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pediatric thoracic anesthesia

David F Vener, Sara K Pasquali, Emad B Mossad
Large data sets have now become ubiquitous in clinical medicine; they are particularly useful in high-acuity, low-volume conditions such as congenital heart disease where data must be collected from many centers. These data fall into 2 categories: administrative data arising from hospital admissions and charges and clinical data relating to specific diseases or procedures. In congenital cardiac diseases, there are now over a dozen of these data sets or registries focusing on various elements of patient care...
February 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
R Rosen, L Rodriguez, S Nurko
BACKGROUND: The differential diagnosis of intractable reflux in children includes rumination syndrome, but confirming the diagnosis using antroduodenal manometry is invasive, is costly, and requires anesthesia. High-resolution esophageal manometry with impedance (HRM-MII) overcomes these limitations, and the goal of this study is to validate the use of HRM-MII as a diagnostic tool for rumination and to describe the subtypes of pediatric rumination. METHODS: We reviewed the HRM-MII tracings of 21 children presenting with symptoms of intractable reflux in whom rumination was being considered...
May 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
M Piazza, G Martucci, A Arcadipane
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-limiting genetic disease in Caucasians. Declining lung function is the principal cause of death, but liver involvement can lead to the need for liver transplantation. General anesthesia has detrimental effects on pulmonary function, increasing perioperative morbidity and mortality in CF patients. Regional anesthetic techniques improve outcomes by reducing anesthetic drugs and administration of opioids, and hastening extubation, awakening, and restarting respiratory of physiotherapy...
October 2016: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
Chang Amber Liu, Jinghu Sui, Charles J Coté, Thomas A Anderson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Caudal anesthesia is a common and effective regional anesthesia technique in pediatric patients. The addition of epinephrine to local anesthetics in caudal anesthesia is a frequent practice; however, changes in hemodynamic and cardiac parameters produced by epinephrine in caudal anesthesia are not well studied. Using data collected with the ICON noninvasive cardiac output monitor, we examined the hemodynamic changes associated with the administration of epinephrine containing local anesthetics during caudal anesthesia in children...
November 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Mineto Kamata, Corey Stiver, Aymen Naguib, Dmitry Tumin, Joseph D Tobias
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of ventricular morphology on perioperative outcomes during Fontan surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Single standing, not-for-profit pediatric hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 72 patients who underwent Fontan surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass without aortic cross-clamp between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014. INTERVENTIONS: None...
July 19, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Lawrence I Schwartz, Mark Twite, Brian Gulack, Kevin Hill, Sunghee Kim, David F Vener
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine is a selective α-2 receptor agonist with a sedative and cardiopulmonary profile that makes it an attractive anesthetic for pediatric patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Although several smaller, single-center studies suggest that dexmedetomidine use is gaining traction in the perioperative setting in children with CHD, there are limited multicenter data, with little understanding of the variation in use across age ranges, procedural complexity, and centers...
September 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Vikash Goswami, Bhupesh Kumar, Goverdhan Dutt Puri, Harkant Singh
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to determine the utility of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for identifying spinal canal structures and epidural catheter position and to assess the effect of catheter position on intraoperative hemodynamics and quality of postoperative analgesia. METHODS: Twenty-six adult patients undergoing thoracic surgery were included in this prospective, observational study. An epidural catheter was inserted 7.5 cm or more into the thoracic epidural space using a midline approach and a loss-of-resistance technique...
August 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Sherif M Soaida, Mohammed S ElSheemy, Ahmed M Shouman, Ahmed I Shoukry, Hany A Morsi, Doaa M Salah, Fatina I Fadel, Hafez M Bazaraa
PURPOSE: 'Hockey stick incision' used in renal transplant is large enough to cause severe postoperative morbidity especially in pediatric recipients. Although epidural analgesia is known to be effective in pain control, the resulting sympathectomy might affect hemodynamics interfering with the transplant process. In our study, we evaluated the feasibility and safety of inserting an epidural catheter to the thoracic level via the caudal route, and the effect of using epidural local anesthetics at low concentrations on hemodynamics...
