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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464912/bmx-001-a-novel-redox-active-metalloporphyrin-improves-islet-function-and-engraftment-in-a-murine-transplant-model
#1
Antonio Bruni, Andrew R Pepper, Rena L Pawlick, Boris Gala-Lopez, Anissa Gamble, Tatsuya Kin, Andrew J Malcolm, Carissa Jones, Jon D Piganelli, James D Crapo, A M James Shapiro
Islet transplantation has become a well-established therapy for select patients suffering from type 1 diabetes. Viability and engraftment can be compromised by the generation of oxidative stress encountered during isolation and culture. We evaluate whether administration of BMX-001, and its earlier derivative, BMX-010 could improve islet function and engraftment outcomes. Long-term culture of human islets with BMX-001, but not BMX-010, exhibited preserved in vitro viability. Murine islets isolated and cultured for 24 hours with 34μM BMX-001 exhibited improved insulin secretion (n=3 isolations, p<0...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458554/genetic-shifts-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-epidemic-clones-and-toxin-gene-profiles-in-japan-comparative-analysis-among-pre-epidemic-epidemic-and-post-epidemic-phases
#2
Shunsuke Osaka, Katsuko Okuzumi, Shota Koide, Kiyoko Tamai, Tomoaki Sato, Koichi Tanimoto, Haruyoshi Tomita, Masahiro Suzuki, Yukiko Nagano, Keigo Shibayama, Yoshichika Arakawa, Noriyuki Nagano
PURPOSE: The decline in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolation rates has become a general observation worldwide, including Japan. We hypothesized that some genetic shift in MRSA might cause this phenomenon, and therefore we investigated the genetic profiles among MRSA clinical isolates obtained from three different epidemic phases in Japan. METHODOLOGY: A total of 353 MRSA isolates were selected from 202 medical facilities in 1990 (pre-epidemic phase), 2004 (epidemic phase) and 2016 (post-epidemic phase)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455414/defining-g-protein-coupled-receptor-peptide-ligand-expressomes-and-signalomes-in-human-and-mouse-islets
#3
Patricio Atanes, Inmaculada Ruz-Maldonado, Ross Hawkes, Bo Liu, Min Zhao, Guo Cai Huang, Israa Mohammed Al-Amily, Albert Salehi, Stefan Amisten, Shanta J Persaud
INTRODUCTION: Islets synthesise and secrete numerous peptides, some of which are known to be important regulators of islet function and glucose homeostasis. In this study, we quantified mRNAs encoding all peptide ligands of islet G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in isolated human and mouse islets and carried out in vitro islet hormone secretion studies to provide functional confirmation for the species-specific role of peptide YY (PYY) in mouse islets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: GPCR peptide ligand mRNAs in human and mouse islets were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR relative to the reference genes ACTB, GAPDH, PPIA, TBP and TFRC...
February 17, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448249/the-placental-secretome-identifying-potential-cross-talk-between-placenta-and-islet-%C3%AE-cells
#4
Robert Drynda, Shanta J Persaud, James E Bowe, Peter M Jones
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Insulin-secreting islet β-cells adapt to the insulin resistance associated with pregnancy by increasing functional β-cell mass, but the placental signals involved in this process are not well defined. In the current study, we analysed expression of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) mRNAs in mouse islets and islet GPCR ligand mRNAs in placenta during pregnancy to generate an atlas of potential interactions between the placenta and β-cells to inform future functional studies of islet adaptive responses to pregnancy...
February 8, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448036/molecular-characterization-of-multidrug-pneumococcal-clones-colonizing-healthy-children-in-m%C3%A3-rida-venezuela
#5
Beatríz Quintero Moreno, María Araque
We analyzed genetics mechanisms of antibiotics resistance, clonal composition and pili in forty eight MDR-pneumococci isolated from healthy children in Mérida, Venezuela. Intermediate resistance to penicillin was related to variations on pbp2b and pbp2x genes. High-level resistance to penicillin, low susceptibility to cephalosporins and carbapenems were associated with alterations on pbp1a, pbp2b and pbp2x genes. Non-beta-lactam resistance was associated with Tn3872, Tn5253, Tn6002, Tn2010 transposons. Macrolide-resistant strains carried ermB or mefE, but not the mefA gene...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445851/beta-cell-extracellular-vesicle-mir-21-5p-cargo-is-increased-in-response-to-inflammatory-cytokines-and-serves-as-a-biomarker-of-type-1-diabetes
#6
Alexander J Lakhter, Rachel E Pratt, Rachel E Moore, Kaitlin K Doucette, Bernhard F Maier, Linda A DiMeglio, Emily K Sims
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Improved biomarkers are acutely needed for the detection of developing type 1 diabetes, prior to critical loss of beta cell mass. We previously demonstrated that elevated beta cell microRNA 21-5p (miR-21-5p) in rodent and human models of type 1 diabetes increased beta cell apoptosis. We hypothesised that the inflammatory milieu of developing diabetes may also increase miR-21-5p in beta cell extracellular vesicle (EV) cargo and that circulating EV miR-21-5p would be increased during type 1 diabetes development...
