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Reactive Attachment

Modupeola Omotara Samaila, Halima Oziohu Aliyu, Lazarus Mungu Yusufu, Shehu Abdullahi
Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is an uncommon benign mesenchymal tumor of the breast. Majority occur as diffuse lesions, and diagnosis is often incidental or in a background of other breast pathologies. Bilaterality with multiple tumoral masses in giant breasts is a rarity. We report a 34-year-old nonlactating female with 2-year history of rapid progressive painless bilateral enlargement of the breasts following surgical excision of ill-defined breast lumps which were not subjected to histopathological evaluation a year earlier...
April 2018: Annals of African Medicine
Ellen A G Chernoff, Kazuna Sato, Hai V N Salfity, Deborah A Sarria, Teri Belecky-Adams
The differentiated state of spinal cord ependymal cells in regeneration-competent amphibians varies between a constitutively active state in what is essentially a developing organism, the tadpole of the frog Xenopus laevis , and a quiescent, activatable state in a slowly growing adult salamander Ambystoma mexicanum , the Axolotl. Ependymal cells are epithelial in intact spinal cord of all vertebrates. After transection, body region ependymal epithelium in both Xenopus and the Axolotl disorganizes for regenerative outgrowth (gap replacement)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Yun Zeng, Wenyan Liu, Zheyu Wang, Srikanth Singamaneni, Risheng Wang
Surface functionalization of nanodiamonds (NDs), which is of great interest in advanced material and therapeutic applications, requires the immobilization of functional species, such as nucleic acids, bioprobes, drugs, and metal nanoparticles onto NDs' surfaces to form stable nanoconjugates. However, it is still challenging to modify the surface of NDs due to the complexity of their surface chemistry and the low density of each functional group on the surfaces of NDs. In this work, we demonstrate a general applicable surface functionalization approach for the preparation of ND-based core-shell nanoconjugates using dopamine polymerization...
March 12, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Natalee J Smith, Katarina Rohlfing, Lisa A Sawicki, Prathamesh M Kharkar, Samantha J Boyd, April M Kloxin, Joseph M Fox
A method of cysteine alkylation using cyclopropenyl ketones is described. Due to the significant release of cyclopropene strain energy, reactions of thiols with cyclopropenyl ketones are both fast and irreversible and give rise to stable conjugate addition adducts. The resulting cyclopropenyl ketones have a low molecular weight and allow for simple attachment of amides via N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-esters. While cyclopropenyl ketones do display slow background reactivity toward water, labeling by thiols is much more rapid...
March 9, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Jia Ni, Lei Chen, Sulan Zhong, Qiaoxue Chai, Lin Zhang, Dan Wang, Shaobing Li, Jincai Zhang
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the influence of periodontitis and scaling and root planning on insulin resistance and hepatic CD36 in obese rats with periodontitis. METHODS: Thirty-two specific pathogen free Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each as follows: healthy rats (healthy group), obese rats (obesity group), obese rats with periodontitis (non-therapy group), and obese rats with periodontitis who underwent periodontal scaling and root planning (SRP) (therapy group)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Manju Ohri, Smriti Parashar, Venkatesh S Pai, Sujata Ghosh, Anuradha Chakraborti
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae, is an opportunistic pathogen causing a wide range of infections like pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis in newborn, pregnant women and adults. While this bacterium has adapted well to asymptomatic colonization of adult humans, it still remains a potentially devastating pathogen to susceptible infants. Advances in molecular techniques and refinement of in vitro and in vivo model systems have elucidated key elements of the pathogenic process, from initial attachment to the maternal vaginal epithelium to penetration of the newborn blood-brain barrier...
March 8, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Ardeshir Rineh, John B Bremner, Michael R Hamblin, Anthony R Ball, George P Tegos, Michael J Kelso
Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is a public health concern worldwide due to the increasing failure of standard antibiotic therapies. Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) is a promising non-antibiotic alternative for treating localized bacterial infections that uses non-toxic photosensitizers and harmless visible light to produce reactive oxygen species and kill microbes. Phenothiazinium photosensitizers like methylene blue (MB) and toluidine blue O are hydrophobic cations that are naturally expelled from bacterial cells by multidrug efflux pumps, which reduces their effectiveness...
