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Letícia Pereira Úngari, André Luiz Quagliatto Santos, Lucia Helena O'Dwyer, Maria Regina Lucas da Silva, Natália Nasser de Melo Fava, Guilherme Carrara Moreira Paiva, Rogério de Melo Costa Pinto, Márcia Cristina Cury
Based on morphological, morphometric, and molecular data, we describe a new hemoparasite of the genus Haemogregarina Danilewsky 1885, isolated from the Brazilian aquatic turtle Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines: Podocnemididae). The new species, Haemogregarina podocnemis sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae), is characterized by small trophozoites with a single cytoplasmic vacuole on one side; pre-meronts with nuclear chromatin dispersed in the cytoplasm, with or without cytoplasmic vacuoles; meronts that are usually broad and slightly curved (kidney-shaped), with an average of eight small rectangular nuclei; immature gamonts (bean-shaped) with two morphological types: one with nuclear chromatin dispersed in the cytoplasm and the other with nuclei in the middle of the cell; mature gamonts of two morphological types: one with a length equal to or greater than that of the erythrocyte and the width of the nuclei similar to that of the hemoparasite and the other smaller than the erythrocyte with the width of the nuclei less than that of the hemoparasite...
March 22, 2018: Parasitology Research
Torsten C Schmidt
Water analysis has been an important area since the beginning of analytical chemistry. The focus though has shifted substantially: from minerals and the main constituents of water in the time of Carl Remigius Fresenius to a multitude of, in particular, organic compounds at concentrations down to the sub-nanogram per liter level nowadays. This was possible only because of numerous innovations in instrumentation in recent decades, drivers of which are briefly discussed. In addition to the high demands on sensitivity, high throughput by automation and short analysis times are major requirements...
March 21, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Chris N Glover
Ecological risk assessments principally rely on simplified metrics of organismal sensitivity that do not consider mechanism or biological traits. As such, they are unable to adequately extrapolate from standard laboratory tests to real-world settings, and largely fail to account for the diversity of organisms and environmental variables that occur in natural environments. However, an understanding of how stressors influence organism health can compensate for these limitations. Mechanistic knowledge can be used to account for species differences in basal biological function and variability in environmental factors, including spatial and temporal changes in the chemical, physical and biological milieu...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Jennifer N Mahley, Jarmila Pittermann, Nick Rowe, Alex Baer, James E Watkins, Eric Schuettpelz, James K Wheeler, Klaus Mehltreter, Michael Windham, Weston Testo, James Beck
Herbaceous plants rely on a combination of turgor, ground tissues and geometry for mechanical support of leaves and stems. Unlike most angiosperms however, ferns employ a sub-dermal layer of fibers, known as a hypodermal sterome, for support of their leaves. The sterome is nearly ubiquitous in ferns, but nothing is known about its role in leaf biomechanics. The goal of this research was to characterize sterome attributes in ferns that experience a broad range of mechanical stresses, as imposed by their aquatic, xeric, epiphytic, and terrestrial niches...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Nambram S Singh, Neelja Singhal, Jugsharan S Virdi
The presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) including those expressing ESBLs and AmpC-β-lactamases in Escherichia coli inhabiting the aquatic environments is a serious health problem. The situation is further complicated by the fact that ARGs can be easily transferred among bacterial species with the help of mobile genetic elements - plasmids, integrons, insertion sequences (IS), and transposons. Therefore, the analysis of genetic environment and mobile genetic elements associated with ARGs is important as these provide useful information about the epidemiology of these genes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
B Mazel-Sanchez, I Boal Carvalho, F Silva, R Dijkman, M Schmolke
Highly pathogenic IAV from avian hosts were first reported to directly infect humans 20 years ago. However, these are rare events and our understanding of factors promoting or restricting zoonotic transmission is still limited. One accessory protein of IAV, PB1-F2, was associated with pathogenicity of pandemic and zoonotic IAV. This 90-amino-acid-short peptide does not harbor an enzymatic function. We thus identified host factors interacting with H5N1 PB1-F2, which could explain its importance for virulence...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
Yidong Luo, Lina Qiao, Huanchun Wang, Shun Lan, Yang Shen, Yuanhua Lin, Cewen Nan
The danger of toxic organic pollutants in both aquatic and air environments calls for high-efficiency purification material. Herein, layered bismuth copper oxychalcogenides, BiCuSO, nanosheets of high photocatalytic activity were introduced to the PVDF (Polyvinylidene Fluoride). The fibrous membranes provide an easy, efficient, and recyclable way to purify organic pollutant. The physical and photophysical properties of the BiCuSO and its polymer composite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron spin resonance (EPR)...
