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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346992/longitudinal-assessment-of-hydropeaking-impacts-on-various-scales-for-an-improved-process-understanding-and-the-design-of-mitigation-measures
#1
C Hauer, P Holzapfel, P Leitner, W Graf
Hydropeaking is one of the main pressures on the aquatic ecology in alpine rivers. Beside studies on abiotic process and biotic response on the local scale there is a lack in process understanding on the reach scale. Especially longitudinal changes of hydropeaking impacts based on retention processes have not been studied yet. Thus, based on unsteady one-dimensional and two-dimensional depth averaged modelling it was targeted to investigate possible changes in vertical ramping velocity for the discussion of possible mitigation measures at the local scale...
January 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346991/an-integrated-assessment-framework-for-the-analysis-of-multiple-pressures-in-aquatic-ecosystems-and-the-appraisal-of-management-options
#2
A Pistocchi, A Udias, B Grizzetti, E Gelati, P Koundouri, R Ludwig, A Papandreou, I Souliotis
The contribution illustrates an integrated assessment framework aimed at evaluating the relationships between multiple pressures and water body status for the purposes of river basin management. The framework includes the following steps. (1) Understanding how the different pressures affect the status of water bodies. This entails the characterization of biophysical state variables and the definition of a causal relationship between pressures and status. Therefore this step involves interaction between experts bearing ecological understanding and experts providing models to represent the effect of pressures...
January 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346905/modeling-the-terrestrial-n-processes-in-a-small-mountain-catchment-through-inca-n-a-case-study-in-taiwan
#3
Meng-Chang Lu, Chung-Te Chang, Teng-Chiu Lin, Lih-Jih Wang, Chiao-Ping Wang, Ting-Chang Hsu, Jr-Chuan Huang
Riverine dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) is an important indicator of trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. High riverine DIN export in Taiwan, ~3800kg-Nkm(-2)yr(-1), which is ~18 times higher than the global average, urges the need of thorough understanding of N cycling processes. We applied INCA-N (Integrated Nitrogen Catchment Model) to simulate riverine DIN export and infer terrestrial N processes using weekly rainwater and streamwater samples collected at the Fushan Experimental Forest (FEF) of northern Taiwan...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346851/aquatic-therapy-for-people-with-lymphedema-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Wai Yeung, Adam I Semciw
BACKGROUND: Aquatic therapy has several proposed benefits for people with lymphedema. A systematic review of the evidence for aquatic therapy in lymphedema management has not been conducted. METHOD AND RESULTS: Systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. Five electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of people with lymphedema, which compared aquatic therapy with other lymphedema interventions. Qualitative analysis was undertaken where quantitative analysis was not possible...
March 27, 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346658/spatially-heterogeneous-selection-in-nature-favors-phenotypic-plasticity-in-anuran-larvae
#5
Josh Van Buskirk
Theory holds that adaptive phenotypic plasticity evolves under spatial or temporal variation in natural selection. I tested this prediction in a classic system of predator-induced plasticity: frog tadpoles (Rana temporaria) reacting to predaceous aquatic insects. An outdoor mesocosm experiment manipulating exposure to Aeshna dragonfly larvae revealed plasticity in most characters: growth, development, behavior, and external morphology. I measured selection by placing 1927 tadpoles into enclosures within natural ponds; photographs permitted identification of the survivors 6-9 days later...
March 27, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345898/hydrolysis-of-ionic-phthalic-acid-based-polyesters-by-wastewater-microorganisms-and-their-enzymes
#6
Karolina Haernvall, Sabine Zitzenbacher, Katrin Wallig, Motonori Yamamoto, Michael Bernhard Schick, Doris Ribitsch, Georg M Guebitz
Water-soluble polyesters are used in a range of applications today and enter wastewater treatment plants after product utilization. However, little is known about extracellular enzymes and aquatic microorganisms involved in polyester biodegradation and mineralization. In this study, structurally different ionic phthalic acid based polyesters (the number average molecular weights (Mn) 1,770 to 10,000 g/mol and semi crystalline with crystallinity below 1%) were synthesized in various combinations. Typical wastewater microorganisms like Pseudomonas sp...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345631/structure-of-the-cyanuric-acid-hydrolase-trzd-reveals-product-exit-channel
#7
Asim K Bera, Kelly G Aukema, Mikael Elias, Lawrence P Wackett
Cyanuric acid hydrolases are of industrial importance because of their use in aquatic recreational facilities to remove cyanuric acid, a stabilizer for the chlorine. Degradation of excess cyanuric acid is necessary to maintain chlorine disinfection in the waters. Cyanuric acid hydrolase opens the cyanuric acid ring hydrolytically and subsequent decarboxylation produces carbon dioxide and biuret. In the present study, we report the X-ray structure of TrzD, a cyanuric acid hydrolase from Acidovorax citrulli. The crystal structure at 2...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345035/terrestrial-support-of-lake-food-webs-synthesis-reveals-controls-over-cross-ecosystem-resource-use
