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Yao Sun, Zhaobing Guan, Hongwei Cai, Yiyong Huang, Yawei Lin, Xiaosong Hu
A pre-column fluorescent derivatization method based on nitrone formation has been applied to determine furfurals (e.g. furfural (F), 5-methyfurfural (5-MF) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF)) in food samples for the first time. An N-substituted hydroxylamine reagent 4-((hydroxyamino)butyl)-7-hydroxycoumarin (HAHC) was used to react with the aldehyde group of furfurals to form stable nitrone derivatives with high fluorescence intensities. The reactions proceeded under mild conditions in 30 min with high derivatization yields (>93%)...
September 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Sara Salvatierra Virgen, Silvia Guillermina Ceballos-Magaña, Vilma Del Carmen Salvatierra-Stamp, Maria Teresa Sumaya-Martínez, Francisco Javier Martínez-Martínez, Roberto Muñiz-Valencia
In recent years, there has been an increased concern about the presence of toxic compounds derived from the Maillard reaction produced during food cooking at high temperatures. The main toxic compounds derived from this reaction are acrylamide and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The majority of analytical methods require sample treatments using solvents which are highly polluting for the environment. The difficulty for quantifying HMF in complex fried food matrices encourages the development of new analytical methods...
September 15, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Parthiban Anburajan, Arivalagan Pugazhendhi, Jong-Hun Park, Periyasamy Sivagurunathan, Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Sang-Hyoun Kim
This study investigated the effect of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) on high-rate continuous fermentative H2 production in a lab-scale fixed bed reactor (FBR) inoculated with mixed culture granules and fed with 15g/L galactose at a hydraulic retention time of 6h and at 37°C. During the 83days of operation, 5-HMF up to 2.4g/L was spiked into the feedstock. The maximum hydrogen production performance of 26.6L/L-d and 2.9mol H2/mol galactoseadded were achieved at 5-HMF concentration of 0.6g/L. 5-HMF concentration exceeding 0...
September 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Iris K M Yu, Daniel C W Tsang, Season S Chen, Lei Wang, Andrew J Hunt, James Sherwood, Karine De Oliveira Vigier, François Jérôme, Yong Sik Ok, Chi Sun Poon
Valorisation of bread waste for hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) synthesis was examined in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-, tetrahydrofuran (THF)-, acetonitrile (ACN)-, and acetone-water (1:1v/v), under heating at 140°C with SnCl4 as the catalyst. The overall rate of the process was the fastest in ACN/H2O and acetone/H2O, followed by DMSO/H2O and THF/H2O due to the rate-limiting glucose isomerisation. However, the formation of levulinic acid (via rehydration) and humins (via polymerisation) was more significant in ACN/H2O and acetone/H2O...
September 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Haibo Yuan, Jianghua Li, Hyun-Dong Shin, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen, Zhongping Shi, Long Liu
2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) is a promising bio-based building block and can be produced by biotransformation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). To improve the FDCA production, two genes-one encoding HMF oxidase (HMFO; from Methylovorus sp. strain MP688) and another encoding for HMF/Furfural oxidoreductase (HmfH; from Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14)-were introduced into Raoultella ornithinolytica BF60. The FDCA production in the engineered whole-cell biocatalyst increased from 51.0 to 93.6mM, and the molar conversion ratio of HMF to FDCA increased from 51...
September 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Tatsaporn Todhanakasem, Supanika Yodsanga, Apinya Sowatad, Pattanop Kanokratana, Pornthep Thanonkeo, Verawat Champreda
Lignocellulose pretreatment produces various toxic inhibitors that affect microbial growth, metabolism and fermentation. Zymomonas mobilis is an ethanologenic microbe that has been demonstrated to have potential to be used in lignocellulose biorefineries for bioethanol production. Z. mobilis biofilm has previously exhibited high potential to enhance ethanol production by presenting a higher viable cell number and higher metabolic activity than planktonic cells or free cells when exposed to lignocellulosic hydrolysate containing toxic inhibitors...