March 19, 2018: Materials
Wenxia Wang, Xiaohong Gu, Lijun Zhou, Huihui Chen, Qingfei Zeng, Zhigang Mao
Antibiotics are widely used in aquaculture, however, this often results in undesirable ecological effects. To evaluate the occurrence, temporal variations, and ecological risk of antibiotics in five crab ponds of Lake Guchenghu Basin, China, 44 antibiotics from nine classes were analyzed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS). Twelve antibiotics belonging to six classes were detected in the aqueous phase of five crab ponds, among which sulfonamides and macrolides were the predominant classes, and six compounds (sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, erythromycin-H₂O, monensin, and florfenicol) were frequently detected at high concentrations...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Graham M Hughes, Emma M Boston, John A Finarelli, William J Murphy, Desmond G Higgins, Emma C Teeling
The olfactory receptor (OR) gene families, which govern mammalian olfaction, have undergone extensive expansion and contraction through duplication and pseudogenization. Previous studies have shown that broadly-defined environmental adaptations (e.g terrestrial vs aquatic) are correlated with the number of functional and non-functional OR genes retained. However, to date, no study has examined species-specific gene duplications in multiple phylogenetically divergent mammals to elucidate OR evolution and adaptation...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Xavier Mayali, Peter K Weber
To quantitatively link microbial identity with biogeochemical function, we carried out 14 simultaneous stable isotope probing experiments with organic and inorganic C and N substrates to measure the isotope incorporation by over one hundred co-occurring eukaryotic and prokaryotic populations in a coastal community. We found that nitrate was the most commonly incorporated substrate, and that light-driven carbon fixation was carried out by some bacterial taxa from the Flavobacteriales and OM60 (NOR5) clade, in addition to photoautotrophic phytoplankton...
March 19, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Jie Meng, Wen-Xiong Wang, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
Lead (Pb) is one of the ubiquitous and toxic elements in aquatic environment. In oysters, gills and digestive glands are the main target organs for Pb-induced toxicity, but there is limited information on the molecular mechanisms underlying its toxicity. The present study investigated the Pb-induced toxicity mechanisms in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) based on transcriptome, phenotypic anchoring, and validation of targeted gene expression. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses revealed the differential Pb toxicity mechanisms in the tissues...
March 13, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Lauren Mullen, Kim Boerrigter, Nicholas Ferriero, Jeff Rosalsky, Abigail van Buren Barrett, Patrick J Murray, Andrew D Steen
Proteins constitute a particularly bioavailable subset of organic carbon and nitrogen in aquatic environments but must be hydrolyzed by extracellular enzymes prior to being metabolized by microorganisms. Activities of extracellular peptidases (protein-degrading enzymes) have frequently been assayed in freshwater systems, but such studies have been limited to substrates for a single enzyme [leucyl aminopeptidase (Leu-AP)] out of more than 300 biochemically recognized peptidases. Here, we report kinetic measurements of extracellular hydrolysis of five substrates in 28 freshwater bodies in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area in the Pocono Mountains (PA, United States) and near Knoxville (TN, United States), between 2013 and 2016...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fangli Wu, Zhe Xie, Yawen Lan, Sam Dupont, Meng Sun, Shuaikang Cui, Xizhi Huang, Wei Huang, Liping Liu, Menghong Hu, Weiqun Lu, Youji Wang
With the release of large amounts of CO2 , ocean acidification is intensifying and affecting aquatic organisms. In addition, salinity also plays an important role for marine organisms and fluctuates greatly in estuarine and coastal ecosystem, where ocean acidification frequently occurs. In present study, flow cytometry was used to investigate immune parameters of haemocytes in the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus exposed to different salinities (15, 25, and 35‰) and two pH levels (7.3 and 8.1). A 7-day in vivo and a 5-h in vitro experiments were performed...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Fan Yang, Liqing Zeng, Zhuanxi Luo, Zaosheng Wang, Fuyi Huang, Qiuquan Wang, Damjana Drobne, Changzhou Yan
Increasing concern has been focused on the potential risks associated with the trophic transfer to aquatic organisms of ambient contaminants in the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2 ). This study investigated the influence of nano-TiO2 on the trophic transfer of arsenic (As) from the microalgae Nannochloropsis maritima to the brine shrimp Artemia salina nauplii. We found that nano-TiO2 could significantly facilitate As sorption on N. maritima within an exposure period of 24 h, and this sorption subsequently led to higher As trophic transfer from the algae to A...