February 24, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Reza Khorramirouz, Jason L Go, Christopher Noble, Soumen Jana, Eva Maxson, Amir Lerman, Melissa D Young
OBJECTIVES: Subcutaneous implantations in small animal models are currently required for preclinical studies of acellular tissue to evaluate biocompatibility, including host recellularization and immunogenic reactivity. METHODS: Three rat subcutaneous implantation methods were evaluated in six Sprague Dawley rats. An acellular xenograft made from porcine pericardium was used as the tissue-scaffold. Three implantation methods were performed; 1) Suture method is where a tissue-scaffold was implanted by suturing its border to the external oblique muscle, 2) Control method is where a tissue-scaffold was implanted without any suturing or support, 3) Frame method is where a tissue-scaffold was attached to a circular frame composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) biomaterial and placed subcutaneously...
March 5, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Dhurairajan Senthilnathan, Rajadurai Vijay Solomon, Shanmugam Kiruthika, Ponnambalam Venuvanalingam, Mahesh Sundararajan
Bent metallocenes (BM) have anti-tumor properties but they face a serious drug efficacy problem due to poor aqueous solubility and rapid hydrolysis under physiological conditions. These two problems can be fixed by encapsulating them in host molecules such as cyclodextrin (CD), cucurbituril (CB) etc. Experimentally, CD-BM, CB-BM host-guest complexes have been investigated to check the efficiency of the drug delivery and efficiency of the encapsulated drug. CB has been reported to be a better host than CD but the reasons for this has not been figured out...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Michael Grösbacher, Dominik Eckert, Olaf A Cirpka, Christian Griebler
Aromatic hydrocarbons belong to the most abundant contaminants in groundwater systems. They can serve as carbon and energy source for a multitude of indigenous microorganisms. Predictions of contaminant biodegradation and microbial growth in contaminated aquifers are often vague because the parameters of microbial activity in the mathematical models used for predictions are typically derived from batch experiments, which don't represent conditions in the field. In order to improve our understanding of key drivers of natural attenuation and the accuracy of predictive models, we conducted comparative experiments in batch and sediment flow-through systems with varying concentrations of contaminant in the inflow and flow velocities applying the aerobic Pseudomonas putida strain F1 and the denitrifying Aromatoleum aromaticum strain EbN1...
February 28, 2018: Biodegradation
Harald Peter Hoensch, Benno Weigmann
Flavonoids are phytochemicals which can regulate the activity of the intestinal immune system. In patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) there is an overexpression and imbalance of the components of the inflammatory immune reactions which are chronically activated. Suppression of inflammation can be achieved by anti-inflammatory drugs which are used in clinical medicine but these can cause serious side effects. Flavonoids can have natural immunosuppressive properties and inhibit the activation of immune cells and its effectors (chemokines, TNF-, cytokines)...
February 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Setareh Vafaei, Seyed R Tabaei, Vipra Guneta, Cleo Choong, Nam-Joon Cho
This paper describes the functionalization of solid supported phospholipid bilayer with decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) components, towards the development of biomimetic platforms that more closely mimic the cell surface environment. The dECM was obtained through a combination of chemical and enzymatic treatments of mouse adipose tissue that contains collagen, fibronectin and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Using amine coupling chemistry, the dECM components were attached covalently to the surface of a supported lipid bilayer containing phospholipids with reactive carboxylic acid headgroups...
February 28, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ismael Loinaz, Luis Miguel Sánchez, Andrea Vilella
The assessment and treatment of emotional variables is a priority in the rehabilitation of offenders. Although theoretical proposals suggest a clear relationship between violence and self-esteem, attachment, and empathy, the research carried out to date has reached contradictory results due mainly to differences in the measurements used, the reliability of self-reports, or even to problems with the definition of the constructs. The present study analyzed these three variables in a prison sample of sexual offenders ( n = 48) and partner-violent men ( n = 68), using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the Rape Empathy Measure, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Adult Attachment Questionnaire...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Minha Hong, Duk Soo Moon, Hyejung Chang, Seung Yup Lee, Seong Woo Cho, Kyung-Sook Lee, Jin-Ah Park, Sang Min Lee, Geon Ho Bahn
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the current diagnostic incidence, and medical and psychiatric comorbidities of reactive attachment disorder (RAD) using the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA) claims data. METHODS: To examine the diagnostic incidence, we selected patients who were under 10-year-old and who had at least one medical claim containing a 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) code for RAD (F94...
