrant than rice straw and produces larger quantities of fermentation inhibitors. The aim of this study was to explore the underlying differences between rice straw and rice husk with reference to the composition of the pre-treatment liquors and their impacts on saccharification and fermentation...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Sandeep Janghu, Manab B Bera, Vikas Nanda, Ashish Rawson
The present study was done to optimize the power ultrasound processing for maximizing diastase activity of and minimizing hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content in honey using response surface methodology. Experimental design with treatment time (1-15 min), amplitude (20-100%) and volume (40-80 mL) as independent variables under controlled temperature conditions was studied and it was concluded that treatment time of 8 min, amplitude of 60% and volume of 60 mL give optimal diastase activity and HMF content, i...
December 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Minhal Abidi, M Salman Khan, Saheem Ahmad, Tasneem Kausar, Shahid M Nayeem, Sidra Islam, Asif Ali, Khursheed Alam, Moinuddin
Methylglyoxal (MGO), a reactive dicarbonyl metabolite is a potent arginine directed glycating agent which has implications for diabetes-related complications. Dicarbonyl metabolites are produced endogenously and in a state of misbalance, they contribute to cell and tissue dysfunction through protein and DNA modifications causing dicarbonyl stress. MGO is detoxified by glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) system in the cytoplasm. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to aggravate the glycation process. Both the processes are closely linked, and their combined activity is often referred to as "glycoxidation" process...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Danshi Wang, Zhimin Wu, Min Zhang, Xiongyan Tang
A multifunctional optical signal processing scheme for 10-Gbaud quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) and binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signals based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) is proposed. Wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) multicast, wavelength conversion, modulation format conversion, and hybrid modulation format exclusive-OR (HMF-XOR) logic gates are realized simultaneously by simulation. One-to-three WDM multicast of 20-Gbps QPSK signals are achieved paying the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties <0...
March 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Angela Dibenedetto, Maria Ventura, Francesco Lobefaro, Elvira de Giglio, Monica Distaso, Francesco Nocito
Mixed oxides based on MgO·CeO2 were used, as efficient catalysts, in the aerobic oxidation of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (5-HMF) to afford, with very high selectivity, either 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF, 99%) or 2-formyl-5-furancarboxylic acid (FFCA, 90%) depending on the reaction conditions. 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxylic acid (HMFCA, 57-90%) was formed only at low concentration of 5-HMF (<0.03 M) or in presence of external bases. The conversion of 5-HMF ranged from a few units to 99 %, according to the reaction conditions...
March 7, 2018: ChemSusChem
Caterina Martin, Amaury Ovalle Maqueo, Hein J Wijma, Marco W Fraaije
Background: HMF oxidase (HMFO) from Methylovorus sp. is a recently characterized flavoprotein oxidase. HMFO is a remarkable enzyme as it is able to oxidize 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) into 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA): a catalytic cascade of three oxidation steps. Because HMF can be formed from fructose or other sugars and FDCA is a polymer building block, this enzyme has gained interest as an industrially relevant biocatalyst. Results: To increase the robustness of HMFO, a requirement for biotechnological applications, we decided to enhance its thermostability using the recently developed FRESCO method: a computational approach to identify thermostabilizing mutations in a protein structure...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Imane Semhaoui, Thierry Maugard, Ikbal Zarguili, Sid-Ahmed Rezzoug, Jean-Michel Qiuyu Zhao, Jamil Toyir, Mostafa Nawdali, Zoulikha Maache-Rezzoug
The aim of this study was to investigate a pretreatment by combined H2 SO4 acid-catalyst and thermomechanical process to improve hemicelluloses solubilization of hemp hurds and subsequently enzymatic hydrolysis extent of potentially fermentable sugars. It was found that the sugars released were gradually increased with treatment severity. Soluble sugars generated before enzymatic hydrolysis (R1 ) increased up to 2.23 g/L indicating that autohydrolysis reaction occurred during pretreatment. Consequently, the solubilization of hemicelluloses was correlated with combined severity factor (CS)...
February 23, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jian Lyu, Xuan Liu, Jinfeng Bi, Xinye Wu, Linyan Zhou, Weihong Ruan, Mo Zhou, Yi Jiao
Kinetics of non-enzymatic browning and loss of free amino acids during different storage temperature (4, 25, 37 °C) were investigated. Changes of browning degree ( A 420 ), color parameters, Vitamin C ( V c ), free amino acids and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) were analyzed to evaluate the non-enzymatic browning reactions, which were significantly affected by storage temperature. The lower temperature (4 °C) decreased the loss of V c and the generation of 5-HMF, but induce the highest loss of serine. At the end of storage, loss of serine, alanine and aspartic acid were mainly lost...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Hong-Il Kim, Yong-Un Jeong, Jong-Hyeon Kim, Young-Jin Park
Citrus fruits contain various types of flavonoids with powerful anti-aging and photoprotective effects on the skin, and have thus been attracting attention as potential, efficacious skincare agents. Here, we aimed to investigate the chemical composition of Citrus unshiu and its protective effects on photoaging. We isolated and identified a bioactive compound, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF), from C. unshiu peels using ethanol extraction and hexane fractionation. HMF inhibited collagenase activity and increased type I procollagen content in UV-induced human dermal fibroblast neonatal (HDFn) cells...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Michael T Guarnieri, Mary Ann Franden, Christopher W Johnson, Gregg T Beckham
The sugar dehydration products, furfural and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF), are commonly formed during high-temperature processing of lignocellulose, most often in thermochemical pretreatment, liquefaction, or pyrolysis. Typically, these two aldehydes are considered major inhibitors in microbial conversion processes. Many microbes can convert these compounds to their less toxic, dead-end alcohol counterparts, furfuryl alcohol and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfuryl alcohol. Recently, the genes responsible for aerobic catabolism of furfural and HMF were discovered in Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14 to enable complete conversion of these compounds to the TCA cycle intermediate, 2-oxo-glutarate...