February 14, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440390/high-dietary-fat-and-sucrose-results-in-an-extensive-and-time-dependent-deterioration-in-health-of-multiple-physiological-systems-in-mice
#7
James G Burchfield, Melkam A Kebede, Christopher C Meoli, Jacqueline Stöckli, P Tess Whitworth, Amanda L Wright, Nolan J Hoffman, Annabel Y Minard, Xiuquan Ma, James R Krycer, Marin E Nelson, Shi-Xiong Tan, Belinda Yau, Kristen C Thomas, Natalie K Y Wee, Ee-Cheng Khor, Ronaldo F Enriquez, Bryce Vissel, Trevor J Biden, Paul A Baldock, Kyle L Hoehn, James Cantley, Gregory J Cooney, David E James, Daniel J Fazakerley
Obesity is associated with metabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and with disorders such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and neurodegeneration. Typically, these pathologies are examined in discrete model systems and with limited temporal resolution, and whether these disorders co-occur is therefore unclear. To address this question, we examined multiple physiological systems in male C57BL/6J mice following prolonged exposure to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFHSD)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434073/placental-growth-factor-plgf-is-linked-to-inflammation-and-metabolic-disorders-in-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#8
Mincheol Kang, Jain Jeong, Jinhee Lee, Song Park, Yonghun Sung, Minjee Choi, Wookbong Kwon, Soyoung Jang, Kwang Shik Choi, Yeon Sik Choo, Duhak Yoon, Myoung Ok Kim, Zae Young Ryoo
Placental growth factor (PlGF), a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) sub-family, plays a major role in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Previous study demonstrated that PlGF-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mice had gestational loss. In addition, PlGF secretion was up-regulated in isolated T lymphocytes (T-cell) upon CD3/CD28 stimulation, suggesting that PlGF could be a regulator of T-cell differentiation and development. T-cells are well known to play a critical role in obesity-induced inflammation...
February 9, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432804/effects-of-long-term-nitrate-supplementation-on-carbohydrate-metabolism-lipid-profiles-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-male-obese-type-2-diabetic-rats
#9
Sevda Gheibi, Sajad Jeddi, Mattias Carlström, Hanieh Gholami, Asghar Ghasemi
PURPOSE: Supplementation with inorganic nitrate to boost the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) pathway, may act as a potential therapeutic agent in diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nitrate on carbohydrate metabolism, lipid profiles, oxidative stress, and inflammation in obese type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Control, control + nitrate, diabetes, and diabetes + nitrate. Diabetes was induced using a high-fat diet and low-dose of streptozotocin...
February 10, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412822/apelin-13-analogues-show-potent-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-insulinotropic-and-glucose-lowering-actions
#10
F P M O'Harte, V Parthsarathy, C Hogg, P R Flatt
Nine structurally modified apelin-13 analogues were assessed for their in vitro and acute in vivo antidiabetic potential. Stability was assessed in mouse plasma and insulinotropic efficacy tested in cultured pancreatic BRIN-BD11 cells and isolated mouse pancreatic islets. Intracellular Ca2+ and cAMP production in BRIN-BD11 cells was determined, as was glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Acute antihyperglycemic effects of apelin analogues were assessed following i.p. glucose tolerance tests (ipGGT, 18 mmol/kg) in normal and diet-induced-obese (DIO) mice and on food intake in normal mice...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412792/the-effects-of-caveolin1-on-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation
#11
Haicheng Li, Hangya Peng, Haixia Xu, Fen Xu, Shuo Lin, Keyi Lin, Wen Zeng, Longyi Zeng
Our study aims to access the influence of caveolin1 (CAV1) on β cell expression profiles. We knocked down the expression of CAV1 in both NIT-1 cells and islets isolated from C57BL/6J mice using an RNA interference technique, which was realized by the transfer of an shRNA vector targeting CAV1 mRNA into NIT-1 cells or islets through latent virus infection. First, we identified the change in gene expression profiles in islets, in which the CAV1 expression level was down-regulated, as ascertained by mouse gene expression microarray, and the results showed that pathways related to β cell proliferation and pancreatic secretion functions were significantly influenced...