February 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
Karen M Miller, Andrew Y Kim, Myron Yaster, Sapna R Kudchadkar, Elizabeth White, James Fackler, Constance L Monitto
BACKGROUND: The Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation has advocated the use of continuous electronic monitoring of oxygenation and ventilation to preemptively identify opioid-induced respiratory depression. In adults, capnography is the gold standard in respiratory monitoring. An alternative technique used in sleep laboratories is respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP). However, it is not known if either monitor is well tolerated by pediatric patients for prolonged periods of time...
October 2015: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Katherine W Gonzalez, Brian G Dalton, Daniel L Millspaugh, Priscilla G Thomas, Shawn David St Peter
Introduction The use of thoracic epidural is standard in adult thoracotomy patients facilitating earlier mobilization, deep breathing, and minimizing narcotic effects. However, a recent randomized trial in pediatric patients who undergo repair of pectus excavatum suggests patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) produces a less costly, minimally invasive postoperative course compared with epidural. Given that thoracotomy is typically less painful than pectus bar placement, we compared the outcomes of epidural to PCA for pain management after pediatric thoracotomy...
August 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Mutsuhito Kikura, Yuji Suzuki, Taiga Itagaki, Tsunehisa Sato, Junko Nishino
Vocal cord paralysis after tracheal intubation is rare. It causes severe hoarseness and aspiration, and delays recovery and discharge. Arytenoid cartilage dislocation and recurrent nerve paralysis are main causes of vocal cord paralysis. Physical stimulation of the tracheal tube as well as patient and surgical characteristics also contribute. Vocal cord paralysis occurs in 1 (0.07%) of 1,500 general surgery patients and on the left side in 70% of cases. It is associated with surgery/anesthesia time (two-fold, 3-6 hours; 15-fold, over 6 hours), age (three-fold, over 50 years), and diabetes mellitus or hypertension (two-fold)...
January 2015: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
Giampiero Soccorso, Dakshesh H Parikh, Steve Worrollo
BACKGROUND: Surgical remodeling and correction of congenital and acquired chest wall deformities (CWD) is undertaken many times for cosmesis. Although reportedly minimally invasive, commonly used Nuss procedure for correction of pectus excavatum (PE) is not without complications. Nuss procedure is also not suitable for complex deformities and Poland syndrome cases. Insertion of custom-made silicone implants for the reconstruction of defects has been adopted from adult plastic reconstructive surgery as primary repair of CWD or rescue procedure for recurrence of PE after recurrence or residual deformity...
July 2015: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Albert Faro, Robert E Wood, Michael S Schechter, Albin B Leong, Eric Wittkugel, Kathy Abode, James F Chmiel, Cori Daines, Stephanie Davis, Ernst Eber, Charles Huddleston, Todd Kilbaugh, Geoffrey Kurland, Fabio Midulla, David Molter, Gregory S Montgomery, George Retsch-Bogart, Michael J Rutter, Gary Visner, Stephen A Walczak, Thomas W Ferkol, Peter H Michelson
BACKGROUND: Flexible airway endoscopy (FAE) is an accepted and frequently performed procedure in the evaluation of children with known or suspected airway and lung parenchymal disorders. However, published technical standards on how to perform FAE in children are lacking. METHODS: The American Thoracic Society (ATS) approved the formation of a multidisciplinary committee to delineate technical standards for performing FAE in children. The committee completed a pragmatic synthesis of the evidence and used the evidence synthesis to answer clinically relevant questions...
May 1, 2015: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Melissa A Martchek, Benjamin E Padilla, Mark R Zonfrillo, Eron Y Friedlaender
The abrupt onset of respiratory failure secondary to asthma, known as acute asphyxial asthma (AAA) in adults, is uncommonly reported in children. Here, we report a case of a child with the acute onset of respiratory failure consistent with AAA complicated by the finding of a neck mass during resuscitation. This 11-year-old boy with a history of asthma initially presented in respiratory failure with altered mental status after the complaint of difficulty in breathing minutes before collapsing at home. Initially, his respiratory failure was thought to be secondary to status asthmaticus, and treatment was initiated accordingly...
