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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097390/a-role-of-plc-pkc-dependent-pathway-in-glp-1-stimulated-insulin-secretion
#1
REVIEW
Makoto Shigeto, Chae Young Cha, Patrik Rorsman, Kohei Kaku
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an endogenous glucose-lowering hormone and GLP-1 receptor agonists are currently being used as antidiabetic drugs clinically. The canonical signalling pathway (including cAMP, Epac2, protein kinase A (PKA) and KATP channels) is almost universally accepted as the main mechanism of GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion. This belief is based on in vitro studies that used nanomolar (1-100 nM) concentrations of GLP-1. Recently, it was found that the physiological concentrations (1-10 pM) of GLP-1 also stimulate insulin secretion from isolated islets, induce membrane depolarization and increase of intracellular [Ca(2+)] in isolated β cells/pancreatic islets...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089828/nitrite-increases-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion-and-islet-insulin-content-in-obese-type-2-diabetic-male-rats
#2
Sevda Gheibi, Fatemeh Bakhtiarzadeh, Sajad Jeddi, Khadijeh Farrokhfall, Homeira Zardooz, Asghar Ghasemi
PURPOSE: Reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is associated with pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Nitrite can act as a substrate for generation of systemic NO. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of nitrite administration on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and islet insulin content in obese type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: Male rats were divided into 4 groups: Control, control + nitrite, diabetes, and diabetes + nitrite. Sodium nitrite (50 mg/L in drinking water) was administered for 8 weeks...
January 9, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078385/glucose-and-fatty-acids-synergistically-and-reversibly-promote-beta-cell-proliferation-in-rats
#3
Valentine S Moullé, Kevin Vivot, Caroline Tremblay, Bader Zarrouki, Julien Ghislain, Vincent Poitout
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The mechanisms underlying pancreatic islet mass expansion have attracted considerable interest as potential therapeutic targets to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. While several factors promoting beta cell proliferation have been identified, in the context of nutrient excess the roles of glucose or NEFA in relation to insulin resistance remain unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that glucose and NEFA synergistically and reversibly promote beta cell proliferation in the context of nutrient-induced insulin resistance...
January 11, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069397/influence-of-neuropeptide-y-and-pancreatic-polypeptide-on-islet-function-and-beta-cell-survival
#4
Dawood Khan, Srividya Vasu, R Charlotte Moffett, Nigel Irwin, Peter R Flatt
BACKGROUND: In the present study we assessed the impact of neuropeptide Y receptor (NPYR) modulators, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), on islet function and beta-cell survival. METHODS: The effects of NPY and PP on beta-cell function were examined in BRIN BD11 and 1.1B4 beta-cells, as well as isolated mouse islets. Involvement of both peptides in pancreatic islet adaptations to streptozotocin and hydrocortisone, as well as effects on beta-cell proliferation and apoptosis was also evaluated...
January 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060259/measurement-of-differentially-methylated-ins-dna-species-in-human-serum-samples-as-a-biomarker-of-islet-%C3%AE-cell-death
#5
Sarah A Tersey, Jennifer B Nelson, Marisa M Fisher, Raghavendra G Mirmira
The death of islet β cells is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of virtually all forms of diabetes and to precede the development of frank hyperglycemia, especially in type 1 diabetes. The development of sensitive and reliable biomarkers of β cell death may allow for early therapeutic intervention to prevent or delay the development of diabetes. Recently, several groups including our own have reported that cell-free, differentially methylated DNA encoding preproinsulin (INS) in the circulation is correlated to β cell death in pre-type 1 diabetes and new-onset type 1 diabetes...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043300/-influences-of-exendin-4-on-the-secretion-function-of-islet-beta-cells-from-rats-in-the-early-stage-of-severe-scald
#6
D X Zhao, L Ma, Z A Shen, D W Li, Y R Shang, K Yin, W F Cheng, X Wang, Z X Liu
Objective: To observe the secretion function changes of islet beta cells isolated from rats in the early stage of severe scald, and to explore the influence of them. Methods: Thirty-six Wistar rats were divided into sham injury (SI) group, sham injury+ exendin-4 (SIE) group, scald (S) group, and scald+ exendin-4 (SE) group according to the random number table, with 9 rats in each group. Rats in groups S and SE were inflicted with 50% total body surface area full-thickness scald by a 12-s immersion of back and a 6-s immersion of abdomen in 94 ℃ hot water...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017506/insulin-producing-cells-generation-by-overexpression-of-mir-375-in-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-diabetic-patients
#7
Mehran Piran, Seyed Ehsan Enderami, Mehrdad Piran, Hadis Soltani Sedeh, Ehsan Seyedjafari, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a systematic disease, which happens because of destruction of islets of Langerhans in the pancreas and systematic resistance to insulin. The lack of donor for pancreas transplantation and risk of transplant rejection is the main challenge in the treatment of this disease. Stem cells are proper and sufficient source for creating insulin-producing cells (IPC). In this study adipose tissue was provided from diabetic patients operated for liposuction and then adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) were isolated, characterized and then treated by lentiviruses containing miR-375, after 7, 14 and 21 days of induction, islet-like clusters (ILC) specific genes including insulin and PDX1 were evaluated by Real Time RT-PCR...