September 11, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Clemens Kanzler, Helena Schestkowa, Paul T Haase, Lothar W Kroh
In this study the Maillard reaction of maltose and D-glucose in presence of L-alanine was investigated in aqueous solution at 130 °C and pH 5. The reactivity of both carbohydrates was compared in regards of their degradation, browning and antioxidant activity. In order to identify relevant differences in the reaction pathways, the concentrations of selected intermediates such as 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds, furans, furanones, and pyranones were determined. It was found, that the degradation of maltose pre-dominantly yields 1,2-dicarbonyls that still carry a glucosyl moiety and thus subsequent reactions to HMF, furfural, and 2-acetylfuran are favored due to the elimination of D-glucose, which is an excellent leaving group in aqueous solution...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
S M Mahfuzul Islam, Qian Li, Abdullah Al Loman, Lu-Kwang Ju
The high carbohydrate content of soybean hull makes it an attractive biorefinery resource. But hydrolyzing its complex structure requires concerted enzyme activities, at least cellulase, xylanase, pectinase and α-galactosidase. Effective pretreatment that generates minimal inhibitory products is important to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis. Combined CO2-H2O pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis by Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei enzyme broths was studied here. The pretreatment was evaluated at 80°C-180°C temperature and 750psi-1800psi pressure, with fixed moisture content (66...
November 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Guoyan G Xu, Piyusha P Pagare, Mohini S Ghatge, Ronni P Safo, Aheema Gazi, Qiukan Chen, Tanya David, Alhumaidi B Alabbas, Faik N Musayev, Jürgen Venitz, Yan Zhang, Martin K Safo, Osheiza Abdulmalik
Candidate drugs to counter intracellular polymerization of deoxygenated sickle hemoglobin (Hb S) continue to represent a promising approach to mitigating the primary cause of the pathophysiology associated with sickle cell disease (SCD). One such compound is the naturally occurring antisickling agent, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF), which has been studied in the clinic for the treatment of SCD. As part of our efforts to develop novel efficacious drugs with improved pharmacologic properties, we structurally modified 5-HMF into 12 ether and ester derivatives...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Jian Gong, Sandeep Viswanathan, David Rothamer, David E Foster, Christopher J Rutland
Motivated by high filtration efficiency (mass and number based) and low pressure drop requirements for gasoline particulate filters (GPFs), a previously developed heterogeneous multiscale filtration (HMF) model is extended to simulate dynamic filtration characteristics of GPFs. This dynamic HMF model is based on a probability density function (PDF) description of the pore size distribution and classical filtration theory. The microstructure of the porous substrate in a GPF is resolved and included in the model...
August 31, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Lin Zhang, Tiannan Man, Minghao Huang, Jianwen Gao, Xiaowei Zuo, Engang Wang
A model has been presented for the coarsening of the dispersed phase of liquid-liquid two-phase mixtures in Cu-Pb alloys under the effect of a high magnetic field (HMF). The numerical results show that the evolution of size distribution is the result of several factors and the diffusional growth, the collision-coagulation of the Cu-rich droplets (gravity sedimentation and Marangoni migration), and melt flow also have obvious effects on the movement of droplets and coarsening process. The effect of the HMF in the coarsening process of Cu-Pb alloy is studied in this work both by simulation and experiment...
August 28, 2017: Materials
Dinesh Pradhan, Jaroslaw J Jedrych, Jonhan Ho, Oleg E Akilov
Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (HMF) is the most common variant of mycosis fungoides (MF) in children. Large-cell transformation in HMF has never been reported. Herein we report a case of HMF in an 8-year-old boy who presented with a 6-year history of hypopigmented patches on the bilateral arms, lower back, buttocks, posterior thighs, and lower legs. Biopsy revealed an abnormal CD8(+) epidermotropic T-cell infiltrate consistent with the diagnosis of MF. The T-cell clonality study was positive. The patient was started on narrowband ultraviolet B (NBUVB) phototherapy and topical steroids...
August 14, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
Leonid Romashov, Valentine P Ananikov
Acetylene-functionalized platform chemicals were synthesized for the first time based on biomass-derived 5-hydrohymethylfurfural (HMF). Demanded mono- and bis-ethynylfurans were obtained in high yields (89-99%). Plausible application of these products in the synthesis of smart organic conjugated materials and pharmaceuticals was addressed in a series of transformations. Conjugated polyacetylenic polymers with morphology control have been prepared with the incorporation of the HMF core.
August 7, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Yong Yi Teh, Keat Teong Lee, Wei-Hsin Chen, Shih-Cheng Lin, Herng-Kuang Sheen, Inn Shi Tan
This study aims to produce biochar and sugars from a macroalga Eucheuma denticulatum using dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis along with microwave-assisted heating. The reactions were operated at sulfuric acid concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2M, reaction temperatures of 150-170°C and a heating time of 10min. Compared to the raw macroalga, biochar qualities were improved with increased carbon content and lower ash and moisture contents. The calorific value of the biochar could be intensified up to 45%, and 39% of energy yield was recovered...