April 2015: Pediatric Emergency Care
Bruce Evan Koch
To meet the need for qualified anesthetists, American surgeons recruited nurses to practice anesthesia during the Civil War and in the latter half of the 19th century. The success of this decision led them to collaborate with nurses more formally at the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota. During the 1890s, Alice Magaw refined the safe administration of ether. Florence Henderson continued her work improving the safety of ether administration during the first decade of the 20th century. Safe anesthesia enabled the Mayo surgeons to turn the St...
March 2015: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Clément Dubost, Adrien Bouglé, Calliope Hallynck, Matthieu Le Dorze, Philippe Roulleau, Catherine Baujard, Dan Benhamou
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiac output (CO) monitoring and goal-directed therapy during major abdominal surgery is currently used to decrease postoperative complications. However, few monitors are currently available for pediatric patients. Nicom(®) is a noninvasive CO monitoring technique based on the bioreactance principle (analysis of frequency variations of a delivered oscillating current traversing the thoracic cavity). Nicom(®) may be a useful monitor for pediatric patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Pediatric patients undergoing major abdominal surgery under general anesthesia with cardiac monitoring by transesophageal Doppler (TED) were included...
January 2015: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Nishanthi Kandiah, Kathryn Walker, Karen Boretsky
The use of regional anesthesia including paravertebral blocks has been advocated for the treatment of pain from rib fractures in adults. Although paravertebral nerve blocks have been used in pediatric patients to manage postoperative pain for surgeries to the thorax and abdomen, their use for analgesia after rib fractures and thoracic trauma has not been reported. We report the use of a T7 continuous paravertebral nerve block for pain relief in a 5-week-old, 5-kg infant who suffered T7 and T8 rib fractures and a pulmonary contusion to the left chest secondary to a gunshot wound...
May 15, 2014: A & A Case Reports
Brian Schloss, David Martin, Allan Beebe, Jan Klamar, Joseph D Tobias
To improve surgical visualization and facilitate the procedure, one-lung ventilation (OLV) is frequently used during thoracic surgery. Although generally well tolerated, the ventilation-perfusion inequality induced by OLV may lead to a decrease in oxygenation and, at times, hypoxemia. Effective treatment algorithms and strategies are necessary for the treatment of hypoxemia during OLV to ensure that the technique can be continued without interruption and allow for completion of the surgical procedure. Treatment strategies may include applying positive end expiratory pressure to the nonoperative lung, continuous positive airway pressure or low flow oxygen insufflation to the operative lung, decreasing anesthetic agents that interfere with hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), or switching to total intravenous anesthesia...
December 2013: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon Reports
Charles J Coté, Jinghu Sui, Thomas Anthony Anderson, Somaletha T Bhattacharya, Erik S Shank, Pacifico M Tuason, David A August, Audrius Zibaitis, Paul G Firth, Gennadiy Fuzaylov, Michael R Leeman, Christine L Mai, Jesse D Roberts
BACKGROUND: Electrical Cardiometry(™) (EC) estimates cardiac parameters by measuring changes in thoracic electrical bioimpedance during the cardiac cycle. The ICON(®), using four electrocardiogram electrodes (EKG), estimates the maximum rate of change of impedance to peak aortic blood acceleration (based on the premise that red blood cells change from random orientation during diastole (high impedance) to an aligned state during systole (low impedance)). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether continuous cardiac output (CO) data provide additional information to current anesthesia monitors that is useful to practitioners...
February 2015: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Don Hayes, Aymen Naguib, Stephen Kirkby, Mark Galantowicz, Patrick I McConnell, Peter B Baker, Benjamin T Kopp, Eric A Lloyd, Todd L Astor
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on methods to evaluate allograft function in infant recipients of lung and heart-lung transplants. At our institution, we developed a procedural protocol in coordination with pediatric anesthesia where infants were sedated to perform infant pulmonary function testing, computed tomography imaging of the chest, and flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of children aged younger than 1 year who underwent lung or heart-lung transplantation at our institution to assess the effect of this procedural protocol in the evaluation of infant lung allografts...
May 2014: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
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