March 10, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Li-Ping Hou, Hongxing Chen, Chang-En Tian, Ye Liang, Rong-Rong Wu, Xing-Mei Zhang, Xu-Wen Fang, Cui-Ping Zhang, Jun-Jie Hu, Li-Ying Song, Yan-Qiu Liang, Daniel Schlenk, Lingtian Xie
Synthetic hormones in wastewater effluents released into the aquatic environments may interfere with the normal endocrine systems of fish in receiving streams. Norgestrel (NGT) is a synthetic progestin widely used in oral contraceptives and frequently detected in wastewater effluents. In this study, adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) were exposed to three environmentally relevant concentrations of norgestrel (NGT) (i.e., 3.6, 35.8, and 368.0 ng L-1) for 42 d, fin morphology, histology of the ovary, and reproductive behaviors were evaluated...
March 13, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Fan Jiang, Jue Liu, Xinyue Zeng, Liqin Yu, Chunsheng Liu, Jianghua Wang
Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is an environmental contaminant that poses serious risks to aquatic organisms and their associated ecosystem. Recently, the reproductive and developmental toxicology of TBOEP has been reported. However, fewer studies have assessed the neurotoxic effects in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. In this study, zebrafish embryos were subjected to waterborne exposure of TBOEP at 0, 50, 500, 1500 and 2500 μg/L from 2 to 144-h post-fertilization (hpf). Behavioral measurements showed that TBOEP exposure reduced embryonic spontaneous movement and decreased swimming speed of larvae in response to dark stimulation...
March 13, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Min Cheng, Guangming Zeng, Danlian Huang, Cui Lai, Yang Liu, Chen Zhang, Jia Wan, Liang Hu, Chengyun Zhou, Weiping Xiong
The presence of antibiotics in aquatic environments has attracted global concern. Fenton process is an attractive yet challenging method for antibiotics degradation, especially when such a reaction can be conducted at neutral pH values. In this study, a novel composite Fe/Co catalyst was synthesized via the modification of steel converter slag (SCS) by salicylic acid-methanol (SAM) and cobalt nitrate (Co(NO3 )2 ). The catalysts were characterized by N2 -Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)...
March 10, 2018: Water Research
Francielle Tatiana Mathias, Douglas Henrique Fockink, Geonildo Rodrigo Disner, Viviane Prodocimo, João Luiz Coelho Ribas, Luiz Pereira Ramos, Marta Margarete Cestari, Helena Cristina Silva de Assis
Ibuprofen is a pharmaceutical drug widely used by the global population and it has been found in aquatic ecosystems in several countries. This study evaluated the effects of ibuprofen in environmental concentrations (0, 0.1, 1 and 10 μg/L) on the freshwaterspecies Rhamdia quelen exposed for 14 days. In the posterior kidney, ibuprofen increased glutathione-S-transferase activity in all groups exposed. Furthermore, increased glutathione peroxidase activity and the levels of reduced glutathione in the group exposed to 10 μg/L...
March 11, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Weiwei Zhang, Yungang Liu, Yufei Liu, Boheng Liang, Hongwei Zhou, Yingyue Li, Yuhua Zhang, Jie Huang, Chao Yu, Kuncai Chen
Cadmium and its compounds are human carcinogens with severe organ toxicity, and their contamination of agricultural soil in China has been frequently reported; however, the dietary exposure to cadmium in residents and the relevant health risk have seldom been reported. In this study, the concentration of cadmium in various types of food collected from 2013 to 2015 were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and the dietary exposure to cadmium assessed based on a dietary survey in 2976 Guangzhou residents...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Evaggelina Papakanderaki, Konstantinos Kanakakis, Sotirios Goule, Maria Chounti, Panagiotis Hountis
Raoultella Ornithinolytica (RO) is an encapsulated, Gram- negative, nonmotile aerobic rob which was reclassified from Klepsiella genus belonging in the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is a rare human infection and few cases have been reported in post thoracotomy patients. Here we present a case of a left lower lobectomy patient that was complicated by pleural effusion and high fever with positive sputum cultures of Raoultella Ornithinolytica and positive pleural fluid cultures of Staphylococcus hominis. It is related with aquatic life poisoning...
February 26, 2018: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
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