July 21, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Peng Jia, En-Gang Wang, Ke Han
In contrast with amorphous alloys, nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials show improved thermal stability and higher soft magnetic properties. The nanocrystalline soft magnetic composites are usually fabricated by partially crystallizing from parent amorphous alloys. This paper reports our experimental observation on the sequence of crystallization in metallic glass under a high magnetic field (HMF). An application of a HMF to bulk metallic glass (BMG) of [(Fe0.5Co0.5)0.75B0.2Si0.05]96Nb₄ prioritizes the precipitation of α-(Fe,Co) phase separated from the subsequent precipitation of borides, (Fe,Co)23B₆, upon isothermal annealing at a glass transition temperature...
November 4, 2016: Materials
G Wölkart, A Schrammel, C N Koyani, S Scherübel, K Zorn-Pauly, E Malle, B Pelzmann, M Andrä, A Ortner, B Mayer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The antioxidant 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) exerts documented beneficial effects in several experimental pathologies and is currently tested as antisickling drug in clinical trials. In the present study we examined the cardiovascular effects of 5-HMF and elucidated the mode of action of the drug. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The cardiovascular effects of 5-HMF were studied with precontracted porcine coronary arteries and isolated normoxic perfused rat hearts...
August 2, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
Chang-Won Cho, Sungeun Ahn, Tae-Gyu Lim, Hee-Do Hong, Young Kyoung Rhee, Deok-Chun Yang, Mi Jang
We recently reported the immune-enhancing effects of a high-molecular-weight fraction (HMF) of CW in macrophages and immunosuppressed mice, and this effect was attributed to a crude polysaccharide. As polysaccharides may also have anti-inflammatory functions, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and related molecular mechanisms of a crude polysaccharide (HMFO) obtained from HMF of CW in mice with dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis and in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Luís R Silva, Adriana Sousa, Marcos Taveira
The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of 16 honey samples from Castelo Branco region (Portugal). Twelve are monofloral from Calluna vulgaris, Erica, Lavandula, Echium and Campanula. The mean values obtained for physicochemical parameters were: 3.82 pH; 16.80% moisture; 81.6°Brix; 0.21% ash; 357.6 μS cm(-1) electrical conductivity; 33.7 meq/kg free acidity; 5.7 meq/kg lactonic acidity; 39.3 meq/kg total acidity; 9.11 mg/kg HMF; 21.3 IN invertase and 9.0° Gothe for diastase activities. The results indicate a good quality, adequate processing, good maturity and freshness of honey...
July 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Jiayue He, Kefeng Huang, Kevin J Barnett, Siddarth H Krishna, David M Alonso, Zachary J Brentzel, Samuel P Burt, Theodore Walker, Williams F Banholzer, Christos T Maravelias, Ive Hermans, James A Dumesic, George W Huber
Catalytic strategies for the synthesis of 1,5-pentanediol (PDO) with 69% yield from hemicellulose and the synthesis of 1,6-hexanediol (HDO) with 28% yield from cellulose are presented. Fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass (white birch wood chips) in gamma-valerolactone (GVL)/H2O generates a pure cellulose solid and a liquid stream containing hemicellulose and lignin, which is further dehydrated to furfural with 85% yield. Furfural is converted to PDO with sequential dehydration, hydration, ring-opening tautomerization, and hydrogenation reactions...
July 5, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Iris K M Yu, Daniel C W Tsang, Alex C K Yip, Season S Chen, Yong Sik Ok, Chi Sun Poon
This study aimed to produce a high-value platform chemical, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), from food waste and evaluate the catalytic performance of trivalent and tetravalent metals such as AlCl3, CrCl3, FeCl3, Zr(O)Cl2, and SnCl4 for one-pot conversion. Starchy food waste, e.g., cooked rice and penne produced 4.0-8.1 wt% HMF and 46.0-64.8 wt% glucose over SnCl4 after microwave heating at 140 °C for 20 min. This indicated that starch hydrolysis was effectively catalyzed but subsequent glucose isomerization was rate-limited during food waste valorization, which could be enhanced by 40-min reaction to achieve 22...
October 2017: Chemosphere
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