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Apoptosis and anesthesia

Mary Ellen McCann, Jurgen de Graaff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Numerous preclinical studies have shown that general anesthetics adversely influence on the development of young brains. These adverse effects are dose-dependent occurring in specific stages of brain development. Histologic examinations show increased apoptosis, pathological neurogenesis and dendritic formation after exposure of infant animals to virtually all general anesthetics at a clinically effective dose which are associated with memory and behavioral changes at adulthood...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
S H Lauz Medeiros, A de Oliveira Menezes, L Zogbi, E Frasson de Souza Montero
BACKGROUND: The ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) phenomenon can cause the dysfunction of some transplanted organs and other distant organs. Liver surgery success, including transplantations, may depend on the adverse effects of intestinal mucosa injury arising from temporary porta triad occlusion. The study objective was to examine I/R liver effects on the small intestine in rats after N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Ying-Dong Lian, Zong-Xiang Chen, Kang-Ru Zhu, Shu-Yin Sun, Li-Ping Zhu
OBJECTIVES: The increase in the prevalence of obesity presents a significant health and economic problem. Obesity has been reported to be a major contributor to variety of chronic diseases. Childhood obesity has been rising over the past decades leading to various complications in health. Millions of infants and children undergo surgery every year on various health grounds. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of spinal anesthesia of equipotent doses of ropivacaine and bupivacaine on over-weight neonatal rats...
September 26, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Wei Gao, Ying-Nan Ju
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are particularly susceptible to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). This study investigated the effect of budesonide on VILI in a rat model of inflammatory ARDS. METHODS: Forty eight rats were randomized into three groups (n = 16 each): sham group (S), endotoxin/ventilation group (LV), endotoxin/ventilation/budesonide group (LVB). Rats in the S group received anesthesia only. Rats in the LV and LVB groups received endotoxin to simulate ARDS and were mechanically ventilated for 4 h (tidal volume 30 mL/kg)...
May 2016: Archives of Medical Research
Ding-Kun Kang, Li-Yan Zhao, Hong-Li Wang
BACKGROUND: Local anesthetics (LAs) are generally considered as safe, but cytotoxicity has been reported for several local anesthetics used in humans, which is not well investigated. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of lidocaine, ropivacaine and the combination of lidocaine and ropivacaine were evaluated on human melanoma cell lines. Melphalan, a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent, was used as a control agent for comparison of cytotoxic activity. METHODS: Melanoma cell lines, A375 and Hs294T, were exposed to 1h to different concentrations of above agents...
September 14, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
De-An Zhao, Ling-Yun Bi, Qian Huang, Fang-Min Zhang, Zi-Ming Han
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Isoflurane is halogenated volatile ether used for inhalational anesthesia. It is widely used in clinics as an inhalational anesthetic. Neonatal hypoxic ischemia injury ensues in the immature brain that results in delayed cell death via excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Isoflurane has shown neuroprotective properties that make a beneficial basis of using isoflurane in both cell culture and animal models, including various models of brain injury. We aimed to determine the neuroprotective effect of isoflurane on hypoxic brain injury and elucidated the underlying mechanism...
September 13, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Joshua J Goldman, Wei Z Wang, Xin-Hua Fang, Shelley J Williams, Richard C Baynosa
BACKGROUND: Our previous study demonstrated that lidocaine has a negative impact on adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) survival. Currently for large-volume liposuction, patients often undergo general anesthesia; therefore, lidocaine subcutaneous anesthesia is nonessential. We hypothesized that removing lidocaine from tumescent might improve stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and ASC survival from the standard tumescent with lidocaine. Ropivacaine is also a commonly used local anesthetic. The effect of ropivacaine on ASC survival was examined...
August 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Richard J Levy
The majority of commonly used anesthetic agents induce widespread neuronal degeneration in the developing mammalian brain. Downstream, the process appears to involve activation of the oxidative stress-associated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Targeting this pathway could result in prevention of anesthetic toxicity in the immature brain. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gas that exerts biological activity in the developing brain and low dose exposures have the potential to provide neuroprotection. In recent work, low concentration CO exposures limited isoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in newborn mice and modulated oxidative stress within forebrain mitochondria...