June 2017: Metabolic Engineering Communications
Yiling Wang, Yang Liu, Qiqi Cao, Xuan Shi, Hongtao Lu, Songyan Gao, Rui Yang
This study is aimed to investigate the efficacy of mangiferin, including its known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on sepsis-induced lung injury induced by a classical cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) models in mouse using a metabolomics approach. Generally a total of twenty-four mice were randomly divided into four groups: sham group was given saline before sham operation. CLP group was received CLP operation only. HMF and LMF groups were given mangiferin treatment of high dose and low dose of mangiferin respectively before CLP operation...
February 12, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Dongjoo Kim, Songyi Lee, Jae-Yol Lim, Soonjo Kwon
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: This study was conducted to provide a vibrational culture model to investigate the effects of mechanical environments on cellular functions, and elucidate physiological characteristics of two different types of cells in vocal folds under static and vibrational conditions. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro study of human vocal fold fibroblasts (hVFFs) and human macula flava stellate cells (hMF-SCs). METHODS: hVFFs and hMF-SCs were exposed to a 2-second-on/2-second-off, 205 Hz vibration regime for 4 hours by using a vibrational culture model...
February 2, 2018: Laryngoscope
Yue-E Sun, Weidong Wang
This study aimed to explore ideal processing condition for black garlic based on the change of nutritional and active components and antioxidant capacity. Fresh garlic was processed under the condition of constant temperature (65, 75 and 85 °C) and relative humidity (70, 75, 80 and 85%) for 16 days. The sensory scores, contents of nutritional and active components, and antioxidant capacity were monitored. The sensory scores reached the maximum on the 8th day at 85% humidity and 75 °C. The contents of nutritional components were significantly affected by humidity and temperature, and 85% humidity and 75 °C were appropriate...
February 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Imelda-Elizabeth Ortiz Cerda, Phahath Thammavong, Vincent Caqueret, Catherine Porte, Isabelle Mabille, José Manuel García Fernández, Mario Moscosa Santillan, Jean-Louis Havet
Caramel enriched in di-D-fructose dianhydrides (DFAs, a family of prebiotic cyclic fructodisaccharides) is a functional food with beneficial properties for health. The aim of this work was to study the conversion of fructose into DFAs catalyzed by acid ion-exchange resin, in order to establish a simplified mechanism of the caramelization reaction and a kinetic model for DFA formation. Batch reactor experiments were carried out in a 250 mL spherical glass flask and afforded up to 50%DFA yields. The mechanism proposed entails order 2 reactions that describe fructose conversion on DFAs or formation of by-products such as HMF or melanoidins...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Feng Qian, Xiangdong Zhu, Yuchen Liu, Quan Shi, Longhua Wu, Shicheng Zhang, Jianmin Chen, Zhiyong Jason Ren
Waste Sedum plumbizincicola (SP), a zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator from phytoremediation, was recycled via a subcritical hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) reaction into multiple streams of valuable products, including hydrochar, bio-oil, and carboxylic acids. Results show approximately 90% of Zn was released from the SP biomass during HTL at an optimized temperature of 220 °C, and the hazardous risk was mitigated via HTL reaction for hydrochar production. The low-Zn hydrochar could be further upgraded into porous carbon (PC) with high porosity and excellent capability of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture...
January 27, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Ali Hussain Motagamwala, Wangyun Won, Canan Sener, David Martin Alonso, Christos T Maravelias, James A Dumesic
We report a process for converting fructose, at a high concentration (15 weight %), to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), a monomer used in the production of polyethylene furanoate, a renewable plastic. In our process, fructose is dehydrated to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) at high yields (70%) using a γ-valerolactone (GVL)/H2O solvent system. HMF is subsequently oxidized to FDCA over a Pt/C catalyst with 93% yield. The advantage of our system is the higher solubility of FDCA in GVL/H2O, which allows oxidation at high concentrations using a heterogeneous catalyst that eliminates the need for a homogeneous base...
January 2018: Science Advances
Shigeru Matsumoto, Tsukasa Tominari, Chiho Matsumoto, Shosei Yoshinouchi, Ryota Ichimaru, Kenta Watanabe, Michiko Hirata, Florian M W Grundler, Chisato Miyaura, Masaki Inada
Polymethoxyflavonoids (PMFs) are a family of the natural compounds that mainly compise nobiletin, tangeretin, heptamethoxyflavone (HMF), and tetramethoxyflavone (TMF) in citrus fruits. PMFs have shown various biological functions, including anti-oxidative effects. We previously showed that nobiletin, tangeretin, and HMF all inhibited interleukin (IL)-1-mediated osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis. In this study, we created an original mixture of PMFs (nobiletin, tangeretin, HMF, and TMF) and examined whether or not PMFs exhibit co-operative inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption...
January 20, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Kai Li, Jia-Wei Zhang, Chen-Guang Liu, Feng-Wu Bai
The present study investigated the effects of formic acid, acetic acid, furfural, 5-HMF, and ethanol on activity of two commercial cellulases from Novozyme and Youtell. The carboxylic acid (formic acid and acetic acid) showed little impact on cellulose hydrolysis, but furan derivate (furfural, 5-HMF) performed higher inhibitory effects. The significant decrease of enzyme activity (Novozyme 84%, Youtell 75.8%) happened as addition of 6 g/L furfural. The synthetic solution containing four inhibitors with similar concentration as the acid-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate decreased enzyme activity by ~10%...
January 21, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
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