January 31, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409957/dpp-4-is-expressed-in-human-pancreatic-beta-cells-and-its-direct-inhibition-improves-beta-cell-function-and-survival-in-type-2-diabetes
#12
Marco Bugliani, Farooq Syed, Flavia M M Paula, Bilal A Omar, Mara Suleiman, Sandra Mossuto, Francesca Grano, Francesco Cardarelli, Ugo Boggi, Fabio Vistoli, Franco Filipponi, Paolo De Simone, Lorella Marselli, Vincenzo De Tata, Bo Ahren, Decio L Eizirik, Piero Marchetti
It has been reported that the incretin system, including regulated GLP-1 secretion and locally expressed DPP-4, is present in pancreatic islets. In this study we comprehensively evaluated the expression and role of DPP-4 in islet alpha and beta cells from non-diabetic (ND) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) individuals, including the effects of its inhibition on beta cell function and survival. Isolated islets were prepared from 25 ND and 18 T2D organ donors; studies were also performed with the human insulin-producing EndoC-βH1 cells...
January 31, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406782/glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-is-required-for-moderate-high-fat-diet-but-not-high-carbohydrate-diet-induced-weight-gain
#13
Ryuya Maekawa, Hidetada Ogata, Masatoshi Murase, Norio Harada, Kazuyo Suzuki, Erina Joo, Akiko Sankoda, Atsushi Iida, Takako Izumoto, Shin Tsunekawa, Yoji Hamada, Yutaka Oiso, Nobuya Inagaki, Hiroshi Arima, Yoshitaka Hayashi, Yusuke Seino
Both high fat diet and high carbohydrate diet are known to induce weight gain. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is secreted mainly from intestinal K-cells upon stimuli by nutrients such as fat and glucose, and it potentiates glucose-induced insulin secretion. GIP is well-known to contribute to high fat diet-induced obesity. In this study, we analyzed the effect of high carbohydrate feeding on GIP secretion and metabolic parameters to explore the role of GIP in high carbohydrate-induced weight gain...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404215/equine-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-physiology
#14
Murad H Kheder, Simon R Bailey, Kevin J Dudley, Martin N Sillence, Melody A de Laat
Background: Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) is associated with insulin dysregulation, which often manifests as post-prandial hyperinsulinemia. Circulating concentrations of the incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) correlate with an increased insulin response to carbohydrate intake in animals with EMS. However, little is known about the equine GLP-1 receptor (eGLP-1R), or whether GLP-1 concentrations can be manipulated. The objectives were to determine (1) the tissue localisation of the eGLP-1R, (2) the GLP-1 secretory capacity of equine intestine in response to glucose and (3) whether GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets can be attenuated...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381419/evaluation-of-collagenase-gold-plus-bp-protease-in-isolating-islets-from-human-pancreata
#15
Bashar Khiatah, Amber Tucker, Kuan-Tsen Chen, Rachel Perez, Shiela Bilbao, Luis Valiente, Leonard Medrano, Jeffrey Rawson, Elena Forouhar, Keiko Omori, Fouad Kandeel, Meirigeng Qi, Ismail H Al-Abdullah
Selection of enzymes for optimal pancreas digestion is essential for successful human islet isolations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and outcome of using Collagenase Gold plus BP protease (VitaCyte) (n = 8) by comparing it to two commercially available enzymes, Liberase MTF C/T (Roche) (n = 48) and Collagenase NB1/NP (Serva) (n = 15). The isolation outcomes were assessed by islet counting, viability, glucose-stimulated oxygen consumption rate (OCR), and successful graft-rate following transplantation in diabetic NOD scid mice...