September 9, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Flavia Ruxanda, Adrian Florin Gal, Cristian Raţiu, Viorel Miclăuş, Vasile Rus, Liviu Ioan Oana
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inhalation anesthetics are used in human, as well as veterinary medical practice. In the present study we investigated the effect of isoflurane and sevoflurane on rat hepatocytes. METHODS: A total of 40 Wistar female rats were used in this study. Animals were divided in groups of 5 rats. Groups IM, SM served as control groups. Groups I1, I2, I3 were used to study isoflurane and S1, S2, S3 for sevoflurane study. They were anesthetized 3 times, for 2h long, at 2 days interval with a concentration of: 1...
September 2016: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Jian Sun, Xiao-Ling Chen, Jin-Yu Zheng, Jian-Wei Zhou, Zheng-Liang Ma
Exposure to general anesthesia may cause severe neurotoxicity in developing brain due to neuronal apoptosis. Astragaloside IV (AS IV) has antioxidant and antiapoptosis properties; however, its effects on anesthesia-induced neuroapoptosis have not been studied. In the present study, we determined whether AS IV pre-treatment is able to reduce isoflurane exposure-induced neuroapoptosis in rats. New born rats were pre-treated with AS IV or solvent by oral gavage for three days, then exposed to isoflurane. The results showed that pre-treatment of AS IV significantly inhibited isoflurane-induced neural apoptosis in the hippocampus of new born rats, and such protection was accompanied by reduced levels of caspase-3, nuclear factor-κB activation and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and increased levels of B-cell lymphoma-2, glycogen synthase kinase-3β, Klotho and phosphorylated protein kinase B...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Kübra Tuğçe Çilenk, İsmet Öztürk, Mehmet Fatih Sönmez
Propolis is a potent antioxidant and a free radical scavenger. The present study aimed to investigate protective effects of propolis extract on cadmium-induced testicular damage, apoptosis, HIF-1α expression and toxicity in rat's testis tissue. A total of 32 male rats were equally divided into four study groups namely, control, Cd (1mg/kg/day), Cd+propolis (50mg/kg/day) and propolis. The rats were decapitated under ketamine anesthesia and their testes tissues were removed. Serum testosterone, tissue malondialdehyde and HIF-1α levels, HIF-1α expression, apoptosis and histopathological damage scores were then compared...
August 29, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Chunsheng Feng, Ya Liu, Ye Yuan, Weiwei Cui, Feng Zheng, Yuan Ma, Meihua Piao
Zinc (Zn) is known to play crucial roles in numerous brain functions including learning and memory. Zn deficiency is believed to be widespread throughout the world, particularly in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of studies have shown that volatile anesthetics, such as isoflurane, might be potential risk factors for the development of AD. However, whether isoflurane exposure accelerates the process of AD and cognitive impairment in AD patients with Zn deficiency is yet to be documented. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of 1...
December 2016: Neuropharmacology
Fu-Zhou Hua, Jun Ying, Jing Zhang, Xi-Feng Wang, Yan-Hui Hu, Ying-Ping Liang, Qin Liu, Guo-Hai Xu
The volatile anaesthetic isoflurane is one of the most frequently employed general anaesthetics in neonates, children and adults. Accumulating evidence demonstrated that exposure to anaesthetics is associated with widespread neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. Thus, the identification and development of compounds capable of preventing or reducing these adverse effects is of great clinical importance. For this purpose, the present study aimed to assess the effects of a flavonoid, naringenin, on isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis and cognitive impairment...