February 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Christian van der Linde, Wai Kit Tang, Chi-Kit Siu, Martin K Beyer
A significant fraction of nitrate in the troposphere is formed in the reactions of HNO3 with the carbonate radical anion CO3 ˙- and the mono- and dihydrated species CO3 ˙- (H2 O)1,2 . A reaction mechanism was proposed in earlier flow reactor studies, which is investigated here in more detail by quantum chemical calculations and experimental reactivity studies of mass selected ions under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Bare CO3 ˙- forms NO3 - (OH˙) as well as NO3 - , with a total rate coefficient of 1.0 × 10-10 cm3 s-1 ...
February 23, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yiliu Liu, Silvia Pujals, Patrick J M Stals, Thomas Pauloehrl, Stanislav I Presolski, E W Meijer, Lorenzo Albertazzi, Anja R A Palmans
Dynamic single-chain polymeric nanoparticles (SCPNs) are intriguing, bioinspired architectures that result from the collapse or folding of an individual polymer chain into a nanometer-sized particle. Here we present a detailed biophysical study on the behavior of dynamic SCPNs in living cells and an evaluation of their catalytic functionality in such a complex medium. We first developed a number of delivery strategies that allowed the selective localization of SCPNs in different cellular compartments. Live/dead tests showed that the SCPNs were not toxic to cells while spectral imaging revealed that SCPNs provide a structural shielding and reduced the influence from the outer biological media...
February 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ho-Yong Lee, Chang-Ha Hwang, Hyoun-Ee Kim, Seol-Ha Jeong
Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been widely investigated because of its excellent biocompatibility and its ability to form hydrogels with various chemical modifications. However, HA hydrogels undergo rapid degradation and exhibit poor mechanical stability under physiological conditions. Tannic acid (TA), a naturally occurring polyphenol found in plants and fruits, has recently attracted interest as a crosslinking agent because of its abundant hydroxyl groups. In this study, we prepared HA hydrogels chemically crosslinked by polyethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDE) and treated with TA in an attempt to enhance the physical properties of HA hydrogels...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Bedia Begum Karakocak, Jue Liang, Pratim Biswas, Nathan Ravi
For targeted delivery with nanoparticles (NPs) as drug carriers, it is imperative that the NPs are internalized into the targeted cell. Surface properties of NPs influence their interactions with cells. We examined the responses of retinal pigment epithelial cells, NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells, and Chinese hamster ovary cells to gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in their nascent form as well as coated with end-thiolated hyaluronate (HS-HA). The grafting density of HS-HA on Au NPs was calculated based on total organic carbon measurements and thermal gravimetric analysis...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Michael R Hamblin
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the combination of non-toxic dyes called photosensitizers (PS) and harmless visible light that interact with ambient oxygen to give reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage biomolecules and kill cells. PDT has mostly been developed as a cancer therapy but can also be used as an antimicrobial approach against localized infections. However even the longest wavelength used for exciting PS (in the 700 nm region) has relatively poor tissue penetration, and many PS are much better excited by blue and green light...
February 16, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Agnieszka Cholewiak, Łukasz Dobrzycki, Janusz Jurczak, Filip Ulatowski
In this paper we present the synthesis and reactivity of dithiols comprising of two cysteine moieties attached to a dipicolinic acid core. Oxidation of these thiols provides oligomeric macrocycles. Monomers with 13-membered rings are kinetic products which are, however, strained and readily transform into higher oligomers under basic conditions or elevated temperature via a disulphide exchange reaction. Dimers, which are the most stable thermodynamic products, equilibrate only under inert conditions with thiolate as a catalyst...
February 14, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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