January 30, 2018: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375041/chronic-orexin-a-hypocretin-1-treatment-of-type-2-diabetic-rats-improves-glucose-control-and-beta-cell-functions
#16
P Kaczmarek, M Skrzypski, E Pruszynska-Oszmalek, M Sassek, P A Kolodziejski, M Billert, D Szczepankiewicz, T Wojciechowicz, P Maechler, K W Nowak, M Z Strowski
Orexin regulates food intake and energy expenditure. Here, we test the ability of orexin-A (OXA, hypocretin-1) at improving metabolic control in type 2 diabetic animals and elaborate potential mechanisms of action. Rats with experimentally induced type 2 diabetes by a combination of streptozotocin injection and high-fat diet feeding were chronically infused with OXA. In vitro experiments were conducted on isolated pancreatic islets, primary adipocytes and insulin secreting INS-1E cells. OXA improved glucose control, enhanced insulin sensitivity and attenuated pancreatic β-cell loss in type 2 diabetic rats...
October 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373526/the-dynamic-effects-of-isosteviol-on-insulin-secretion-and-its-inability-to-counteract-the-impaired-%C3%AE-cell-function-during-gluco-lipo-and-aminoacidotoxicity-studies-in-vitro
#17
Wenqian Gu, Andreas Rebsdorf, Kjeld Hermansen, Søren Gregersen, Per Bendix Jeppesen
Isosteviol (ISV), a diterpene molecule, is an isomer of the backbone structure of a group of substances with proven antidiabetic capabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate if ISV elicits dynamic insulin release from pancreatic islets and concomitantly is able to ameliorate gluco-, lipo-, and aminoacidotoxicity in clonal β-cell line (INS-1E) in relation to cell viability and insulin secretion. Isolated mice islets placed into perifusion chambers were perifused with 3.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose with/without 10-7 M ISV...
January 26, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371153/pilus-encoding-islets-in-s-agalactiae-and-its-association-with-antibacterial-resistance-and-serotype-distribution
#18
Farzaneh Khodaei, Mohammad Najafi, Alka Hasani, Enayatollah Kalantar, Esmail Sharifi, Abbas Amini, Mohammad Aghazadeh
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a versatile organism which uses multiple virulence factors which bind to the surface of epithelial cells. Pili are one of virulence factors detected in recent years. A total of 90 isolates were collected from invasive and non-invasive isolates among adults throughout 2014-2015. Isolates were serotyped at molecular level based on capsular polysaccharide (cps) serotyping and analyzed for pilus island profiles, scpB gene, and hvgA gene presence. Isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility towards penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and vancomycin by disk diffusion method and MICs for erythromycin and clindamycin were determined by broth dilution methods...
January 22, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367680/olfactory-receptors-are-expressed-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-and-promote-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion
#19
Yuichiro Munakata, Tetsuya Yamada, Junta Imai, Kei Takahashi, Sohei Tsukita, Yuta Shirai, Shinjiro Kodama, Yoichiro Asai, Takashi Sugisawa, Yumiko Chiba, Keizo Kaneko, Kenji Uno, Shojiro Sawada, Hiroyasu Hatakeyama, Makoto Kanzaki, Jun-Ichi Miyazaki, Yoshitomo Oka, Hideki Katagiri
Olfactory receptors (ORs) mediate olfactory chemo-sensation in OR neurons. Herein, we have demonstrated that the OR chemo-sensing machinery functions in pancreatic β-cells and modulates insulin secretion. First, we found several OR isoforms, including OLFR15 and OLFR821, to be expressed in pancreatic islets and a β-cell line, MIN6. Immunostaining revealed OLFR15 and OLFR821 to be uniformly expressed in pancreatic β-cells. In addition, mRNAs of Olfr15 and Olfr821 were detected in single MIN6 cells. These results indicate that multiple ORs are simultaneously expressed in individual β-cells...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360826/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-human-endocrine-islet-cells
#20
José Luis Moreno-Amador, Noèlia Téllez, Sandra Marin, Caterina Aloy-Reverté, Carlos Semino, Montserrat Nacher, Eduard Montanya
BACKGROUND: β-cells undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) when expanded in monolayer culture and give rise to highly proliferative mesenchymal cells that retain the potential to re-differentiate into insulin-producing cells. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether EMT takes place in the endocrine non-β cells of human islets. METHODOLOGY: Human islets isolated from 12 multiorgan donors were dissociated into single cells, purified by magnetic cell sorting, and cultured in monolayer...
2018: PloS One
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