October 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Yi Wei, Junhua Hu, Yubing Liang, Yuling Zhong, Dan He, Yi Qin, Li Li, Jing Chen, Qiang Xiao, Yubo Xie
Propofol is widely used for the induction and maintenance of pediatric anesthesia. Previous studies have indicated that propofol can induce apoptosis, and damage cognitive and memory functions. Dexmedetomidine is a potent α‑2 adrenoceptor agonist with high selectivity. Previous observations have shown that dexmedetomidine exhibits anti‑apoptotic qualities. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine pretreatment against propofol‑induced neurotoxicity in immature hippocampal neurons...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Catherine E Creeley
The fetal and neonatal periods are critical and sensitive periods for neurodevelopment, and involve rapid brain growth in addition to natural programmed cell death (i.e., apoptosis) and synaptic pruning. Apoptosis is an important process for neurodevelopment, preventing redundant, faulty, or unused neurons from cluttering the developing brain. However, animal studies have shown massive neuronal cell death by apoptosis can also be caused by exposure to several classes of drugs, namely gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists that are commonly used in pediatric anesthesia...
August 16, 2016: Brain Sciences
Li-Yan Wang, Zhi-Jun Tang, Yu-Zeng Han
Millions of infants and children are exposed to anesthesia every year during medical care. Sevoflurane is a volatile anesthetic that is frequently used for pediatric anesthesia. However, previous reports have suggested that the administration of sevoflurane promotes neurodegeneration, raising concerns regarding the safety of its usage. The present study aimed to investigate caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and its protective effect against sevoflurane‑induced neurotoxicity in neonatal rats. Rat pups were administered with CAPE at 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg body weight from postnatal day 1 (P1) to P15...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Jennifer L Walters, John J Chelonis, Charles M Fogle, Beverley A Orser, Merle G Paule
Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) is a complication that can occur in the elderly after anesthesia and surgery and is characterized by impairments in information processing, memory, and executive function. Currently, it is unclear whether POCD is due to the effects of surgery, anesthesia, or perhaps some interaction between these or other perioperative variables. Studies in rodents suggest that the development of POCD may be related directly to anesthesia-induced neuroactivity. Volatile anesthetics have been shown to increase cellular inflammation and apoptosis within the hippocampus of aged rodents, while producing corresponding impairments in hippocampal-dependent brain functions...
September 2016: Neurotoxicology
Flavia Ruxanda, Adrian Florin Gal, Cristian Raţiu, Viorel Miclăuş, Vasile Rus, Liviu Ioan Oana
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inhalation anesthetics are used in human, as well as veterinary medical practice. In the present study we investigated the effect of isoflurane and sevoflurane on rat hepatocytes. METHODS: A total of 40 Wistar female rats were used in this study. Animals were divided in groups of 5 rats. Groups IM, SM served as control groups. Groups I1, I2, I3 were used to study isoflurane and S1, S2, S3 for sevoflurane study. They were anesthetized 3 times, for 2h long, at 2 days interval with a concentration of: 1...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Nobuo Suzuki, Taizo Hanmoto, Mika Ikegame, Yukihiro Furusawa, Yoshiaki Tabuchi, Takashi Kondo, Kei-Ichiro Kitamura, Toshio Sekiguchi, Yuko Mikuni-Takagaki, Atsuhiko Hattori
OBJECTIVE: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) provides noninvasive therapeutic treatment to accelerate fracture repair and distraction osteogenesis. However, most studies concerning the influence of LIPUS on bone metabolism have been conducted in vivo systems using osteoblastic cells. Therefore, details of the direct effect of LIPUS on osteoclasts are not yet fully understood. Teleost scale is a calcified tissue that contains osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Its bone matrix consists of type I collagen and hydroxyapatite, and is similar to that of mammalian bone...
August 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
S Y Jeong, T R Kwon, J Seok, K Y Park, B J Kim
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The growing demand for a youthful appearance, including a favorable body shape, has motivated recent developments in noninvasive body contouring techniques. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy and safety of a new version of a 4D handpiece-mounted cooling device for cryolipolysis with or without tumescent injections. METHODS: We conducted a side-by-side comparative study using two female porcine models. Two areas of each pig's left abdomen were treated using a conventional device and the new cooling device, and two areas of the right abdomen were also treated using the conventional and new cooling device, but both were combined with tumescent-solution injections...
July 20, 2016: Skin Research and Technology
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