December 22, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011946/high-fat-diet-with-stress-impaired-islets-insulin-secretion-by-reducing-plasma-estradiol-and-pancreatic-glut2-protein-levels-in-rats-proestrus-phase
#8
M Salimi, H Zardooz, F Khodagholi, F Rostamkhani, F Shaerzadeh
This study was conducted to determine whether two estrus phases (proestrus and diestrus) in female rats may influence the metabolic response to a high-fat diet and/or stress, focusing on pancreatic insulin secretion and content. Animals were divided into high-fat and normal diet groups, then each group was subdivided into stress and non-stress groups, and finally, each one of these was divided into proestrus and diestrus subgroups. At the end of high-fat diet treatment, foot-shock stress was applied to the animals...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004151/reciprocal-regulation-of-mtor-complexes-in-pancreatic-islets-from-humans-with-type-2-diabetes
#9
Ting Yuan, Sahar Rafizadeh, Kanaka Durga Devi Gorrepati, Blaz Lupse, Jose Oberholzer, Kathrin Maedler, Amin Ardestani
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a master regulator of nutritional status at the cellular and organismic level. While mTORC1 mediates beta cell growth and expansion, its hyperactivation has been observed in pancreatic islets from animal models of type 2 diabetes and leads to beta cell loss. We sought to determine whether such mTORC1 activation occurs in humans with type 2 diabetes or in metabolically stressed human islets and whether mTORC1 blockade can restore beta cell function of diabetic islets...
December 21, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002466/assessment-of-the-role-of-metabolic-determinants-on-the-relationship-between-insulin-sensitivity-and-secretion
#10
Jose E Galgani, Carmen Gómez, Maria L Mizgier, Juan Gutierrez, Jose L Santos, Pablo Olmos, Andrea Mari
BACKGROUND: Insulin secretion correlates inversely with insulin sensitivity, which may suggest the existence of a crosstalk between peripheral organs and pancreas. Such interaction might be mediated through glucose oxidation that may drive the release of circulating factors with action on insulin secretion. AIM: To evaluate the association between whole-body carbohydrate oxidation and circulating factors with insulin secretion to consecutive oral glucose loading in non-diabetic individuals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981536/nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-enhances-beta-cell-expansion-during-pregnancy
#11
J Feng, H-Y Li, X-L Wang, Y Huo, S-X Liu, L Li
OBJECTIVE: Many factors contribute to the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Among these factors, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) plays a critical role. Previous studies have demonstrated the effects of NAMPT on insulin resistance during GDM, while the effects of NAMPT on beta cells remain unknown. Here we addressed this question. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Mouse islets were isolated and transduced with adeno-associated vectors carrying NAMPT...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980130/insulinotropic-effects-of-gpr120-agonists-are-altered-in-obese-diabetic-and-obese-non-diabetic-states
#12
Dan Zhang, Wing Yan So, Yi Wang, Shang Ying Wu, Qianni Cheng, Po Sing Leung
G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) is a putative target for obesity and diabetes therapies. However, it remains controversial whether resident GPR120 plays a direct regulatory role in islet β-cell insulin secretion. The present study examined this issue in isolated rodent islets and rat β-cell line INS-1E, and assessed the role of GPR120 in islet insulin secretion in obese non-diabetic (OND) and diabetic states. GPR120 expression was detected in rodent islet β-cells. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and synthetic GPR120 agonist GSK137647 (GSK) augmented insulin release from rat/mouse islets and INS-1E; DHA effects were partially mediated by GPR40...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960161/cannabinoid-2-receptor-agonist-improves-systemic-sensitivity-to-insulin-in-high-fat-diet-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#13
Xiuyuan Zhang, Shan Gao, Jinfeng Niu, Pan Li, Juan Deng, Shixin Xu, Zhihong Wang, Weiwei Wang, Deling Kong, Chen Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The endocannabinoid signalling (ECS) system has been known to regulate glucose homeostasis. Previous studies have suggested that the cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor may play a regulatory role on insulin secretion, immune modulation and insulin resistance. Given that diabetes and insulin resistance are attributable to elevated inflammatory tone, we investigated the role of CB2 receptor on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mice...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942583/tissue-distribution-and-clonal-diversity-of-the-t-and-b-cell-repertoire-in-type-1-diabetes
#14
Howard R Seay, Erik Yusko, Stephanie J Rothweiler, Lin Zhang, Amanda L Posgai, Martha Campbell-Thompson, Marissa Vignali, Ryan O Emerson, John S Kaddis, Dave Ko, Maki Nakayama, Mia J Smith, John C Cambier, Alberto Pugliese, Mark A Atkinson, Harlan S Robins, Todd M Brusko
The adaptive immune repertoire plays a critical role in type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. However, efforts to characterize B cell and T cell receptor (TCR) profiles in T1D subjects have been largely limited to peripheral blood sampling and restricted to known antigens. To address this, we collected pancreatic draining lymph nodes (pLN), "irrelevant" nonpancreatic draining lymph nodes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and splenocytes from T1D subjects (n = 18) and control donors (n = 9) as well as pancreatic islets from 1 T1D patient; from these tissues, we collected purified CD4(+) conventional T cells (Tconv), CD4(+) Treg, CD8(+) T cells, and B cells...