#8
Andrew J Tanentzap, Brian W Kielstra, Grace M Wilkinson, Martin Berggren, Nicola Craig, Paul A Del Giorgio, Jonathan Grey, John M Gunn, Stuart E Jones, Jan Karlsson, Christopher T Solomon, Michael L Pace
Widespread evidence that organic matter exported from terrestrial into aquatic ecosystems supports recipient food webs remains controversial. A pressing question is not only whether high terrestrial support is possible but also what the general conditions are under which it arises. We assemble the largest data set, to date, of the isotopic composition (δ(2)H, δ(13)C, and δ(15)N) of lake zooplankton and the resources at the base of their associated food webs. In total, our data set spans 559 observations across 147 lakes from the boreal to subtropics...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344905/evolution-of-the-patellar-sesamoid-bone-in-mammals
#9
Mark E Samuels, Sophie Regnault, John R Hutchinson
The patella is a sesamoid bone located in the major extensor tendon of the knee joint, in the hindlimb of many tetrapods. Although numerous aspects of knee morphology are ancient and conserved among most tetrapods, the evolutionary occurrence of an ossified patella is highly variable. Among extant (crown clade) groups it is found in most birds, most lizards, the monotreme mammals and almost all placental mammals, but it is absent in most marsupial mammals as well as many reptiles. Here, we integrate data from the literature and first-hand studies of fossil and recent skeletal remains to reconstruct the evolution of the mammalian patella...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344111/no-sight-no-smell-brain-anatomy-of-two-amphipod-crustaceans-with-different-lifestyles
#10
Till Ramm, Gerhard Scholtz
The brain anatomy of Niphargus puteanus and Orchestia cavimana, two amphipod species with different lifestyles, has been studied using a variety of recent techniques. The general aspects of the brain anatomy of both species correspond to those of other malacostracans. However, both species lack hemiellipsoid bodies. Furthermore, related to their lifestyle certain differences have been observed. The aquatic subterranean species Niphargus puteanus lacks eye structures, the optic nerve, and the two outer optic neuropils lamina and medulla...
March 23, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344012/signaling-pathways-involved-in-metal-based-nanomaterial-toxicity-towards-aquatic-organisms
#11
Amélie Châtel, Catherine Mouneyrac
Environmental risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is an emergent field since nanotechnology industry is rapidly growing due to the interesting physicochemical properties of nanomaterials. Metal-based nanomaterials are among the most rapidly commercialized materials and their toxicity towards aquatic animals have been investigated at different levels of the biological organization. The objective of this synthesis review is to give an overview of the signaling molecules that have a key role in metal-based NM mediated cytotoxicity in both marine and freshwater organisms...
March 23, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343340/a-lake-centric-geospatial-database-to-guide-research-and-inform-management-decisions-in-an-arctic-watershed-in-northern-alaska-experiencing-climate-and-land-use-changes
#12
Benjamin M Jones, Christopher D Arp, Matthew S Whitman, Debora Nigro, Ingmar Nitze, John Beaver, Anne Gädeke, Callie Zuck, Anna Liljedahl, Ronald Daanen, Eric Torvinen, Stacey Fritz, Guido Grosse
Lakes are dominant and diverse landscape features in the Arctic, but conventional land cover classification schemes typically map them as a single uniform class. Here, we present a detailed lake-centric geospatial database for an Arctic watershed in northern Alaska. We developed a GIS dataset consisting of 4362 lakes that provides information on lake morphometry, hydrologic connectivity, surface area dynamics, surrounding terrestrial ecotypes, and other important conditions describing Arctic lakes. Analyzing the geospatial database relative to fish and bird survey data shows relations to lake depth and hydrologic connectivity, which are being used to guide research and aid in the management of aquatic resources in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska...
March 25, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343146/antimicrobial-effect-of-the-biotronic%C3%A2-top3-supplement-and-efficacy-in-protecting-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-from-infection-by-aeromonas-salmonicida-subsp-salmonicida
#13
Simon Menanteau-Ledouble, Ines Krauss, Rui Alexandre Goncalves, Barbara Weber, Gonçalo Abreu Santos, Mansour El-Matbouli
Demand for more environmentally friendly practices have led to the adoption of several feed supplements by the fish farming industry. In the present study, we investigated a commercially available formula that includes a mixture of three compounds: organic acids, a phytochemical and Biomin® Permeabilizing Complex. This mixture demonstrated antimicrobial properties in vitro and was able to inhibit growth of multiple species of aquatic bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida. Bacterial challenge was performed using A...
March 18, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343020/selenium-speciation-influences-bioaccumulation-in-limnodynastes-peronii-tadpoles
#14
C M Lanctôt, S D Melvin, T Cresswell
Despite being essential for animal health and fitness, Se has a relatively narrow range between deficiency and toxicity, and excess Se can cause a variety of adverse effects in aquatic organisms. Amphibians are particularly vulnerable to contaminants during larval aquatic life stage, because they can accumulate toxic ions through various routes including skin, gills, lungs and digestive tract. Few attempts have been made to understand the tissue-specific accumulation of trace elements, including the impacts of chemical speciation in developing amphibian larvae...
March 12, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342991/transformation-of-17%C3%AE-ethinylestradiol-by-simultaneous-photo-enzymatic-process-in-humic-water
#15
Yun Yang, Jianhua Li, Kun Lu, Huanhuan Shi, Shixiang Gao
The fate of estrogens in surface water is mainly dependent on two processes, i.e. photodegradation and biotransformation. Each of the separate process is invariably of interest, but research on the combination of the two processes has rarely been explored. In the present work, the transformation of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) by simultaneous photochemical and enzymatic process in water was systematically investigated. The combined transformation rate of EE2 (0.057 h(-1)) in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) under simulated sunlight irradiation was markedly faster than that in the presence of NOM only (0...
March 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342560/evaluation-of-the-influence-of-surfactants-in-the-bioaccumulation-kinetics-of-sulfamethoxazole-and-oxazepam-in-benthic-invertebrates
#16
Maria Jesus Garcia-Galan, Martin Sordet, Audrey Buleté, Jeanne Garric, Emmanuelle Vulliet
The potential ecotoxicological effects of mixtures of contaminants in the aquatic environment are generating a global concern. Benthic invertebrates, such as the crustacean Gammarus fossarum, are key in the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, and are frequently used as sentinel species of water quality status. The aim of this work was to study the effects of a mixture of the most frequently detected surfactants in the bioconcentration kinetics of two pharmaceuticals in G. fossarum, evaluating their potential enhancing or suppressing effects...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342417/the-protective-roles-of-tio2-nanoparticles-against-uv-b-toxicity-in-daphnia-magna
#17
Jie Liu, Wen-Xiong Wang
Aquatic environments are increasingly under environmental stress due to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and potential inputs of nanoparticles with intense application of nanotechnology. In this study, we investigated the interaction between UV-B radiation and titanium nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) in a model freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. UV-B toxicity to Daphnia magna was examined when the daphnids were exposed to a range of TiO2-NPs concentrations with an initial 5 or 10min of 200μW/cm(2) UV-B radiation. In addition, UV-B toxicity was also examined in the presence of TiO2-NPs in the body of daphnids...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342283/effects-of-predatory-ants-within-and-across-ecosystems-in-bromeliad-food-webs
#18
Ana Z Gonçalves, Diane S Srivastava, Paulo S Oliveira, Gustavo Q Romero
Predation is one of the most fundamental ecological processes affecting biotic communities. Terrestrial predators that live at ecosystem boundaries may alter the diversity of terrestrial organisms, but they may also have cross-ecosystem cascading effects when they feed on organisms with complex life cycles (i.e., organisms that shift from aquatic juvenile stages to terrestrial adult stages) or inhibit female oviposition in the aquatic environment. The predatory ant Odontomachus hastatus establishes its colonies among roots of Vriesea procera, an epiphytic bromeliad species with water-filled tanks that shelters many terrestrial and aquatic organisms...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342010/aridity-promotes-bet-hedging-via-delayed-hatching-a-case-study-with-two-temporary-pond-crustaceans-along-a-latitudinal-gradient
#19
Tom Pinceel, Bram Vanschoenwinkel, Wouter Hawinkel, Karen Tuytens, Luc Brendonck
Climate change does affect not only average rainfall and temperature but also their variation, which can reduce the predictability of suitable conditions for growth and reproduction. This situation is problematic for inhabitants of temporary waters whose reproductive success depends on rainfall and evaporation that determine the length of the aquatic phase. For organisms with long-lived dormant life stages, bet hedging models suggest that a fraction of these should stay dormant during each growing season to buffer against the probability of total reproductive failure in variable environments...
March 24, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341993/a-method-for-preparing-silver-nanoparticle-suspensions-in-bulk-for-ecotoxicity-testing-and-ecological-risk-assessment
#20
Jonathan D Martin, Lena Telgmann, Chris D Metcalfe
Methods are needed to prepare stable suspensions of engineered nanoparticles in aqueous matrixes for ecotoxicity testing and ecological risk assessments. We developed a novel method of preparing large volumes of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in suspension using a commercially available rotor-stator dispersion mill. AgNP in powder form (PVP capped, 30-50 nm) was suspended in deionized water and natural lake water at 1 g/L and the addition of 0.025% (w/v) gum arabic (GA) increased stability over 2 weeks after preparation...
March 24, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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