December 8, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938490/transgenic-expression-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-and-activated-muscarinic-receptor-m3r-significantly-improves-pig-islet-secretory-function
#15
Nizar Mourad, Andrea Perota, Daela Xhema, Cesare Galli, Pierre Gianello
Porcine islets have notoriously low insulin secretion levels in response to glucose stimulation. While this is somehowexpected in the case of immature islets isolated from fetal and neonatal pigs, disappointingly low secretory responses are frequently reported in studies using <em>in vitro</em>-maturated fetal and neonatal islets and even fully-differentiated adult islets. Herein, we show that beta-cell specific expression of a modified glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and of a constitutively activated type 3 muscarinic receptor (M3R) efficiently amplifies glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS)...
November 22, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923539/the-roles-of-the-co-culture-of-mescs-with-pancreatic-islets-and-liver-stromal-cells-in-the-differentiation-of-definitive-endoderm-cells
#16
Hoveizi Elham, Fathi Fardin, Hashemitabar Mahmod
Embryonic stem (ES) cells have a pluripotent ability to differentiate into a variety of cell lineages in vitro. Investigating the roles of the co-culture of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) with pancreatic islets (PL) and liver stromal cells (LSCs) in the differentiation of definitive endoderm (DE) cells was the purpose of this study. Here by using PL derived from adult mouse and LSCs derived from mouse fetal liver, we are trying to introduce a new protocol which is devoid of growth factors. We calculated mESCs indirectly for 7 days and then we analyzed the resulting cells regarding DE genes and protein expression using qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry...
December 3, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920473/na-hco3-cotransporter-is-expressed-on-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-cells-during-rat-pancreatic-development
#17
Li-Hua Cao, Cheng-Cai Xia, Zhao-Chun Shi, Ning Wang, Zheng-Hua Gu, Li-Zhi Yu, Qi Wan, Wei De
AIM: To determine the expression and localization of the electrogenic Na(+)/HCO3(-) cotransporter (NBC1) in rat pancreas during development. METHODS: The rat pancreas from postnatal and embryos removed from the uterus of pregnant rats that had been sacrificed by CO2 asphyxiation were used. Rat pancreas from embryonic day (E) 15.5 and E18.5 rat embryos was isolated under a stereomicroscope. Rat pancreas from postnatal (P) days 0, 7, 14, 21 and adult was directly isolated by the unaided eye...
November 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914538/adaptive-response-of-rat-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-to-insulin-resistance-induced-by-monocrotophos-biochemical-evidence
#18
Raju Nagaraju, Padmanabhan Sharda Rajini
Our previous findings clearly suggested the role of duration of exposure to monocrotophos (MCP) in the development of insulin resistance. Rats exposed chronically to MCP developed insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia without overt diabetes. In continuation of this vital observation, we sought to delineate the biochemical mechanisms that mediate heightened pancreatic β-cell response in the wake of MCP-induced insulin resistance in rats. Adult rats were orally administered (0.9 and 1.8mg/kgb.w/d) MCP for 180days...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909715/a-new-scaffold-containing-small-intestinal-submucosa-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-improves-pancreatic-islet-function-and-survival-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#19
Dan Wang, Xiaoming Ding, Wujun Xue, Jin Zheng, Xiaohui Tian, Yang Li, Xiaohong Wang, Huanjin Song, Hua Liu, Xiaohui Luo
It is unknown whether a scaffold containing both small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for transplantation may improve pancreatic islet function and survival. In this study, we examined the effects of a SIS-MSC scaffold on islet function and survival in vitro and in vivo. MSCs and pancreatic islets were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats, and SIS was isolated from Bamei pigs. The islets were apportioned among 3 experimental groups as follows: SIS-islets, SIS-MSC-islets and control-islets...
January 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892930/an-optimized-protocol-for-purification-of-functional-islets-of-langerhans
#20
Youakim Saliba, Jules-Joel Bakhos, Tarek Itani, Nassim Farès
Islets of Langerhans and β-cell isolation constitute routinely used cell models for diabetic research, and refining islet isolation protocols and cell quality assessment is a high priority. Numerous protocols have been published describing isolate of islets, but often rigorous and systematic assessment of their integrity is lacking. Herein, we propose a new protocol for optimal generation of islets. Pancreases from mice and rats were excised and digested using a low-activity collagenase solution and islets were then purified by a series of sedimentations and a Percoll gradient...
November 28, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
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